Background ●Born in 165 CE in Caesarea (Algeria) to an equestrian family. ●Highly educated. ●Affluent lawyer. ●Gained prefect of the Praetorian Guard under Caracalla. ●Stories rumor Macrinus murdered Caracalla on a visit to the Temple of Luna ●Macrinus claims the throne several days after Caracalla’s death ●Dies 218 CE at 53
Impact Gained reputation with senate for reforming Caracalla’s tax policies and pardoning political exiles. Assault by Parthian’s cost Rome 200,000,000 sesterces to negotiate peace. Revalued Roman currency by increasing purity of silver. Seen as weak by his army because of his reluctance to engage in warfare. Unpopular among the commonwealth for never visiting Rome after taking power.
Downfall Exiles Juila Severan o She begins plotting to put another of her kin in power. o Creates cult claiming her grandchild, Elagabalus, is the true heir of Caracalla Elagabalus creates a Coup d'état and overthrows Macrinus, who is deserted by his own troops. o Macrinus escapes but is captured and ultimately executed, along with his son.
Background Born: 203 CE Died:222 CE (18) Takes power at age of 14. Married five times throughout his reign. Some legions quickly regret the overthrow of Macrinus. Believed to have sexual relationships with the men within his court. Rumored to have been a prostitute in the Imperial palace.
Impact Gives out powerful and lucrative political positions to friends and family. o Senators believe his appointments are not worth of their positions, causing irritation. Devalues currency by decreasing silver denarius purity from 56% to 46.5%. o Eliminates antoninianus from currency Mother attempts to control the empire from behind the throne, but Elagabalus remains indepentent.
Downfall Sexual orientation provoked the Praetorian Guard. Popularity wanes throughout the years. o Grandmother wants him replaced by her other daughter’s son. Elagabalus elects Alexander Severus as heir and shared the consulship o Elagabalus fears a coup as he notices the Praetorian Guard likes his cousin better. Attempts to take Alexander’s life but fails. Strips Alexander of all his titles and powers
Downfall Continued Elagabalus threatens to kill anyone siding with Alexander As a result, the Praetorian Guard attacks Elagabalus and his mother, ultimately killing them.
Background Born: 208 CE Died: 235 CE (26) Grandchild of the powerful Julia Masea Successful military conquest in Persia during the Persian War Educated in christian doctrines by Origen, a famous father of the Catholic Church. Unsuccessful Germanic Wars
Impact Devalues currency further by reducing silver purity in coinage to 46.5% to 43%. o Later revalues it up to 45% and again to 50.5% Tax reforms caused lighter taxation Institutes loan offices, carrying a high interest rate. Desired a temple to Jesus, but is swayed otherwise by the pagan priest Campaign in Persia hard fought, but ultimately a victory Weakened military is not successful in driving back Germanic tribes from invading his Roman Empire.
Downfall Unsuccessful attempts to drive off Germanic tribes causes Alexander to look weak in the eyes of his military. Attempts to pay off these tribes, further ruining his reputation as a strong leader. Alexander’s army begins to revolt and slowly falls apart Alexander and his mother are assassinated during a meeting with his general to secure the throne for Maximinus, the next emperor of Rome.