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September 5 th – 8 th 2013 Nottingham Conference Centre, United Kingdom
Post-operative Lumbar Decompression: Pathoneurodynamics Ellen Hobbs Physiotherapist September 2013
Introduction Low Back Related Leg Pain Influence of neurodynamics Pain and Pathoneurodynamics Clinical Manifestation and Patient Presentation Case Study Summary
Low Back Related Leg Pain Leg pain frequently accompanies low back pain. (Schafer et al 2009) Decompression / Discectomy performed for leg pain. Present in approximately 25-57% of all low back pain cases (Heliovarra et al 1987; Cavanaugh and Weinstein 1994; Selim et al; cited in Schafer et al 2009) Accompanying leg pain is an important predictor for LBP chronicity (Selim et al cited in Schafer et al 2009) Primary pathology causing referred leg pain can be indistinct. Many structures can evoke similar patterns of pain (Adams et al 2002; Bogduk and McGuirk 2002 cited in Schafer et al 2009) Patients may be left with residual post operative leg pain; Necessary to understand the possible causes to optimise treatment.
Neurodynamics “The science of the relationships between mechanics and physiology of the nervous system.” (Butler 2005) Mechanical and physiological events of the nervous system are dynamically interdependent (Shacklock 1995) Mechanical stresses applied to nerves evoke physiological responses e.g. alterations in intraneural blood flow; impulse traffic and axonal transport (Shacklock 1995) Physiological Impulse generation and conduction. Physiological Impulse generation and conduction. Mechanical movement of the nervous system to slide, move and elongate in relation to surrounding tissue. Mechanical movement of the nervous system to slide, move and elongate in relation to surrounding tissue.
Pathoneurodynamics Changes in neural dynamics or physiology may lead to pathoneurodynamics. (Shacklock 1995) High likelihood in postoperative decompression patient Neurodynamics Mechanics Physiology PathomechanicsPathophysiology Pathoneurodynamics (Shacklock 1995)
Peripheral Neuropathic Pain Situations where nerve roots or peripheral nerve trunks have been injured by mechanical or chemical stimuli that exceed the capabilities of the nervous system. – Neural connective tissue nociceptor sensitisation – Abnormal impulse generating site (AIGS) formation – Impules conduction impairment (Nee and Butler 2006; Ellis et al 2012) Neurodynamic tests assess the mechanosensitivity of the nervous system through sequential limb movements. (Boyd et al 2010)
Clinical Manifestation Positive (Abnormal levels of excitability) Pain Paraesthesia Dysesthesia Spasm Negative (Reduced impulse conduction in neural tissue) Hypoesthesia Anaesthesia Weakness (Nee and Butler 2006)
Objective Findings Neural unloading antalgic posture Reduced active / passive movement Provocative neurodynamic testing (correlating the reduced active / passive ROM) Lines / clumps of pain over neural interface Nocturnal pain (due to reduced O2 perfusion) (Nee and Butler 2006; Welch 2011)
Treatment Techniques What can we do for residual post operative leg pain? Mechanical Interface Nervous System Both (Welch 2011)
Case Study Example Subjective Assessment 68 year old lady Left posterior LL pain to calf (burning / restless) (mild improvement) (p1) Localised central LBP sharp/catching (p2) bilateral S1 lateral recess decompression. Revision L5 root decompression. Degenerative scoliosis 2x previous decompressions – Right L3/L – Bilateral L5 (L4/5 L5/S1) 2010 – Improved Subtotal colectomy / permanent ileostomy 2002 Angina Gabapentin / Tramadol / Aspirin / Paracetamol / Olmetec / Atorvastatin Objective Assessment Lx scoliosis concave to left Limited painful (p2) extension / side flexion. Reduced left hip active / passive ROM IR 20 (p1 to mid thigh) Normal power / sensation Positive (p2) left SLR 30 / Slump -60 extension + TrP HS / piriformis / mid calf UMN NAD
Treatment Arthrogenic (closing dysfunction) – Rotational PPIVMS right SL GII. 30 sec x 3 – Lx SF right SL – Work into neurodynamic range Mechanical interface – Inhibitory taping to differentiate / ? sciatic bifurcation ? piriformis – TrP acupuncture piriformis HEP – Slump slider (started with right) one ended / function – Cat / posterior pelvic tilt 4 point – Piriformis stretch Possible progressions / relate to function Consideration of SIN factor / objective markers
Summary Leg pain frequently accompanies low back pain. Post-operative decompression patients may have residual leg pain. For effective treatment we need to consider neurodynamics / pathoneurodynamics. To optimise treatment we need to understand the neurobiological process involved that may contribute to pathoneurodynamics. Neurodynamic testing and differentiation can indicate potential structures / contributors involved in pathoneurodynamics. Treatment techniques aim to offload / open / close / facilitate gliding / reduce neural sensitivity.
