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Pidgins and Creoles. A pidgin is a contact language that developed in a situation where speakers of different languages need a language to communicate.

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Presentation on theme: "Pidgins and Creoles. A pidgin is a contact language that developed in a situation where speakers of different languages need a language to communicate."— Presentation transcript:

1 Pidgins and Creoles

2 A pidgin is a contact language that developed in a situation where speakers of different languages need a language to communicate. A pidgin becomes a creole when it is adopted as the native language of a speech community.

3 Creoles in the Caribbean

4 Superstrate and substrate languages Superstrate language Provides the bulk of the vocabulary and is more prestigeous. (also called the ‘lexifier language’) Substrate languages Provide a few words but may have significant influence on the grammatical structure.

5 Pidgin and creole studies Pidgin and creole languages have been studied extensively in linguistics: 1.Sociolinguistic aspects 2.Grammaticalization 3.The innateness hypothesis

6 Butler English Butler English is a pidgin language spoken in India. The language emerged when Indian servants had to find a way to communicate with their English masters. It is still spoken in hotels, clubs, and households.

7 Butler English 1. Omission of grammatical morphemes (1)Because ball is going nearly 200 yards. (2)Members hitting ball. 2. No inflectional morphology (1)two spoon coffee (2)Master like it.

8 Butler English 3. Me vs. I Me not drinking madam 4. Extensive use of progressive verb forms and putting masala and 5. No copula That the garden.

9 Butler English 6. Negation without auxiliary then I not worry No water add. 7. ‘No’ (or ‘eh’) is used as a general tag-question English-speaking sabih is all gone, no? He nice, eh?

10 PNG - Tok Pisin

11 Melanesian Pidgin Tok PisinPapua New Guinea BislamaVanuatu PijinSolomon Islands

12 Papua New Guinea Independence 1975

13 Tok Pisin Newspaper Wantok

14 Papua New Guinea Urban centers

15 Creolisation In urban centers, the children of mixed couples learn Tok Pisin as their first language. Thus, Tok Pisin is changing from an ‘extended pidgin’ to a creole language.

16 Tok Pisin - Vocabulary spak (‘spark’)=drunk nogut (‘no good’)=bad baimbai (‘by and by’)=soon sekan (‘shake hands’)=to make peace kilim (‘kill him’)=to kill /hit /beat pisin (‘pigeon’)=bird / pidgin gras (‘grass’)=gras /hair /fur

17 Tok Pisin – Word Formation gras=gras/hair/fur mausgras=moustache gras bilong hed=hair ‘grass belong head’ gras belong fes =beard ‘grass belong face gras belong pisin =feathers ‘grass belong bird’ gras antap long ai =eyebrow ‘grass on top of long eye’

18 Tok Pisin – Word Formation man bilong save > saveman ‘expert’ ‘man belong know’

19 Tok Pisin - Vocabulary Tolai lapunold kumulbird of paradise palailizard Malay binatanginsect lombochilli sayorvegetable leaf

20 Tok Pisin - Vocabulary German gumirubber betenpray rausget out broschest

21 Tok Pisin

22 PNG - Tok Pisin

23 Melanesian Pidgin Tok PisinPapua New Guinea BislamaVanuatu PijinSolomon Islands

24 Tok Pisin Superstrate language: English Substrate language: Austronesian and Papuan languages

25 Tok Pisin Vocabulary The bulk of the vocabulary comes from English (i.e. the superstrate language). In addition, Tok Pisin includes words from various Austronesian and Papuan languages (e.g. Tolai, Malay). Finally, Tok Pisin includes some words of German origin (e.g. gumi, beten, raus)

26 Tok Pisin – Word Formation mausgras=moustache gras=gras/hair/fur gras bilong hed=hair ‘grass belong head’ gras belong fes =beard ‘grass belong face gras antap long ai =eyebrow ‘grass on top of long eye’

27 Plural marker (2)SGPL yu yu-pela bik hausbik-pela haus (1)nil nil‘spines’ needle (3)SGPL manol man -pela‘fellow’ ol‘all’

28 Pronouns yuyouSG yutupelayou twoDUAL yutripelayou threeTRIAL yupelayou allPL emhe / she / itSUBJ him / her / itOBJ

29 Causative/transitive marker (1)Em i rit‘He is reading.’ Em i ritim buk‘He’s reading a book.’ make him >makim boil him>tellim (2)Wara i boil pinis‘The water has boiled.’ Meri i boilim wara pinis‘The woman has boiled the water.’ (3)Bai mi rait.‘I’ll write.’ Bai i raitim pas.‘I’ll write a letter.’

30 Predicative Marker (1)a.mi kam‘I come’ b.yu kam‘You come’ c.em i kam‘He/she comes’ d.Tom i wok‘Tom works’ (2)The man, he talked to the woman.

31 Qustion Words Tok Pisin wanem ‘what name’=‘what/which’ husat ‘who’s that’=‘who’ Guyanese Creole wisaid ‘which side’=‘where’ wa mek ‘what makes’=‘why’ Cameroon Creole wetin ‘what thing’=‘what’

32 Word Order (1)mikukimrais. Icookrice ‘I cooked the rice.’

33 Complex Sentences (1)Mi no save. Ol I wokim dispela haus. I don’t know (that) they work in this house. (2)Mi no save olsem ol i wokim dispela haus. ‘I didn’t know that they built this house.’

