Process In December 2005, The United Way of Butler County, Butler Collaborative for Families, and Butler Memorial Hospital along with Tripp Umbach kicked off the Butler County Community Solutions Assessment process. Community Leader Interviews were conducted with 40 active leaders in Butler County to obtain their input on the community survey, the asset inventory survey, identifying potential focus groups, and obtaining secondary data. The outcome of the interviews along with input and discussions with other community players produced the community household survey and the focus group audiences
Process Two focus groups were conducted (to date). The senior focus group was held on 7/19/06 and the adolescent focus group was held on 8/2/06. The northern low income residents focus group will be held in September. Asset Inventory surveys were mailed to businesses, faith- based organizations, labor groups, and educational institutions. Secondary data was collected by Tripp Umbach to provide a profile of Butler County including data from the BRFSS, CDC, HRSA, etc.
Process The community planning retreat allows the Collaborative to identify specific plans for program implementation in key areas of priority. These prioritized areas will ultimately effect Butler County and its citizens. Third focus group with low-income working adults to be conducted in early September 2006. A September 2006 final community presentation will be conducted to encourage participation and community involvement in the implementation process.
A community that works together to resolve issues and problems. It encourages cohesion and is actively involved with its citizens to address its future needs. Due to the geographic locations of certain towns in Butler County (pockets of the county) some social and health services are unobtainable, thus the perception is that these towns are unhealthy. However, Butler county overall is perceived to be healthy. Strong services, programs, and positive economic development boosts the county’s image. The future vision of Butler county entails more economic development in other less populated areas of the county. Maintaining the county’s youth and professionals by providing additional job opportunities and job security to those who otherwise would seek it in other locations. A stronger sense of community. Community Leader’s Interview Summary
1. Transportation Insufficient services, routes/lines Limited county funding Poor infrastructure because county is so large & rural in some areas 2. Drugs/Alcohol Need more services to address and combat drug/alcohol usage countywide Universal issue that affects everyone of all backgrounds Drug/alcohol usage is also linked to crime 3. Health Insurance/Healthcare (Uninsured/Underinsured) Need affordable and obtainable healthcare for everyone Addressing the lack of accessible healthcare Community Leader’s Interview Summary Top 3 Pressing Problems/Issues facing residents of Butler County
Overview Collaborative survey design process between Community Solutions Board members and Tripp Umbach 6,000 surveys were mailed to residents throughout Butler County –In total, 862 surveys were collected through the mail –136 surveys were collected through hand distribution Data was compared to the 2004 Butler Hospital needs assessment (where applicable) 14% response rate was achieved (via mail surveys)
Topics Abuse Access to Care Alcohol & Drug Use Cancer Services Children Issues Diet & Exercise Disability Health Status Mental Health Physician Specialist Preventive Health Primary Health Care Safety Issues Social Services Tobacco Use Transportation
Reasons why Respondents do not have a Health Care Provider Mailed % (n=24) Hand Distributed % (n=6) Can't pay for a health care provider visit37.583.3 Don't need a health care provider33.316.7 Can't find one I like or trust8.30.0 Transportation issues8.30.0 Other12.50.0 97% of mailed respondents have a health care provider where they go to most often for health care (95.7% for 2004 and 95.5% for hand distributed) Primary Health Care
Health Clinic Use *Yes, responses reported only
Respondents who have a Medical Condition *Yes, respondents reported only Health Status - Adults
Family History *Yes, respondents reported only Health Status - Adults
Length of Time Respondents were Tested for Colon/Rectal Cancer *Filtered for respondents ages 49+ Preventive Health Care
Length of time Respondents had their Cholesterol Checked Preventive Health Care
Length of time Respondents had their Blood Pressure Checked Preventive Health Care
Women who Examine their Breasts each Month for Lumps *filtered for women only Preventive Health Care: Women
Length of time Female Respondents had a Mammogram *filtered for women ages 39 and older Preventive Health Care: Women
Length of time Female Respondents had a Pap Smear *filtered for women only Preventive Health Care: Women
Male Respondents who Examine their Testicles every Month for Lumps *filtered for men only Preventive Health Care: Men
