Presentation on theme: "September 5th – 8th 2013 Nottingham Conference Centre, United Kingdom www.nspine.co.uk."— Presentation transcript:
1September 5th – 8th 2013Nottingham Conference Centre, United Kingdom
2Post-operative Lumbar Decompression: Pathoneurodynamics Ellen HobbsPhysiotherapistSeptember 2013
3Introduction Low Back Related Leg Pain Summary Influence of neurodynamicsPain and PathoneurodynamicsClinical Manifestation and Patient PresentationCase StudySummary
4Low Back Related Leg Pain Leg pain frequently accompanies low back pain. (Schafer et al 2009)Decompression / Discectomy performed for leg pain.Present in approximately 25-57% of all low back pain cases (Heliovarra et al 1987; Cavanaugh and Weinstein 1994; Selim et al; cited in Schafer et al 2009)Accompanying leg pain is an important predictor for LBP chronicity (Selim et al cited in Schafer et al 2009)Primary pathology causing referred leg pain can be indistinct. Many structures can evoke similar patterns of pain (Adams et al 2002; Bogduk and McGuirk 2002 cited in Schafer et al 2009)Patients may be left with residual post operative leg pain; Necessary to understand the possible causes to optimise treatment.
5Neurodynamics“The science of the relationships between mechanics and physiology of the nervous system.” (Butler 2005)Mechanical and physiological events of the nervous system are dynamically interdependent (Shacklock 1995)Mechanical stresses applied to nerves evoke physiological responses e.g. alterations in intraneural blood flow; impulse traffic and axonal transport (Shacklock 1995)Mechanicalmovement of the nervous system toslide, move and elongate in relationto surrounding tissue.PhysiologicalImpulse generation and conduction.
6PathoneurodynamicsChanges in neural dynamics or physiology may lead to pathoneurodynamics.(Shacklock 1995)High likelihood in postoperative decompression patientNeurodynamicsMechanics PhysiologyPathomechanics PathophysiologyPathoneurodynamics(Shacklock 1995)
7Peripheral Neuropathic Pain Situations where nerve roots or peripheral nerve trunks have been injured by mechanical or chemical stimuli that exceed the capabilities of the nervous system.Neural connective tissue nociceptor sensitisationAbnormal impulse generating site (AIGS) formationImpules conduction impairment(Nee and Butler 2006; Ellis et al 2012)Neurodynamic tests assess the mechanosensitivity of the nervous system through sequential limb movements. (Boyd et al 2010)
9Clinical Manifestation Positive (Abnormal levels of excitability)PainParaesthesiaDysesthesiaSpasmNegative (Reduced impulse conduction in neural tissue)HypoesthesiaAnaesthesiaWeakness(Nee and Butler 2006)
10Objective Findings Neural unloading antalgic posture Reduced active / passive movementProvocative neurodynamic testing (correlating the reduced active / passive ROM)Lines / clumps of pain over neural interfaceNocturnal pain (due to reduced O2 perfusion)(Nee and Butler 2006; Welch 2011)
11Treatment TechniquesWhat can we do for residual post operative leg pain?Mechanical InterfaceNervous SystemBoth(Welch 2011)
12Case Study Example Objective Assessment Subjective Assessment Lx scoliosis concave to leftLimited painful (p2) extension / side flexion.Reduced left hip active / passive ROM IR 20 (p1 to mid thigh)Normal power / sensationPositive (p2) left SLR 30 / Slump -60 extension+ TrP HS / piriformis / mid calfUMN NADSubjective Assessment68 year old ladyLeft posterior LL pain to calf (burning / restless) (mild improvement) (p1)Localised central LBP sharp/catching (p2)bilateral S1 lateral recess decompression. Revision L5 root decompression. Degenerative scoliosis2x previous decompressionsRight L3/L4 2002Bilateral L5 (L4/5 L5/S1) 2010ImprovedSubtotal colectomy / permanent ileostomy 2002AnginaGabapentin / Tramadol / Aspirin / Paracetamol / Olmetec / Atorvastatin
13Treatment Arthrogenic (closing dysfunction) Mechanical interface HEP Rotational PPIVMS right SL GII. 30 sec x 3Lx SF right SLWork into neurodynamic rangeMechanical interfaceInhibitory taping to differentiate / ? sciatic bifurcation ? piriformisTrP acupuncture piriformisHEPSlump slider (started with right) one ended / functionCat / posterior pelvic tilt 4 pointPiriformis stretchPossible progressions / relate to functionConsideration of SIN factor / objective markers
14SummaryLeg pain frequently accompanies low back pain. Post-operative decompression patients may have residual leg pain.For effective treatment we need to consider neurodynamics / pathoneurodynamics.To optimise treatment we need to understand the neurobiological process involved that may contribute to pathoneurodynamics.Neurodynamic testing and differentiation can indicate potential structures / contributors involved in pathoneurodynamics.Treatment techniques aim to offload / open / close / facilitate gliding / reduce neural sensitivity.