34 Relative clauses (1)Stereo ia mitla putim lo kout ia, em no lukim. ‘The stereo which we put in the coat he didn’t see.’ (2)ia:here > the > REL (3)[[tree] here][that has leaves] here]]

35 Verb Phrase in Krio a bin rait‘I wrote’ a de rait‘I am writing’ a bin de rait‘I was writing’ a don rait‘I have written’ a bin don rait‘I had written’ a bin don de rait‘I had been writing’

36 Verb Phrase in Krio bin = PAST de = PROGRESSIVE don= PERFECT

37 Future (1)embaikam He/shewillcome ‘He/she will come’ bai‘by and by’

38 Past (1)Embintok He/shePASTsay ‘He/she said … Bin‛been’

39 Immediate Future (1)em ilaikgolong gaden (S)he Pis about togoto the garden ‘He/she is about to go to the garden.’ laik‛like’

40 Perfect (1)mikukimpinis IcookCOMPLETE ‘I have cooked it.’ pinis‛finish’

41 Habitual marker (1)Miplea sa harimolgani pairap. We HAB hearPLgunP fire ‘We heard the guns firing.’ sa ‛save’> ‛know’> Habitual

42 Continuous marker (1)oliwokabouti stap. TheyPwalkCONT ‘They were walking.’ i stap???

43 How does a pidgin language develop grammatical expressions? What drives the process of creolisation?

44 The Bioprogram Hypothesis The human species comes equipped… with the capacity to reconstitute language itself - should the normal generation-to-generation transmission of input data be inserted or distorted by extralinguistic forces. (Muysken & Bickerton 1988)

45 Grammaticalization SourceTarget: AUX go (motion)gonna will (intention)will have (possession)have

46 Grammaticalization SourceTarget: P during (verb)during in front of (PP)in front of a-gone (PRE-verb)ago

47 Grammaticalization SourceTarget: CONJ by cause (PP)because DEM while SUB whilegiven

48 Grammaticalization SourceTarget: PRO/ART some body (NP)somebody one (numeral)the one one (numeral)a

49 Grammaticalization SourceTarget: Bound NOUN-ly NOUN-hood did-ed

50 Grammaticalization Grammaticalization is cross-linguistically so pervasive that some linguists suggested that all grammatical expressions are eventually derived from a lexical source.

51 Grammaticalization Grammaticalization is of central signifiance for the theory of language: 1.Challenges rigid division between lexicon and grammar. 1.Challenges the assumption that grammatical categories have clear-cut boundaries. 1.Suggests that grammar is dynamic and emergent.

52 African American English

53 The origin of AAE 1.Pidgin/creole 2.Second language of a particular variety of English spoken in the South.

54 The African Substratum Hypothesis Since the first slaves spoke a variety of African languages and since they had only little contact with their white masters, they used a simplified version of English with elements of their native language as a lingua france. AAE developed from this early pidgin/creole language.

55 The English Origin Hypothesis When the first African slaves where brought to America, they gave up their African languages and learned the English variety that was spoken at that time in the south. According to this hypothesis, AAE shows many linguistic features of this substandard variety of southern American English, which explains why AAE and the southern variety of white American English are relatively similar.

56 African American English Until the beginning of the 20th century, 90% of all African American lived in the South, mainly in rural areas.

57 African American English Today, more than 60% of all African Americans live in the non- South, mainly in urban centers.

58 LSA resolution The variety known as "Ebonics," "African American Vernacular English" (AAVE), and "Vernacular Black English" and by other names is systematic and rule- governed like all natural speech varieties. In fact, all human linguistic systems--spoken, signed, and written -- are fundamentally regular. … Characterizations of Ebonics as "slang," "mutant," "lazy," "defective," "ungrammatical," or "broken English" are incorrect and demeaning.

59 LSA resolution As affirmed in the LSA Statement of Language Rights (June l996), there are individual and group benefits to maintaining vernacular speech varieties and there are scientific and human advantages to linguistic diversity. For those living in the United States there are also benefits in acquiring Standard English and resources should be made available to all who aspire the mastery of Standard English. The Oakland School Board's commitment to helping students master Standard English is commendable.

60 Phonology - AAE (1)[wes said]‘west side’ [kol cuts’ (2)[brn maI h{n]‘burned my hand’ [mEs öp]‘messed up’

61 Phonology - AAE (3)[de]‘they’ [d{t]‘that’ (4)[nöfn]‘nothing’ ‘author’ [rUf]‘Ruth’ [saUf]‘south’

62 Phonology - AAE (5)[hEp]‘help’ [ro]‘roll’ [skuw]‘school’ [fUbOw]‘football’ (6)[{ks]‘ask’ [gr{ps]‘grasp’

63 Agreement - AAE (1)He need to get a book from the shelf. She want us to pass the papers to the front.

64 Genitive - AAE (1)The dog tail was wagging. The man hat was old.

65 Copula deletion - AAE (1)That my Ø bike. The coffee Ø cold. He Ø all right.

66 Habitual ‚be‘ - AAE (1)Do they be playing all day? Yeah, the boys do be messin’ around a lot. I see her when I be on my way to school. The coffee be cold. (2)a.The coffee cold. b.The coffee be cold. (3)*The coffee be cold right now.

67 Perfective ‚done‘ - AAE (1)She done did it. They done used all the good ones. They done go.

68 Negative inversion - AAE (1)Can’t nobody beat’em. (2)Don’t nobody say nothin’ to dem peoples! (3)Wasn’t nobody in there but em an’ him. (4)Ain’t no white cop gonna put his hands on me.

69 Double negation - AAE (2)I ain’t go yesterday. I didn’t have no lunch. He don’t never go nowhere.

70 This is the end.

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