2Pidgins and CreolesA pidgin is a contact language that developed in a situation where speakers of different languages need a language to communicate.A pidgin becomes a creole when it is adopted as the native language of a speech community.
4Superstrate and substrate languages Superstrate languageProvides the bulk of the vocabulary and is more prestigeous. (also called the ‘lexifier language’)Substrate languagesProvide a few words but may have significant influence on the grammatical structure.
5Pidgin and creole studies Pidgin and creole languages have been studied extensively in linguistics:Sociolinguistic aspectsGrammaticalizationThe innateness hypothesis
6Butler EnglishButler English is a pidgin language spoken in India. The language emerged when Indian servants had to find a way to communicate with their English masters. It is still spoken in hotels, clubs, and households.
7Butler English 1. Omission of grammatical morphemes (1) Because ball is going nearly 200 yards.(2) Members hitting ball.2. No inflectional morphology(1) two spoon coffee(2) Master like it.
8Butler English 3. Me vs. I Me not drinking madam 4. Extensive use of progressive verb formsand putting masala and5. No copulaThat the garden.
9Butler English 6. Negation without auxiliary then I not worry No water add.7. ‘No’ (or ‘eh’) is used as a general tag-questionEnglish-speaking sabih is all gone, no?He nice, eh?
15CreolisationIn urban centers, the children of mixed couples learn Tok Pisin as their first language.Thus, Tok Pisin is changing from an ‘extended pidgin’ to a creole language.
16Tok Pisin - Vocabulary spak (‘spark’) = drunk nogut (‘no good’) = bad baimbai (‘by and by’) = soonsekan (‘shake hands’) = to make peacekilim (‘kill him’) = to kill /hit /beatpisin (‘pigeon’) = bird / pidgingras (‘grass’) = gras /hair /fur
17Tok Pisin – Word Formation gras = gras/hair/furmausgras = moustachegras bilong hed = hair‘grass belong head’gras belong fes = beard‘grass belong facegras belong pisin = feathers‘grass belong bird’gras antap long ai = eyebrow‘grass on top of long eye’
18Tok Pisin – Word Formation man bilong save > saveman ‘expert’‘man belong know’
19Tok Pisin - Vocabulary Tolai lapun old kumul bird of paradise palai lizardMalaybinatang insectlombo chillisayor vegetable leaf
20Tok Pisin - Vocabulary German gumi rubber beten pray raus get out bros chest
23Melanesian Pidgin Tok Pisin Papua New Guinea Bislama Vanuatu Pijin Solomon Islands
24Tok Pisin Superstrate language: English Substrate language: Austronesian and Papuan languages
25Tok Pisin VocabularyThe bulk of the vocabulary comes from English (i.e. the superstrate language).In addition, Tok Pisin includes words from various Austronesian and Papuan languages (e.g. Tolai, Malay).Finally, Tok Pisin includes some words of German origin (e.g. gumi, beten, raus)
26Tok Pisin – Word Formation gras = gras/hair/furmausgras = moustachegras bilong hed = hair‘grass belong head’gras belong fes = beard‘grass belong facegras antap long ai = eyebrow‘grass on top of long eye’
28Pronouns em he / she / it SUBJ him / her / it OBJ yu you SG yutupela you two DUALyutripela you three TRIALyupela you all PL
29Causative/transitive marker (1) Em i rit ‘He is reading.’Em i ritim buk ‘He’s reading a book.’(2) Wara i boil pinis ‘The water has boiled.’Meri i boilim wara pinis ‘The woman has boiled the water.’(3) Bai mi rait. ‘I’ll write.’Bai i raitim pas. ‘I’ll write a letter.’make him > makimboil him > tellim
30Predicative Marker (1) a. mi kam ‘I come’ b. yu kam ‘You come’ c. em i kam ‘He/she comes’d. Tom i wok ‘Tom works’(2) The man, he talked to the woman.
31Qustion Words Tok Pisin wanem ‘what name’ = ‘what/which’ husat ‘who’s that’ = ‘who’Guyanese Creolewisaid ‘which side’ = ‘where’wa mek ‘what makes’ = ‘why’Cameroon Creolewetin ‘what thing’ = ‘what’
32Word Order(1) mi kukim rais.I cook rice‘I cooked the rice.’
33Complex Sentences (1) Mi no save. Ol I wokim dispela haus. I don’t know (that) they work in this house.(2) Mi no save olsem ol i wokim dispela haus.‘I didn’t know that they built this house.’