Length of time Male Respondents had been Checked for Prostate Cancer *filtered for men 40 + Preventive Health Care: Men
2006Hand Distributed Do you work in Butler County?40.655.2 Are you looking for a new job at this time?9.917.9 Do you know where to go or call to get help getting a job or getting a better job? 58.970.8 Have you or someone in your household been unemployed for more than 6 months in the last 5 years? 32.144.7 Employment
Reasons why Respondents had been Unemployed for more than 6 months in the last 5 yrs. *multiple response Employment
2.9% of respondents reported that in the past 2 years, either they or someone in their household was pushed, slapped, hit, punched, shaken, kicked, choked etc. (7.5% for Hand Distributed) Of those who responded, 47.8% indicated that it was someone they knew (33.3% for Hand Distributed) 30.4% indicated that it was a stranger (11.1% for Hand Distributed) 21.7% reported that it was someone in the household (55.6% for Hand Distributed) 2.6% indicated that they or someone in their household was abused by someone else in the home (4.7% for the 2004 assessment and 8.3% for Hand Distributed) 0.4% indicated that in the past 2 years, they or someone in their household was forced to take part in sexual activities against their will (2.3% for Hand Distribution) Of those who responded, 66.6% reported that it was someone they knew (66.7% for Hand Distribution) 33.3% indicated that it was someone living in the household (33.3% for Hand Distribution) Domestic Violence
6.6% reported in the past year that they have you been afraid for the safety of themselves due to the anger or threats of someone (13.3% for Hand Distribution) Of those who responded, 60.8% reported that it was someone they knew (55.6% for Hand Distribution) 31.4% reported that it was a stranger (16.7% for Hand Distribution) 7.8% reported that it was someone in the household (27.8% for Hand Distribution) 9.4% of respondents believe that there are children in their neighborhood who are in unsafe situations (20.1% for Hand Distribution) Of those who responded, 72.4% reported they were concerned due to lack of supervision (61.5% for Hand Distribution) 15.8% cited “other” reasons (23.1% for Hand Distribution) 7.9% reported drug/alcohol use (15.4% for Hand Distribution) 56.8% reported knowing where to send someone for help if they were being hurt (70.5% for Hand Distribution) 9.1% reported being or knowing someone in the household being affected by drug abuse (14.2% for Hand Distribution) Abuse and Violence
Types of Drugs that were Abused *multiple responses Drug Abuse
Consequences of having been Affected by Drug Abuse *Multiple response Drug Abuse
2006Hand Distributed Do you think the use of illegal drugs is a problem in your neighborhood? 33.931.3 Do you think alcohol abuse or underage drinking is a problem in your neighborhood? 36.732.8 Do you know where to go or where to send someone for help with a drug or alcohol problem? 54.767.4 Are there any drug prevention programs in your community? 32.743.3 Drugs & Alcohol Use
Number of children under the age of 18 living in the household 10.7% are single parents (mailed surveys) 19.8% are single parents (hand distributed) Children Issues
Insurance Coverage for Children Children Issues
* How Child’s Health Insurance is Paid for… *multiple response ** Two choices for this question were not reported in 2006 because they were asked only in 2004 * Children Issues
20042006Hand Distributed Has your child had a physical check up in the past year? 90.795.396.3 Has you child had a dental check-up in the past year? 83.782.777.5 Has your child been tested for behavioral problems? N/A13.033.8 Do you or a household member have a child with special, physical, mental or emotional needs? N/A14.038.3 Children Issues
Rating how well the School Supports Children with Special Needs Children Issues
*multiple response Children Issues 14.1% of respondents reported that their child had problems in school in the past year. (25.9% for hand distributed)
Do you think you have a Need for Parent Education Seminars Regarding… Children Issues *multiple response
2006Hand Distributed Are you concerned with your child's rise of technology?28.818.8 Do you feel equipped or knowledgeable enough to deal with or monitor your child's use of technology? 81.573.4 Does your child have access to children's reading materials at home? 98.197.5 Are you encouraging your children to read and or are you reading to them? 98.196.3 Are you raising children other than your own?7.012.5 Children Issues
Individual Caring for the Children while Respondents are Working, Going to School or are Away Children Issues
Important Factors when Selecting Childcare Children Issues
Rating the Quality of Respondent's Childcare Children Issues