16Physiological Peripheral nerve structure and movement Blood supply to the nerveEpineuriumOuter vascular layerInner layer facilitates glidingAllows bendingPerineuriumConnective tissueDiffusion barrier controlling fluidsEndoneuriumProvides optimal nerve nerve fibre environment(Welch 2011)
17MechanicalThe Musculoskeletal system is the mechanical interface to the nervous system i.e. anything lying next to the nervous system:Central and Peripheral components:CentralCraniumNeuraxiaCranial NervesMeningesNerve RootsPeripheralMusclesTendonsBoneDiscsLigamentsFasciaBlood Vessels(Nee and Butler 2011)
19Where is the pain evoked? Look for symptom reproduction / resistance to movement.Must use neural sensitizers to differentiate other structuresPeripherally evokedCentrally evokedStimulus / response fairly constant on testingMay not get positive / clear signs on testingNeuroanatomical patternMay have summation, latency of high sinSymptom linkageAllodynia / hyperalgesiaOften related to severe or prolonged injury(Nee and Butler 2006; Welch 2011)Also consider autonomic effect: Sweating swelling skin changes.
21LL Neurodynamic Testing Consider sequencing: Greater strain at the site moved first ? Response localised to this site.Direction of neural sliding influenced by order that body movements are added.SLRSupine (note pillows)Passive straight leg raise (knee extended)Add PNF, DF or hip internal rotation / adductionNormal response: Posterior thigh, posterior knee and calfIndications: All spinal and leg symptomsVariationsDF and inversion (sural)DF and eversion (tibial)PF and inversion
22LL Neurodynamic Testing SlumpSitting with thighs supported and hands behind backFlexion of spineCervical flexionActive DF on asymptomatic sideActive DF on symptomatic sideActive knee extension on symptomatic sideRelease of cervical flexion if symptoms reducedNORMAL: Pain / pull mid Tx; Pain pull hamstrings / calf on DF and knee extension; symptom decrease on release neck flexion / ankle PF.Indications: Spinal symptoms, upper and lower limb symptoms
23LL Neurodynamic Testing Femoral SlumpSide lying head on pillow slumped. Lowermost knee hugged to chest. Therapist stands behindUppermost knee flexion and hip extension.Extend head and monitor responseNORMAL: Anterior thigh tensionIndications: Spinal and anterior leg symptomsA positive test only indicates mechanosensitivity to elongation / compression or lateral sliding.It does not tell us the exact nervous system dysfunction.Intraneural: Hypersensitivity of the nerve, AIGS developmentExtraneural: Mechanical interface friction
24Mechanical Interface Treatment Opening dysfunctions: tension / elongation: Close to start then progress into the opening dysfunction and into neural provocation positionsClosing dysfunctions: compression: Open to start then progress into closing positions and into neural provocation positionsCan be:ArthrogenicExample: Lx rotation PPIVMS = rotate away from side of pain opening IV foramenAP glide fibular headMyogenicTrigger point / acupunctureTaping to offload: Inhibitory across muscle fibres. Neural offloading: reduces nociceptor impulsesExampleNeural MassageIntrinsic blood supply to nerve has multidirectional flowMassaging up and down along the line of the nerve can reduce venousstasis and improve neural circulation(Welch 2011)
25Nervous SystemAim to perform joint movements that elongate the nerve bed.This increase nerve elongation / nerve tension and intraneural pressure.Sustained intraneural fluid pressure reduces blood flow = ischemic changes. (Myers et al 1986 cited in Coppieters and Butler 2007)HOWEVER: Correct application of a dynamic version in intraneural pressure may facilitate evacuation of intradural oedema and reduce symptoms. (Burke et al 2003 cited in Coppieters and Butler 2007).GLIDING: Tensioning or Sliding technique??
