Presentation on theme: "Chapter 7. Eli Whitney an American inventor best known for inventing the cotton gin. Despite the social and economic impact of his invention, Whitney."— Presentation transcript:
Eli Whitney an American inventor best known for inventing the cotton gin. Despite the social and economic impact of his invention, Whitney lost many profits in legal battles over patent infringement for the cotton gin. Thereafter, he turned his attention into securing contracts with the government in the manufacture of muskets for the newly formed continental army. He continued making arms and inventing until his death in 1825.
Eli Whitney has often been incorrectly credited with inventing the idea of interchangeable parts, which he championed for years as a maker of muskets; however, the idea predated Whitney, and Whitney's role in it was one of promotion and popularizing, not invention. Successful implementation of the idea eluded Whitney, but it finally happened near the end of his life, occurring first in others' armories.
Mass production – production of goods in large quantities. Industrial Revolution – massive change in social and economic organizations resulting from the replacement of hand tools by machines and the development of large scale industrial production.
Between 1750-1850 Great Britain provided the legal and cultural foundations that enabled entrepreneurs to pioneer the industrial revolution. The introduction of steam power fuelled primarily by coal, wider utilization of water wheels and powered machinery (mainly in textile manufacturing) underpinned the dramatic increases in production capacity.
Employers could pay a child less than an adult even though their productivity was comparable; there was no need for strength to operate an industrial machine, and since the industrial system was completely new there were no experienced adult laborers. In England and Scotland in 1788, two-thirds of the workers in 143 water-powered cotton mills were described as children.
Many children were forced to work in relatively bad conditions for much lower pay than their elders, 10-20% of an adult male's wage. Children as young as four were employed. Beatings and long hours were common, with some child coal miners working from 4 am until 5 pm. Conditions were dangerous, with some children killed when they dozed off and fell into the path of the carts, while others died from gas explosions. [ Many children developed lung cancer and other diseases and died before the age of 25.
Workhouses would sell orphans and abandoned children as "pauper apprentices", working without wages for board and lodging. Those who ran away would be whipped and returned to their masters, with some masters shackling them to prevent escape. Children employed as mule scavengers by cotton mills would crawl under machinery to pick up cotton, working 14 hours a day, six days a week. Some lost hands or limbs, others were crushed under the machines, and some were decapitated. Children employed at were regularly burned and blinded, and those working at potteries were vulnerable to poisonous clay dust.
New England Depended on shipping and foreign trade Agriculture not very profitable Textile factories Samuel Slater (a British immigrant) owned first successful mechanized textile factory in America. Francis Cabot Lowell, Nathan Appleton, & Patrick Tracy Jackson built a weaving factory in Massachusetts.
Northern Agriculture Livestock or crops North becomes increasingly self-sufficient Not a big demand for slaves Southern Agriculture Cotton gin Long staple (long fiber), grown along coastal areas (S. Carolina, Georgia) Short staple (short fiber), grown only in interior regions
In 1815, James Madison presented his plan to unite the northern and southern economies. Establish a protective tariff Resurrect the national bank Sponsor the development of transportation systems, as well as other internal improvements. Henry Clay (Speaker of the House) and John C. Calhoun fully support Madison’s plan, which they called the “ American System.”
Tariff of 1816 Promote Americans to buy domestic goods Tariff placed on imports, which increased the cost of foreign goods. Second National Bank Currency will be accepted nationwide In 1816, Congress approved a charter for the new national bank. 20 years
National Road (1811) Experiment in building highways First major highway built by federal government By 1838 it extended from Cumberland, Maryland to Vandalia, Illinois. 621.4 miles long
Erie Canal 363 miles long “Big Ditch” Building started in 1816 and was completed by 1825 Connects Hudson River to Lake Erie (Atlantic Ocean to Great Lakes)
Gibbons v. Ogden Aaron Ogden (steamboat operator, licensed by Fulton and Livingston, who were given a charter to run steamboats in the state of New York.) He ran his steamboat from New York to New Jersey, believing he was the only operator entitled to do so. Thomas Gibbons began to run a similar steamboat line. Ogden believed Gibbons was in violation. Supreme Court ruled that interstate commerce could be regulated only by the federal government.