2006Hand Distributed Do you often need short term child care (1-4 hours)?27.441.7 Do you have a need for child care when your child is sick?14.430.3 Do you know where to go or send someone to find out about available, high quality, affordable, licenses child care? 42.949.4 Are you aware of PA’s quality improvement program for childcare, known as Keystone STARS? 18.039.3 Do you feel it is important that children attend early learning programs outside of the home? 74.486.8 Has your child had a developmental screening?54.883.3 Has your child had to deal with a separation/divorce in the family in the past 5 years? 11.522.7 Children Issues
How far Respondents travel for Childcare Children Issues
Respondents who Breastfeed their Baby Children Issues
40.5% of respondents tried to smoke cigarettes (59.5% for Hand Distribution) 32.6% of respondents have tried to quit smoke cigarettes (2004 Data) 8.5% of current smokers would like to quit smoking cigarettes (23.8% for the 2004 Assessment and 26.6% for Hand Distribution) Respondents who Smoke
81.8% take part in physical activity (74.4% for both 2004 and Hand Distribution) Respondents participated in physical activity 4.35 times per week (4.08 times for Hand Distribution) 2 hours and 29 minutes was the average time spent taking part in physical activities or exercise. This would include running, walking, gardening, lifting heavy objects, or playing in active sports. (1 hour and 23 minutes was the average time from hand distributed surveys) Diet & Exercise
Rating the Neighborhood/Community – Top 2 boxes (Excellent & Very Good) Social Services & Issues
Rating Important services to the community – Top 2 boxes (Very Important & Important) Job training/employment services Mental health services Counseling services Social Services & Issues
Frequency in which Members visit their Community Library 70.8% of respondents have a computer at home with internet access (mailed surveys) 69.5% of respondents have a computer at home with internet access (hand distributed surveys) Social Services & Issues
What Respondents usually do at the Library Social Services & Issues
2006Hand Distributed Do you have a disability?13.8 25.6 Due to any disability or health problems, do you need help with daily chores? 4.9 11.7 Do you or a member of your family need adult day care? 2.8 6.3 Do you or a member of your family need home care? 4.5 6.3 Social Services & Issues
Adult day care is…Home care is… Social Services & Issues
8.3% of respondents are the main caregiver for an older relative (8.5% for hand distributed) Frequency in which Respondent Missed Work/Activities because they care for this Person Social Services & Issues
2006Hand Distributed Do you know where to get help or send someone for help with caring for an older relative? 35.638.8 Are you the main caregiver to someone with a disability or special needs? 6.520.8 Those who are the main caregivers to someone with a disability or special needs, have had trouble paying for their care. 22.634.6 Those experiencing a problem in the last 12 months that made them consider counseling. 18.334.9 Those not going to counseling when they needed it.18.828.7 Having to stop counseling because of cost.10.915.9 Do you know where to go or send someone for mental health or crisis counseling? 48.767.2 Are you a member of the labor union?12.58.8 Social Services & Issues
2006Hand Distributed Know someone who has an STD4.312.6 Have you or someone you know been tested positive for HIV/AIDS? 3.55.2 Do you know where to go for testing or treatment for a STD? 34.247.4 Do you know where to go to get testing or treatment for HIV? 31.737.8 Sexually Transmitted Diseases: Services
Services used in the last 2 years *multiple response Government Assistance
Expenses Household Respondents have fallen behind or not been able to pay for… *multiple response Household Expenses
2006Hand Distributed Do you know where to go or send someone to get emergency help with food, shelter or paying bills? 40.261.8 In the past 2 years, was there a time you had trouble finding a place to live that was affordable? 3.317.8 Do you know where to go for help if you can’t pay for your rent or mortgage, or if you are facing eviction? 22.435.7 Have you or someone in your household ever been incarcerated? 4.313.5 Services/Incarceration
*multiple response Belief respondent was treated unfairly because…2006Hand Distributed Age19.313.1 How you look13.59.0 Sex/gender12.87.4 Income level12.017.2 Education level8.03.3 Beliefs5.34.9 Other5.06.6 Marital status3.85.7 Disability3.510.7 Religion3.53.3 Color2.51.6 Political affiliation2.51.6 Ethnic/Social group1.82.5 Race1.50.8 Sexual orientation1.32.5 Mental illness1.37.4 National origin1.00.0 Substance abuse0.50.8 Other traits1.31.6 Discrimination Issues
Rate how the community provides for people with disabilities or special needs What is the most important service to provide? (On a scale of 1-7, where 1=Most Important and 7=Least Important) Social Services & Issues
Q. If commuter bus services were added to Cranberry from central Butler, how often would you use this service? Q. If commuter bus services were added to Cranberry or central Butler to Pittsburgh, would you use the service?
