2Why has global tourism grown? Growth in tourism is explained by 3 sets of factors:Social and Economic FactorsImprovements in technologyGreater holiday choiceSince the 1950s people have become wealthierTravel today is quick and easy e.g. motorways, more airports, faster aircraftSince the 1970s there has been a rapid increase in cheap package holidays globally, especially to Europe e.g. SpainIncomes are larger and so is disposable income (money left after bills)Flying has become cheaper (although has been hit by the recession and rising fuel prices) and online booking is quick and easyHolidays to unusual destinations e.g. Alaska and ecotourism is expanding rapidlyPeople have fewer childrenCar ownership has grown rapidlyHoliday leave time has increased (2 weeks in 1950s to 4-6 weeks today)Many retired people have good pensions i.e. can afford several trips a year
3Different types of holiday activities and their attractions Both physical (natural) e.g. beautiful mountains and human factors (to do with man) e.g. historic buildings encourage the development of tourism. There are 3 main types of holiday choices for tourists:COASTAL AREASSea (where people can swim/take part in water sports e.g. sailing/surfing/scuba diving etc.)Beaches (where children can play)Arcades (families can go to if the weather is poor)Nightclubs (where young people go to party e.g. Ibiza, Majorca)CITIESLarger range of shops (greater choice of things that people can buy)People can enjoy their culture e.g. visiting historical buildings (castles/cathedrals etc.)Entertainment is greater and more varied (theatres/cinemas/art galleries/concerts etc.)MOUNTAINSHikingSporting opportunities (swimming in lakes/skiing/snowboarding/fishing etc.)
4Benefits of tourism to LEDCs (poorer countries) EMPLOYMENT – waiters, souvenir shop assistants, tour guides etc.TAX – many governments tax visitors to help pay for extra services they use such as water supply, electricity and roadsFOREIGN EXCHANGE – tourists spend holiday money in the countryBUSINESSES – many small businesses start up to supply tourists demands such as farmers, taxis, bars and restaurants
5The history of tourism in the UK Domestic tourism grew quickly in the 1950s and 1960s as the growing UK economy provided higher pay and more time off work. Having an annual holiday became common. UK seaside holidays peaked in the early to mid-1970s, with 40 million visitors annually. After that, Britain's seaside resorts declined as package holidays abroad grew in number and affordability. Cheap package holidays in the 1980s with guaranteed hot weather attracted people of all incomes. It was often cheaper to go to a Spanish resort like Benidorm than somewhere in the UK. British weather was seen as too unreliable.Recent factors affecting the UK tourist industryTerrorism – London is a terrorist target (Underground bombing, 2005). After an event like this, tourist numbers decline sharply.Exchange rates (tourist) – although the weakness of the British pound against the Euro has made it more expensive for UK visitors to Europe, it has become cheaper for European visitors to travel and stay in the UK.Banking crisis (recession) – many people have lost their jobs and may reduce the holidays they take until the UK economy improves.
6What is the Butler tourist resort life-cycle model? This model says that tourism starts on a small scale, develops into something more significant, then either goes into decline or makes changes to maintain its attractions. There are 6 stages.STAGEDESCRIPTIONEXPLORATIONSmall numbers of visitors are attracted by something particular; good beaches, attractive landscape, historical or cultural features. Local people have not yet developed many tourist services.INVOLVEMENTThe local population sees the opportunities and starts to provide accommodation, food, transport, guides and other services for the visitors.DEVELOPMENTLarge companies build hotels and leisure complexes and advertise package holidays. Numbers of tourists rise dramatically. Job opportunities for local people grow rapidly.CONSOLIDATIONTourism is now a major part of the local economy, but perhaps at the expense of other types of development. Numbers of visitors are steady making employment more secure. However, some hotels and other facilities are becoming older and unattractive, so the type of customers attracted goes downmarket.STAGNATIONThe resort becomes unfashionable and numbers of visitors start to decline. Businesses change hands and often fail.DECLINE OR REJUVENATIONDecline: visitors prefer other resorts. Day trippers and weekenders become the main source of income.Rejuvenation: attempts are made to modernise the resort and attract different people to enjoy new activities.