34Relative clauses (1) Stereo ia mitla putim lo kout ia, em no lukim. ‘The stereo which we put in the coat he didn’t see.’(2) ia: here > the > REL(3) [[tree] here][that has leaves] here]]
35Verb Phrase in Krio a bin rait ‘I wrote’ a de rait ‘I am writing’ a bin de rait ‘I was writing’a don rait ‘I have written’a bin don rait ‘I had written’a bin don de rait ‘I had been writing’
36Verb Phrase in Kriobin = PASTde = PROGRESSIVEdon = PERFECT
37Future (1) em bai kam He/she will come ‘He/she will come’ bai ‘by and by’
38Past(1) Em bin tokHe/she PAST say‘He/she said …Bin ‛been’
39Immediate Future (1) em i laik go long gaden (S)he P is about to go to the garden‘He/she is about to go to the garden.’laik ‛like’
40Perfect (1) mi kukim pinis I cook COMPLETE ‘I have cooked it.’ pinis ‛finish’
41Habitual marker (1) Miplea sa harim ol gan i pairap. We HAB hear PL gun P fire‘We heard the guns firing.’sa ‛save’ > ‛know’ > Habitual
42Continuous marker (1) ol i wokabout i stap. They P walk CONT ‘They were walking.’i stap ???
43How does a pidgin language develop grammatical expressions? What drives the process of creolisation?
44The Bioprogram Hypothesis The human species comes equipped… with the capacity to reconstitute language itself - should the normal generation-to-generation transmission of input data be inserted or distorted by extralinguistic forces.(Muysken & Bickerton 1988)
45Grammaticalization Source Target: AUX go (motion) gonna will (intention) willhave (possession) have
46Grammaticalization Source Target: P during (verb) during in front of (PP) in front ofa-gone (PRE-verb) ago
47Grammaticalization Source Target: CONJ by cause (PP) because DEM while SUB whilegiven given
48Grammaticalization Source Target: PRO/ART some body (NP) somebody one (numeral) the oneone (numeral) a
50GrammaticalizationGrammaticalization is cross-linguistically so pervasive that some linguists suggested that all grammatical expressions are eventually derived from a lexical source.
51GrammaticalizationGrammaticalization is of central signifiance for the theory of language:Challenges rigid division between lexicon and grammar.Challenges the assumption that grammatical categories have clear-cut boundaries.Suggests that grammar is dynamic and emergent.
53African American English The origin of AAE1. Pidgin/creole2. Second language of a particular variety of English spoken in the South.
54The African Substratum Hypothesis Since the first slaves spoke a variety of African languages and since they had only little contact with their white masters, they used a simplified version of English with elements of their native language as a lingua france. AAE developed from this early pidgin/creole language.
55The English Origin Hypothesis When the first African slaves where brought to America, they gave up their African languages and learned the English variety that was spoken at that time in the south. According to this hypothesis, AAE shows many linguistic features of this substandard variety of southern American English, which explains why AAE and the southern variety of white American English are relatively similar.
56African American English Until the beginning of the 20th century, 90% of all African American lived in the South, mainly in rural areas.
57African American English Today, more than 60% of all African Americans live in the non-South, mainly in urban centers.
58LSA resolutionThe variety known as "Ebonics," "African American Vernacular English" (AAVE), and "Vernacular Black English" and by other names is systematic and rule-governed like all natural speech varieties. In fact, all human linguistic systems--spoken, signed, and written -- are fundamentally regular. … Characterizations of Ebonics as "slang," "mutant," "lazy," "defective," "ungrammatical," or "broken English" are incorrect and demeaning.
59LSA resolutionAs affirmed in the LSA Statement of Language Rights (June l996), there are individual and group benefits to maintaining vernacular speech varieties and there are scientific and human advantages to linguistic diversity. For those living in the United States there are also benefits in acquiring Standard English and resources should be made available to all who aspire the mastery of Standard English. The Oakland School Board's commitment to helping students master Standard English is commendable.
63Agreement - AAE (1) He need to get a book from the shelf. She want us to pass the papers to the front.
64Genitive - AAE(1) The dog tail was wagging.The man hat was old.
65Copula deletion - AAE (1) That my Ø bike. The coffee Ø cold. He Ø all right.
66Habitual ‚be‘ - AAE (1) Do they be playing all day? Yeah, the boys do be messin’ around a lot.I see her when I be on my way to school.The coffee be cold.(2) a. The coffee cold.b. The coffee be cold.(3) *The coffee be cold right now.
67Perfective ‚done‘ - AAE (1) She done did it.They done used all the good ones.They done go.
68Negative inversion - AAE (1) Can’t nobody beat’em.(2) Don’t nobody say nothin’ to dem peoples!(3) Wasn’t nobody in there but em an’ him.(4) Ain’t no white cop gonna put his hands on me.
69Double negation - AAE (2) I ain’t go yesterday. I didn’t have no lunch.He don’t never go nowhere.