How do you find out about news or events in your community? *Multiple responses Community Information
Top Responses (Multiple Responses)2006 % Top Responses (Multiple Responses) Hand Distributed % Primary Care10.4Primary Care15.3 Rheumatologist9.3Ophthalmologist10.5 Ophthalmologist8.7Pediatrician7.3 Allergist6.9ENT6.5 OB/GYN6.2OB/GYN6.5 Cardiologist5.3Gastroenterologist6.5 ENT5.0Psychiatrist5.6 Other4.3Allergist4.8 Orthopedist4.0Neurologist4.8 Oncologist3.9Proctologist3.2 Endocrinologist3.9Endocrinologist3.2 Neurologist3.9Geriatrician3.2 Specialty Physicians 10.5% of respondents are looking for a certain doctor not available locally (14.0% for 2004 and 16.7% for hand distribution)
Age *Respondents had to be 18 years of age or older to receive a survey Demographics
Demographics: Height & Weight Average height of female respondents is 4.9 feet and 4.4 inches (5.0 feet and 4.5 inches for Hand Distribution) Average weight of female respondents is 159 pounds (166 pounds for Hand Distribution) Average height of male respondents is 5.2 feet and 6.4 inches (5.2 feet and 6.3 inches for Hand Distribution) Average weight of male respondents is 197 pounds (202 pounds for Hand Distribution) Females Males
Demographics Mailed: Average number of people living in the household is 2.5 Hand Distributed: Average number of people living in the household is 3.3
The Highest Education Level Finished Demographics
School District Where Respondents Live Demographics
School District Respondents Graduated From Demographics
College or University Respondents Graduated from… Demographics
Length of Time Respondents Lived in Butler County Demographics
Employment Position *multiple response Demographics
Caucasian African American American Indian/Alaska Native Asian Asian Indian Hispanic/Latino Hawaiian/Pacific Islander Other ** Race *Multiple responses ** In the 2004 data, this category also included Spanish as a race selection Demographics
Senior Focus Group The focus group was conducted on Wednesday, July 19, 2006 at the Butler Tanglewood Senior Center 17 participants ranging in age from 64 to 88 Group included 5 males and 12 females All were Caucasians 1 senior was single, 8 were married, 1 was divorced/separated, and 7 are widowed 2 seniors had some high school education, 6 had a high school diploma/GED, 3 had vocational/trade school education, 3 had some college education (no degree), 2 had their college degree, and 1 senior had their graduate degree
Senior Focus Group Priority Issues 1.) Transportation Current transportation is inadequate in the area. The current system needs additional routes/lines, more flexible hours, and better utilization of the bus itself. One common problem with public transportation is the lack of drop off and pick up points (routes). The transportation program needs to be run more efficiently especially with rising gas prices. Use smaller buses or use van shuttles. With this notion you can add additional routes for its citizens.
Senior Focus Group Priority Issues 2.) Access to Healthcare Prescription medication is too costly for most seniors to afford. Especially those on a fixed/limited income. Obtaining health services is difficult due to health insurance restrictions. There needs to be universal acceptance of healthcare coverage at all medical facilities. Medicare is inadequate. There are too many restrictions. Dissemination of healthcare information and the rules to use healthcare coverage is also difficult for many seniors to understand. The language is complicated and confusing.
Senior Focus Group Priority Issues 3.) Preventive Care Preventive care information is lacking in the public. Ways to address health problems and issues are to promote healthy living lifestyles. Unhealthy living habits leads to poor health. Better dissemination and better communication of information amongst the senior population.
Senior Focus Group Priority Issues 4.) Access to Elected Officials The senior population (who tends to be active in the community) is unaware of what happens due to the poor dissemination of information that is produced publicly. There needs to be a public forum/platform to discuss and voice concerns and opinions from seniors and others in the community. The need of public voting records on how public officials vote. Overall lack of trust of public officials. Better access to public officials.