Mechanical The Musculoskeletal system is the mechanical interface to the nervous system i.e. anything lying next to the nervous system: Central and Peripheral components: PeripheralMusclesTendonsBoneDiscsLigamentsFascia Blood Vessels (Nee and Butler 2011)
Where is the pain evoked? Peripherally evokedCentrally evoked Stimulus / response fairly constant on testing May not get positive / clear signs on testing Neuroanatomical patternMay have summation, latency of high sin Symptom linkageAllodynia / hyperalgesia Often related to severe or prolonged injury Also consider autonomic effect: Sweating swelling skin changes. Look for symptom reproduction / resistance to movement. Must use neural sensitizers to differentiate other structures (Nee and Butler 2006; Welch 2011)
LL Neurodynamic Testing SLR Supine (note pillows) Passive straight leg raise (knee extended) Add PNF, DF or hip internal rotation / adduction Normal response: Posterior thigh, posterior knee and calf Indications: All spinal and leg symptoms Variations – DF and inversion (sural) – DF and eversion (tibial) – PF and inversion Consider sequencing: Greater strain at the site moved first ? Response localised to this site. Direction of neural sliding influenced by order that body movements are added.
LL Neurodynamic Testing Slump Sitting with thighs supported and hands behind back Flexion of spine Cervical flexion Active DF on asymptomatic side Active DF on symptomatic side Active knee extension on symptomatic side Release of cervical flexion if symptoms reduced NORMAL: Pain / pull mid Tx; Pain pull hamstrings / calf on DF and knee extension; symptom decrease on release neck flexion / ankle PF. Indications: Spinal symptoms, upper and lower limb symptoms
LL Neurodynamic Testing Femoral Slump Side lying head on pillow slumped. Lowermost knee hugged to chest. Therapist stands behind Uppermost knee flexion and hip extension. Extend head and monitor response NORMAL: Anterior thigh tension Indications: Spinal and anterior leg symptoms A positive test only indicates mechanosensitivity to elongation / compression or lateral sliding. It does not tell us the exact nervous system dysfunction. Intraneural: Hypersensitivity of the nerve, AIGS development Extraneural: Mechanical interface friction
Mechanical Interface Treatment Opening dysfunctions: tension / elongation: Close to start then progress into the opening dysfunction and into neural provocation positions Closing dysfunctions: compression: Open to start then progress into closing positions and into neural provocation positions Can be: – Arthrogenic Example: Lx rotation PPIVMS = rotate away from side of pain opening IV foramen AP glide fibular head – Myogenic Trigger point / acupuncture Taping to offload: Inhibitory across muscle fibres. Neural offloading: reduces nociceptor impulses Example Neural Massage – Intrinsic blood supply to nerve has multidirectional flow – Massaging up and down along the line of the nerve can reduce venous stasis and improve neural circulation (Welch 2011)
Nervous System Aim to perform joint movements that elongate the nerve bed. This increase nerve elongation / nerve tension and intraneural pressure. Sustained intraneural fluid pressure reduces blood flow = ischemic changes. (Myers et al 1986 cited in Coppieters and Butler 2007) HOWEVER: Correct application of a dynamic version in intraneural pressure may facilitate evacuation of intradural oedema and reduce symptoms. (Burke et al 2003 cited in Coppieters and Butler 2007). GLIDING: Tensioning or Sliding technique??
