2 The Work of Judith Butler Butler draws on a very wide range of different theorists (Hegel, Freud, de Beauvoir, Althusser, Foucault, Derrida)Her style is very dense and allusive and can be hard to followIf you are interested in finding out more about her, read her most famous work Gender Trouble (1990), and perhaps Sara Salih’s guide Judith Butler (2002)
3 Three important ideas from Butler: Gender is not something we are automatically born with, it is something we continually “perform”This means that we have to stop thinking of gender as a “natural” categoryBut subversion of the gender order is possible
4 We tend to think of gender as natural: When babies are born, one of the first things we want to know is “boy or girl?”Whenever we fill in any kind of form, one of the first questions we’re asked is “male or female?”As we grow up, we become very skilled at telling men from women
5 J.L. Austin and Speech Act Theory When we speak, we don’t just describe the world around us or convey ideas to each other.What we actually do is perform acts that bring about changes in the world.So when a vicar says “I now pronounce you man and wife” he is actually joining two people together legally.
6 Butler argues that in a similar way we continually perform gender: “Gender is the repeated stylization of the body, a set of repeated acts within a highly rigid regulatory framework that congeal over time to produce the appearance of substance, of a natural sort of being.”
7 Performing Femininity: “The fact is many men are simply repulsed by excessive hair on women. And it’s obvious why – hairiness is a masculine trait and most blokes like their women to be feminine.” The Metro 26/10/05
8 Let’s just think about that … It is true that men are, on average, naturally hairier than women on many parts of their body (e.g. chin, chest, legs)However, all women naturally have quite a lot of underarm hair, and some hair on their legsAnd culturally we expect women to have more hair on their heads then menSo is it naturally true that “hairiness is a masculine trait”, or is it a complex cultural ideal that we all put a lot of time and money into upholding?And why do people get so upset when someone doesn’t uphold it?
9 Some other ways in which we might perform gender every day: Go to different toiletsPresent our faces differentlyWear different clothesHave different hobbiesPrefer different coloursHave different namesDo different things with our natural body hairEmploy different body languageFancy different peopleHave different hair cutsUse language differently (?)
10 Performance versus Performativity People sometimes think that Butler is saying that gender is simply a matter of performance – with the implication that I could wake up tomorrow and decide to be a manWhat she is actually saying is that it is a matter of performativity – something that we often perform unconsciously, and which we don’t have a completely free choice aboutWe cannot exist outside the terms of gender
11 “gender proves to be performative – that is, constituting the identity it is purported to be. In this sense, gender is always a doing, though not a doing by a subject who might be said to pre-exist the deed”(Gender Trouble: p. 25)
12 “Wig in a Box” (from the film ‘’Hedwig and the Angry Inch’) I put on some make-up And turn up the eight-track I'm pulling the wig Down from the shelf Suddenly I'm Miss Farrah Fawcett From TV Until I wake up And turn back to myselfI put on some make-up Turn up the eight-track I'm pulling the wig Down from the shelf Suddenly I'm this punk rock star Of stage and screen And I ain't never I'm never turning back
13 “the subject” is not stable We construct our own identities through our actions every dayThe social world in which we live defines heterosexuality as “normal”We define ourselves in relation to others (so male against female)The social world sees sex as a binary opposition – you are either male or female
14 But is sex really binary? “If you ask experts at medical centers how often a child is born so noticeably atypical in terms of genitalia that a specialist in sex differentiation is called in, the number comes out to about 1 in 1500 to 1 in 2000 births. But a lot more people than that are born with subtler forms of sex anatomy variations, some of which won’t show up until later in life. “ (Alice Dreger)
15 Can gender be subverted? It can be argued, that by defining itself in opposition to homosexuality, heterosexuality actually calls homosexuality into beingBy acting outside of gender norms, individuals can call into question the “naturalness” of genderAnd some parodic gender performances highlight the disjunction between the body of the performer and the gender being performed (particularly “drag”)
16 But not all drag is subversive: (some is “high het entertainment”!)
17 So the final message:“If the inner truth of gender is a fabrication and if a true gender is a fantasy instituted and inscribed on the surface of bodies, then it seems that genders can be neither true nor false, but are only produced as the truth effects of a discourse of primary and stable identity” (Gender Trouble: 136)
18 Which means that:We need to stop thinking that “man” and “woman” are natural categoriesLinguistic studies that seek to show how “men” and “women” use language are fundamentally flawedInstead, we need to think about how people perform their identities through language
Your consent to our cookies if you continue to use this website.