8National Parks in the UK What are National Parks?National Parks are large areas of mainly rural land.What is the aim of National Parks?Their aim was to conserve natural and cultural landscapes while allowing access for visitors to enjoy them.Where are the National Parks?Many of the UK National Parks are found in upland areas e.g. Lake District (high/hilly/mountainous) although a few are found in lowland (Norfolk Broads) and coastal (Pembrokeshire) areas.
9CASE STUDY: Lake District Where is it?The county of Cumbria, NW EnglandWhat attracts people to the Lake District?Stunning sceneryThe area is straddled by ribbon lakes and tarns(left over from the glacial period) e.g. Lake Windermere.Water activitiesLake Windermere specialises in ferry cruises. Most people sail between Windermere and Ambleside. Small boats are allowed on many lakes. Areas are set aside for windsailing and power-boating. Fishing from the shore/boats is increasing in popularity.WalkingVery popular. Public access to the fells (hills) is unrestricted.Historical and cultural sitesThere is much evidence of early settlement remains. Many 19th century writers and artists, such as John Ruskin and Beatrix Potter had homes in the Lake District.
10What have been the impacts of tourism? Traffic problemsCongestion and parking are serious problems. There is a lack of capacity (parking) for the number of tourists. In the countryside, people park on grass verges, causing serious damage.Honeypot sitesThere are many honeypot sites (locations which attract large numbers of people, putting pressure on the environment and people) in the Lake District e.g. beauty spots, historic houses and shopping centres. Footpath erosion has become a serious problem and scars the landscape.Pressure on propertyAlmost 20% of property is either 2nd homes or holiday let. Although this gives a good income from those who own these, others are critical and say that:The owners are not part of the community full timeThese holidaymakers shop at home before arriving, so do not support local businessesDemand for property from outsiders forces house prices up and local people out (cannot afford the high property prices)Environmental issuesWindermere has ferries and allows power-boating where the wash from faster vehicleserodes the shore. Fuel spills are also common, causing pollution.
11Strategies to manage the impacts and maintain a successful tourist industry in the area HONEYPOT MANAGEMENTFootpaths:Repairing/reinforcing footpathsSignposting routes limits the number of paths tourists may takeParking:Fence off roadsides so people cannot park and damage themDevelop several new small car parks and landscape (plant rows of trees) to hide themReinforce car park surfaces in countryside (waffles = large concrete slabs with holes in them, so soil fills them in and grass grows, giving a hard green surface)Litter:Bins should be provided at honeypot sites and emptied regularlyDesignated picnic areas means less litter in other placesPlace signs encouraging people to be responsiblePROPERTY PRICESLocal authorities could build more homes for rent and developers could build more low-costhomes for saleENVIRONMENTAL ISSUESSpeed limits for boats could limit the amount of wash caused. The most noisiest anddamaging sports could restrict damage done
12Mass tourism – Advantages and disadvantages Mass tourism involves large numbers of organised tourists (e.g. package holiday) coming to one country or region, often year after year.
13CASE STUDY: Jamaica What attracts people to Jamaica? Tropical climate Sandy beachesClean, clear Caribbean SeaWildlife reserves/bird sanctuariesBlue MountainsCavesGolfWater sports e.g. swimming, diving/snorkeling/deep sea fishingNegative impact of mass tourismDay trips taking tourists to dive/snorkel pollute the sea with motor fuelTourists feet damage the coral when snorkelingMany jobs are seasonal, so problems with unemploymentCrime rates have increased (tourists can be a target) and there are increasing problems with drugs and drug related crimeJamaica has problems dealing with the levels of waste and rubbish during peak tourist seasons and providing enough clean drinking water for visitors and locals.