Sliding and Tensioning SlidingTensioning Alternating combined movements of at least two joints. One movement lengthens the nerve bed. The other movement simultaneously reduces the nerve bed length unloading the nerve Movement of one or several joints causing nerve bed elongation in relation to surrounding tissue. Aim to mobilise the nerve with a minimal tension increase Result in larger longitudinal excursion than tensioning One ended: with the body: most neural movement occurs mid joint range One ended: tension occurs in outer range Two ended: applying tension in one end and letting go at another. Two ended: Elongation from both ends Useful for painUseful for the nerve to adapt to elongation (Coppieters and Butler 2007; Welch 2011; Ellis et al 2012)
Physiological Effects SlidersTensioners Reduces sensitivity and restores function, thus easing the threat value of the injury. THIS IS LIKELY TO; minimise the potential for ion channel up regulation in dorsal root ganglia and the CNS and limit the potential for dorsal horn and brain changes Reduce intraneural swelling and circulatory compromise via fluctuating effects on intraneural pressure. Dynamic alteration of intraneural pressure results in ‘pumping’ or ‘milking’ action. Thought to enhance hydration and dispersal of local inflammatory products. Involve large amplitudes, can be performed actively and passively and can be integrated into metamorphical movements thus distracting the patient from the condition. Limit fibroblastic activity and minimise scar / adhesion formation. Large range neutrally non-aggressive movements allows movement to be presented in novel ways the brain. This reduces fear avoidance and assists remapping. (Coppieters and Butler 2007)
References Boyd BS, Wanek L, Gray AT, Topp KS. Mechanosensitivity during lower extremity neurodynamic testing is diminished in individuals with Type 2 Diabeted Mellitus and peripheral neuropathy: a cross sectional study. BMC Neurology 2010, 10:75 Coppieters MW, Butler DS. Do ‘sliders’ slide and ‘tensioners’ tension. An alalysis of neurodynamic techniques and considerations regarding their application. Manual Therapy 2007, doi pp 1-9. Coppieters MW, Stappaerts KH, Wouters, LL, Janssens K. The Immediate Effects of a Cervical Lateral Glide Technique in Patients With Neurogenic Cervicobrachial Pain. Journal of Orthopaedic & Sports Physical Therapy 2003, Vol 33: No 7 pp 369 – 378.
References Ellis RF, Hing WA, McNair PJ. Comparrison of Longitudinal Nerve Movement With Different Mobilization Exercises: An In Vivo Study Utilizing Ultrasound Imaging. Journal of Orthopaedic & Sports Physical Therapy 2012; Vol 42: No 8: pp Hagert CG, Larsen AI, Jepsen JR, Kreiner S, Laursen LH. Editorial: Improving application of neurodynamic (neural tension) testing and treatments: A message to researchers and clinicians. Manual Therapy 2005, 10, pp Herrington L, Bendix K, Cornwell C, Fielden N, Hankey K. What is the normal response to structural differentiation within the slump and straight leg raise test? Manual Therapy pp289 – 294. Nee RJ and Butler D: Management of peripheral neuropathic pain: Integrating neurobiology, neurodynamics, and clinical evidence. Physical Therapy in Sport 2006, 7 pp 36 – 49.
References Reid. An Introduction to PathoNeurodynamics Handbook Saranga J Green A, Lewis J, Worsfold C. Effect of a Cervical Lateral Glide on the Upper Limb Neurodynamic Test 1: A blinded placebo-controlled investigation. Physiotherapy, 89, 11 pp678 – 684. Shafer A, Hall T, Briffa K. Classification of low-back related leg pain-A proposed patho-mechanism based approach. Manual Therapy 14, 2009: pp 222 – 230. Shacklock M: Neurodynamics. Physiotherapy; January 1995, vol 1, no 1. Welch H. Neurodynamics Masterclass handbook. 2011