Youth Focus Group Focus group conducted on Wednesday August 2 at the YMCA 6 kids participated ranging in age from 12 to 16 including 1 6 th grader, 1 7 th grader, 3 8 th graders, and 1 Junior Group included 5 males and 1 female all white/caucasian Kids represented Butler, Mars, and Seneca Valley school districts
Youth Focus Group Priority Issues 1.) Smoking and Drug Use Cigarettes are gateway drug starting in 7 th and 8 th grade, progress to marijuana, and then drugs like heroine and cocaine Participants stated that approximately 4 out of every 10 students tries drugs with approx. 50% continuing to use drugs after trying them Hot spots for drugs include the “Island” near the Lyndora hotel, Father Marinara skate park, and the “Viadox” (sp?) Students do drugs because there is a perception of it being the “cool” thing to do so you can fit in, in various social groups
Youth Focus Group Priority Issues 2.) Kids doing illegal things/Crime Fights, bullying, stealing, vandalism, destruction of public property Fights/violence seems to be the number one issue. Participants mentioned the Tanglewood parking lot, YMCA, and schools as locations where fights occur and are scheduled Mentioned the Easy Stop as a site for theft Emily Britton school as a popular location to use paint or pellet guns to shoot cars Theft of street signs and destruction of school restrooms
Youth Focus Group Priority Issues 3.) Racism Large divide between White and African American kids in schools resulting in violence. Participants stated “African American kids are separating themselves through music, saggy clothes, and gangs”. White kids who are “trying to fit in with African American kids are acting Black”. Racism is occurring in both directions.
Youth Focus Group Priority Issues 4.) Kids aren’t trying hard in school It’s not cool to do well and be perceived as a “geek” or “nerd”. Participants stated approximately 6 students out of 10 are legitimately putting forth their best efforts in school. Participants feel that most kids do not realize the benefits of doing well in school and are more interested in having fun with friends.
Youth Focus Group Priority Issues 5.) Sex Perception that it’s not cool to be a virgin. Participants stated most kids start experimenting sexually in 7 th and 8 th grade. Participants estimate 7 out of 10 students are experimenting in sexual activity. Hot spots include parent’s house when parents aren’t home, and large scale house parties.
Demographics 29% Male, 71% Female 93% White/Caucasian, and 7% Other 35% Executive/Managerial, 35% Administrative Support, 12% Professional, 4% Sales, 4% Service, 4% Industrial Board Associations: Chamber of Commerce, Historic Harmony, Rails to Trails, CDC Environmental, Conservation District, City of Butler, Keystone Development Center, PA Economic Development Association
Community StrengthMean Score Promotes positive relations among people from all races, genders, ages, and cultures. 1.75 Actively supports and strengthens connections between families, neighborhoods, and the whole community 1.91 Actively promotes participation in the political process from all races, genders, ages and cultures 1.96 Exists a great deal of mutual respect among leaders from all sectors of the community 2.00 Leaders from all sectors come together and work productively to address issues2.04 Leaders from all sectors share common goals and uphold a common vision2.17 All religious groups come together to address pressing social concerns2.21 People and organizations from all geographic regions get together to address mutual concerns 2.30 Associations in neighborhoods from various parts of the community share strategies and work together 2.33 Community Strengths Rate on a scale of 1 to 4 where 1 is Strongly Agree and 4 is Strongly Disagree
Economic IssuesMeanHealth IssuesMean Lack of Jobs3.00Alcohol/Drug Abuse3.04 Unemployment or underemployment2.77Affordable Medical Care2.67 Poverty2.36Mental Illness/Emotional Issues2.36 Educational IssuesMeanHIV/AIDS1.78 Overcrowded classrooms2.12Housing IssuesMean Unsafe school environment2.08Shortage of affordable housing2.04 Illiteracy2.00Substandard housing1.92 Environmental IssuesMeanOvercrowded housing1.67 Water or air pollution2.00Social IssuesMean Noise or other pollution1.92Family violence, abuse of children or adults 2.44 Safety IssuesMeanLack of affordable childcare2.25 Crime2.36Teen pregnancy2.16 Gangs1.48Racial or ethnic discrimination1.88 Community Challenges and Issues Rate each issue on a scale of 1 to 4 where 1 is Not an Issue and 4 is a Major Issue
Leisure Activity IssuesMean Shortage of recreational facilities (swimming pools, etc.) 2.42 Lack of cultural activities (concerts, museums, etc.)2.35 Transportation IssuesMean Inadequate public transportation2.44 Poor road and/or traffic conditions2.35 Community Challenges and Issues Rate each issue on a scale of 1 to 4 where 1 is Not an Issue and 4 is a Major Issue
Most Serious IssuePercentage Alcohol and/or Drug Abuse42% Lack of jobs16% Family violence, abuse of children or adults11% Inadequate public transportation11% Second Most Serious IssuePercentage Alcohol and/or Drug Abuse21.1% Family violence, abuse of children or adults21.1% Shortage of recreational facilities16% Third Most Serious IssuePercentage Lack of affordable childcare19% Lack of affordable medical care13% Mental illness or emotional issues13% Community Priority Issues Which of the above issues do you believe is the most serious, second most serious, and third most serious issue in our community?