26Sliding and Tensioning Alternating combined movements of at least two joints.One movement lengthens the nerve bed.The other movement simultaneously reduces the nerve bed length unloading the nerveMovement of one or several joints causing nerve bed elongation in relation to surrounding tissue.Aim to mobilise the nerve with a minimal tension increaseResult in larger longitudinal excursion than tensioningOne ended: with the body: most neural movement occurs mid joint rangeOne ended: tension occurs in outer rangeTwo ended: applying tension in one end and letting go at another.Two ended: Elongation from both endsUseful for painUseful for the nerve to adapt to elongation(Coppieters and Butler 2007; Welch 2011; Ellis et al 2012)
27Physiological Effects SlidersTensionersReduces sensitivity and restores function, thus easing the threat value of the injury.THIS IS LIKELY TO; minimise the potential for ion channel up regulation in dorsal root ganglia and the CNS and limit the potential for dorsal horn and brain changesReduce intraneural swelling and circulatory compromise via fluctuating effects on intraneural pressure.Dynamic alteration of intraneural pressure results in ‘pumping’ or ‘milking’ action.Thought to enhance hydration and dispersal of local inflammatory products.Involve large amplitudes, can be performed actively and passively and can be integrated into metamorphical movements thus distracting the patient from the condition.Limit fibroblastic activity and minimise scar / adhesion formation.Large range neutrally non-aggressive movements allows movement to be presented in novel ways the brain. This reduces fear avoidance and assists remapping.(Coppieters and Butler 2007)
28ReferencesBoyd BS, Wanek L, Gray AT, Topp KS. Mechanosensitivity during lower extremity neurodynamic testing is diminished in individuals with Type 2 Diabeted Mellitus and peripheral neuropathy: a cross sectional study. BMC Neurology 2010, 10:75 Coppieters MW, Butler DS. Do ‘sliders’ slide and ‘tensioners’ tension. An alalysis of neurodynamic techniques and considerations regarding their application. Manual Therapy 2007, doi pp 1-9. Coppieters MW, Stappaerts KH, Wouters, LL, Janssens K. The Immediate Effects of a Cervical Lateral Glide Technique in Patients With Neurogenic Cervicobrachial Pain. Journal of Orthopaedic & Sports Physical Therapy 2003, Vol 33: No 7 pp 369 – 378.
29ReferencesEllis RF, Hing WA, McNair PJ. Comparrison of Longitudinal Nerve Movement With Different Mobilization Exercises: An In Vivo Study Utilizing Ultrasound Imaging. Journal of Orthopaedic & Sports Physical Therapy 2012; Vol 42: No 8: pp Hagert CG, Larsen AI, Jepsen JR, Kreiner S, Laursen LH. Editorial: Improving application of neurodynamic (neural tension) testing and treatments: A message to researchers and clinicians. Manual Therapy 2005, 10, pp Herrington L, Bendix K, Cornwell C, Fielden N, Hankey K. What is the normal response to structural differentiation within the slump and straight leg raise test? Manual Therapy pp289 – 294. Nee RJ and Butler D: Management of peripheral neuropathic pain: Integrating neurobiology, neurodynamics, and clinical evidence. Physical Therapy in Sport 2006, 7 pp 36 – 49.
30ReferencesReid. An Introduction to PathoNeurodynamics Handbook Saranga J Green A, Lewis J, Worsfold C. Effect of a Cervical Lateral Glide on the Upper Limb Neurodynamic Test 1: A blinded placebo-controlled investigation. Physiotherapy, 89, 11 pp678 – 684. Shafer A, Hall T, Briffa K. Classification of low-back related leg pain-A proposed patho-mechanism based approach. Manual Therapy 14, 2009: pp 222 – 230. Shacklock M: Neurodynamics. Physiotherapy; January 1995, vol 1, no 1. Welch H. Neurodynamics Masterclass handbook. 2011