14Strategies to maintain tourism and reduce its negative effects A recent trend has been the growth in community tourism. This involves local people directly because visitors become a part of their home and village during their stay. Families provide bed and breakfast accommodation and other local businesses, such as restaurants and bars, supply their other needs. This type of holiday provides greater interaction between locals and tourists and supports local businesses and uses fewer resources. Money goes to local people, not international companiesEcotourism is developing (eco-lodges and nature reserves) and this utilises the inland area of the island such as the Blue Mountains as well as parts of the coast, spreading tourists further around the island. Tourist densities are kept low in these areas, which keeps pressure off the environment.
15Extreme Environments What is an ‘Extreme Environment’? Extreme environments are locations with particularly difficult/dangerous environments where the development of tourism has only recently occurred e.g. ice caving/walking/diving, 4x4 trekking etc.They often have difficult climates, access is limited and they are sparsely populated.Examples of extreme environmentsMountainsDesertsRainforestsCavesIce covered terrainWhat type of tourist is attracted to extreme environments?Adrenaline / thrill seeker often aged around 30, unmarried,without children, have good jobs and income.
16CASE STUDY: Antarctica Impacts of extreme tourismThe impact of tourists in some places is too great. Animals, especially penguins and seals, are disturbed by more than a few people. Not used to humans, they do not like to be touched. If they leave as a result, they may abandon eggs and young.There have been accidents when ships have hit rocks and ice floesOil spills are becoming an increasing hazard for wildlifeLanding sites are chosen for a special feature, so quickly become honeypotsThere is the threat of domestic waste from ships entering the food chainStrategies to cope with the development of tourismAll tour operators are members of IAATO which directs tourism to be safe and environmentally friendlyVisitors are not allowed to visit Sites of Special Scientific Interest (SSSIs) in order to conserve precious wildlife and landscapes and are given instructions on behaviour when ashore and rules regarding wildlife observationA permit must be gained for any activities on the continent e.g. skiing/walking/kayaking/scuba diving/helicopter flights etc.Ships can only land at certain places and there must not be more than 20 people at one spot at a timeNo ship carrying over 500 passengers can land in AntarcticaCruises are largely educational in nature, so tend to only attract real enthusiasts
17Sustainable tourismMany LEDCs have already realised that they can generate increased income by expanding tourism developments and exploiting resources e.g. rainforests, coral reefs etc. However, the consequences of this approach can be considerable.What is sustainable tourism?Sustainable tourism is tourism attempting to make a low impact on the environment and local culture, while helping to generate future employment for local people.What are the aims of sustainable tourism?The aim of sustainable tourism is to ensure that development brings a positive experience for local people, tourism companies and the tourists themselves.What should sustainable tourism involve?STEWARDSHIP The personal responsibility for looking after the environment on a large scale (regionally, nationally and globally)CONSERVATION The careful and planned use of resources in order to manage and maintain the natural environment for future generations (on a smaller scale)
18Ecotourism What is it? Ecotourism is environmentally friendly tourism. What does it involve?Ecotourism usually involves small-group travel to natural and unspoilt environments (Amazon Rainforest, Galapagos Islands off coast of Ecuador etc.)It is often educational, supports long-term conservation and has minimal impact on the natural environment.It seeks to benefit local communities and encourages respect for different cultures.
19CASE STUDY: The Galapagos Islands Where are the islands?There are 50 islands which lie 1000km off the coast of S. America, which belong to EcuadorHow does ecotourism benefit the islands?ENVIRONMENTALLY90% of the islands have been given National Park or marine reserve protection. The islands became the first Unesco World Heritage Site in 1979.Tourists visit under strict rules and arrive mainly by small ships which allow people onshore only at specific locations in limited numbersTour boats have professional guides who give visitors accurate information and prevent tourists from causing damageECONOMIC TO LOCAL ECONOMY/INDIVIDUALSLocal businesses have been started to provide for the needs of tourists e.g. tour boats owned by locals take tourists around and between islandsTourists stay in small guest houses, often run as family businessesPeople are employed in guest houses, on boats and as guides. Many visitors give tips, which go directly to local people.