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Roman Empire and Christianity. Review 44 BCE: Julius Caesar killed 31 BCE: Battle of Actium: Octavian beats Marc Antony 27 BCE: Octavian given title “Augustus”

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Presentation on theme: "Roman Empire and Christianity. Review 44 BCE: Julius Caesar killed 31 BCE: Battle of Actium: Octavian beats Marc Antony 27 BCE: Octavian given title “Augustus”"— Presentation transcript:

1 Roman Empire and Christianity

2 Review 44 BCE: Julius Caesar killed 31 BCE: Battle of Actium: Octavian beats Marc Antony 27 BCE: Octavian given title “Augustus” – Becomes first Emperor of Rome – Lasts until 14 CE

3 Hebrews Nation of Israel Conquered by Assyrians, then Persians (Cyrus the Great) then by Alexander the Great, then the Romans King Herod: king of Israel

4 Different groups living in Israel Sadducees – Go with rule of the Romans, need to get back to worshiping God – Literal view of Torah Pharisees – Same as Sadducees politically – Figurative view of Torah Essenes – Literal view of Torah – Get away from cities, live chaste life Zealots – Violent overthrow of Romans, independent Israel

5 Jesus H. Christ Born 1 CE (different calendar back then) Began missionary work around Judea Claimed to be Messiah (chosen one)

6 Jesus’ Message Jesus is son of God, promised Savior of the world (“Christ” Greek for savior) Fulfilling the prophesies of Old Testament Love God and one another – “Love your neighbor as yourself” – “Eye for an eye” Forgiveness Refused Sadducees, Pharisees, Essenes, and Zealots

7 Death of Jesus People thought he might be a revolutionary Crucified him, “Passion of the Christ” (30 CE) According to Bible, rose after 3 days

8 Spreading Word of God 12 apostles: spread word of Jesus throughout Judea Simon Peter: leader of the Apostles Paul: Pharisee converted to Christianity – Roman citizen, spread message of Jesus to other parts of Empire – Gentile: non Jew

9 Spread of Christianity Very inclusive religion: everyone equal Appealed to poor, slaves, and non-Romans – Everyone equal in eyes of God Promise of good afterlife

10 Destruction of Temple Zealots and Sadducees unite to defy Rome 70 AD: Temple of Jerusalem destroyed Emperor Trajan

11 Persecution of Christians Nero blamed Christians for great fire in Rome Christians did not pray to the Roman Emperor Or any other gods (could not be truly loyal) Fed to lions!

12 Spread of Christianity Despite persecution, Christianity spreads throughout empire As it spread, the movement became more powerful

13 Emperor Constantine Had vision, painted crosses on army shields Won Battle of Milvian Bridge Edict of Milan (314 CE): legalized Christianity Established new Capital, Constantinople

14 Constantinople: Co-Emperors

15 Two Capitols: West: Rome – Gaul, Spain, Britain, North Africa East: Constantinople – Greece, Syria, Egypt, Middle East

16 Theodosius I Makes Christianity official religion of the Empire

17 Decline and Fall of Roman Empire

18 After 5 Good Emperors Period of Decline and unrest CE: 22 Emperors, all meeting violent deaths

19 One example Elagabulus: ruled for 4 years ( CE) – Started dressing in women’s clothing and dressing like a prostitute – Tried to find doctors to change his sex (most likely a transexual) – Tried to start a new religion (he was the god) – Murdered by body guard

20 3 rd Century Crisis ( CE) 3 different Emperors trying to become full Emperor

21 Diocletian Wins 3 rd century crisis Reforms for Empire – Splits Empire into 4 districts – Price restrictions – Made all jobs hereditary

22 Constantine Continues reforms of Diocletian Legalizes Christianity (314 CE) Establishes new Capitol (Constantinople

23 Split of the Empire At first for administration, later two countries

24 Attila the Hun ( AD) Huns: nomadic group from Central Asia Pushed the Germanic groups into Roman Empire Eventually, started invading Western Roman Empire “Scourge of God”

25 “Barbarian” Invasions Groups living outside of Empire want to move into Empire Germanic groups moving into Gaul and Balkans (north of Greece)

26 Germans used in legions Not enough Roman soldiers, German mercenaries used instead

27 Alaric I Germanic general in Roman Army Leads army in and sacks Rome (410 CE)

28 Romulus Augustus Last Roman Emperor in West 476 CE: Deposed by Odoacer (German general) named King of Italy

29 Western Roman Empire Falls East remains Germanic Kingdoms established

30 Byzantine Empire Eastern Roman Empire Christian Empire Lasts another 1,000 years (1453) Not quite as powerful as the Roman Empire


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