Natural Increase Birth Rate - Death Rate = Natural Increase Africa’s birth rates remain high, while death rates have dropped dramatically. At an average 2.3% growth rate annually, Africa’s population will double in 30 years.
Western Influences 1.Better access to health care increases life expectancy. 2.Reductions in maternal mortality allows mothers to continue having babies. 3.Increased infant survival through better newborn care, immunizations, etc. 4.Columbian Exchange- introduction of American crops diversified the African diet.
Cultural Values 1.Ancestor Worship- many children help ensure the immortality of one’s lineage. 2.Polygyny- the practice of multiple wives. 3.Personal prestige for women comes through child bearing. 4.Children are viewed as a retirement account, because they take care of parents in old age.
Household Economics 1.Wealth flows from child to parent; children are workers on the family farm. 2.Stoop Labor- agriculture performed by hand, therefore more hands means less work. 3.Bride Price- compensation of a bride’s family by the groom’s family for the loss of a worker.
Status of Women 1.Women are in charge of producing most of the food for the family. 2.Every African woman wants children for cultural & economic reasons. 3.Too early, too many, too close, too late. 4.An elementary education for women tends to lower birthrates. 5.Urbanization also lowers birthrates.
HIV/AIDS Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) –In Africa HIV is spread primarily by heterosexual contact. Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) –AIDS is a gradual deterioration of the immune system caused by HIV.
2007 Total: 33 million (30 – 36 million) Western & Central Europe 730 000 [580 000 – 1.0 million] Middle East & North Africa 380 000 [280 000 – 510 000] Sub-Saharan Africa 22.0 million [20.5 – 23.6 million] Eastern Europe & Central Asia 1.5 million [1.1 – 1.9 million] South & South-East Asia 4.2 million [3.5 – 5.3 million] Oceania 74 000 [66 000 – 93 000] North America 1.2 million [760 000 – 2.0 million] Latin America 1.7 million [1.5 – 2.1 million] East Asia 740 000 [480 000 – 1.1 million] Caribbean 230 000 [210 000 – 270 000] People Living with HIV
A Global View of HIV http://www.msnbc.msn.com/id/34048658/ns/health-aids/t/global-view-aids-epidemic/#.TwNpUkeBpQM
HIV/AIDS 1.Areas that have experienced war & civil unrest have a higher occurrence of AIDS. 2.Drugs to treat the disease are very expensive. 3.Funerals in Africa are important events. People are away from work in the fields to attend funerals of family members. 4.Education & breaking the cycle AIDS follows is the key to stopping its spread.
Impact of AIDS on Families 1.The cycle begins when the husband contracts the disease from a prostitute & eventually dies. 2.The wife gets the disease from her husband. But the time from exposure to death is shorter for women. 3.The children are sent to live with other family members, usually grandparents. 4.When the grandparents die, it often leaves the oldest child as head of the household. 5.Crime & prostitution can become a problem for young people desperate to support their family. The cycle then repeats itself.