Business Survey * The average business provided 592 volunteer hours last year.
Business Survey 58% of businesses allow time off for volunteer work 22% offer employee assistance programs 5% offer child care services 53% provide meeting space to community groups 33% make materials and equipment available such as duplicating machines or computers 63% have employees with specific skills available to help community groups 50% reach out to purchase goods and services from enterprises in lower income areas. 54% reach out to hire people from distressed neighborhoods
Currently Leading or Participating Would like to Lead or Participate in Preparing people for jobs35%7% Increasing availability of and access to jobs28%7% Fostering Entrepreneurship23%14% Promoting economic development in distressed areas30%7% Promoting commercial revitalization in lower income areas21%5% Fostering commercial real estate improvement in lower income neighborhoods 16%2% Expanding business and industrial development in distressed areas21%0% Promoting educational reform21%12% Promoting good health54%5% Increasing affordable housing and home ownership16%5% Promoting youth development49%7% Increasing availability of recreation opportunities33%7% Business Survey
Currently Leading or Participating Would like to Lead or Participate in Promoting Arts and Culture30%12% Increasing neighborhood safety28%5% Fostering racial harmony23%7% Promoting volunteering58%7% Fostering community networks40%7% Connecting neighbors who need help with those who can help40%2% Building neighborhood trust33%2% Improving access to transportation14%7% Beautifying community renewal30%5% Designing a plan for community renewal14%7% Business Survey
Faith Based Survey * The average faith based group provided 4,000 volunteer hours last year.
Faith Based Survey 100% provide meeting space to community groups 35% make materials and equipment available such as duplicating machines or computers 30% may provide shelter in a disaster or emergency 88% may provide volunteers in a disaster or emergency 21% may provide professional services in a disaster or emergency 50% may provide supplies in a disaster or emergency –54% provide food- 29% sanitation/cleaning –54% water- 25% health/safety supplies –8% building supplies- 8% furniture/appliances 17% may provide equipment in a disaster or emergency 46% may provide transportation in a disaster or emergency (21% vans, 4% buses, 38% other) 9% reach out to purchase goods and services from enterprises in low income areas
Currently Leading or Participating Would like to Lead or Participate in Preparing people for jobs0% Increasing availability of and access to jobs4%0% Fostering Entrepreneurship0% Promoting economic development in distressed areas0% Promoting commercial revitalization in lower income areas4%0% Fostering commercial real estate improvement in lower income neighborhoods 0% Expanding business and industrial development in distressed areas0% Promoting educational reform0%4% Promoting good health13%4% Increasing affordable housing and home ownership4%0% Promoting youth development63%0% Increasing availability of recreation opportunities13%8% Faith Based Survey
Currently Leading or Participating Would like to Lead or Participate in Promoting Arts and Culture8%4% Increasing neighborhood safety0%4% Fostering racial harmony4%0% Promoting volunteering25%0% Fostering community networks17%4% Connecting neighbors who need help with those who can help25%4% Building neighborhood trust13% Improving access to transportation0% Beautifying community renewal4%8% Designing a plan for community renewal0%13% Faith Based Survey
People Using Services and Programs Last YearMean Number of People Children (under 13 years old)131 Youth (14-19 years old)41 Adults (20-64)286 Seniors (Ages 65 and older)107
Sources: American Heart Association American Lung Association Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Health Resources and Services Administration Healthy People 2010 Pennsylvania Department of Health Pennsylvania Uniform Crime Reporting System Pennsylvania Youth Survey Report 2005 Regional Economic Information System, Bureau of Economic Analysis US Census Bureau
Age-Adjusted Death Rates for Coronary Heart Disease, Stroke, Lung & Breast Cancer for White & Black Females United States: 2003* Source: Data on chart obtained from CDC/NCHS and NHLBI. * Preliminary
2002 Top Cancer Sites (Death Rates in Both Males and Females)