Strengthening government economic control McCulloch v. Maryland (1819) Maryland levied a heavy tax on the local branch of the Bank of the United States, hoping to tax it out of business. Chief Justice John Marshall denied Maryland to tax the bank.
Limiting State Power Fletcher v. Peck (1810) Court nullified a Georgia law that violated individuals’ constitutional right to enter into contracts. Dartmouth College v. Woodward (1819) Court declared the state of New Hampshire could not revise the original charter it had granted to the college’s trustees in colonial times, because a charter was a contract, and the Constitution did not permit states to interfere with contracts.
John Quincy Adams Secretary of State Established foreign policy guided by nationalism. Believed nation interests and national unity should be placed ahead of regional concerns. Foreign affairs should be guided by national self-interest.
Territory and Boundaries Expansion Treaty with Great Britain to reduce the Great Lakes fleets of both countries to only a few military vessels. Rush-Bagot Treaty (1817) U.S. and Canada completely demilitarize their border. Convention of 1818 U.S. and Britain will jointly occupy the Oregon Territory. Spanish Florida (Adams-Onis Treaty) Don Luis de Onis (Spanish minister to the U.S.) hands over the remainder of Florida to the U.S.
Born in Virginia in 1758 Fought with Continental Army Elected United States Senator Helped negotiate the Louisiana Purchase. Elected President in 1816 and served from 1817 to 1825. Era of Good Feelings
Past problems with Europe led the US to declare the Americas off-limits to Europe. The Monroe Doctrine asserted that the Western Hemisphere was not to be further colonized by European countries but that the United States would neither interfere with existing European colonies nor meddle in the internal concerns of European countries. The Doctrine was issued at a time when many Latin American countries were on the verge of becoming independent from the Spanish Empire and the United States, reflecting concerns raised by Great Britain, hoping to avoid having any European power take over Spain's colonies. Monroe Doctrine US will stay out of European affairs No European Colonization in the Americas
Pro-slavery v. Anti-slavery Prohibited slavery in the former Louisiana Territory north of the parallel 36°30′ north except within the boundaries of the proposed state of Missouri. To balance the number of "slave states" and "free states," the northern region of what was then Massachusetts was admitted into the United States as a free state to become Maine. South of the dividing line slavery was legal. North of the line (except on Missouri), slavery was banned. Signed in 1820 by President Monroe
261 131 There were 261 total electoral votes and Jackson needed 131 to win the electoral vote and the election.
Henry ClayJohn Adams Adams PresidentHenry Clay gives his support to John Adams and the House of Representatives chooses Adams as the President. AdamsHenry Clay Secretary of StateTwo weeks later, Adams appoints Henry Clay as his Secretary of State…. Corrupt Bargain.Jackson cries out corruption and calls this the “Corrupt Bargain.” The Corrupt Bargain
Jacksonians withdrew from the Republican Party and formed the Democratic Republican Party ( today’s Democratic Party ). For the next four years, Jacksonians did whatever they could to sabotage Adam’s policies.
Jackson and J. Q. Adams ran against each other for the presidency One anti-Jackson newspaper declared, “General Jackson’s mother was a common prostitute, brought to this country by the British soldiers! She, afterwards married a mulatto man with whom she had several children, of which one was Andrew Jackson.” Anti-Adams people accused him of hiring a servant girl for a visiting Russian ambassador… Adams was accused of gambling in the White House. Jackson’s wife was called an adulteress As a result of this, Jackson’s wife Rachel, died of a heart attack just before he became President…He blamed Adams and Clay and never forgave them…..
Emotional, arrogant and passionate. Dueled---could drink, smoke, curse and fight with the best of them. Lawyer, Judge, senator, general and finally President. First president from the West (Tennessee)
Defeated the Creeks at Horseshoe Bend in 1814. Defeated the British at New Orleans in 1815. Took Florida and claimed it for the US in 1819. Loved by his soldiers called him “Old Hickory”
Spoils system A system of government in which leaders of the incoming government throws out the appointees of the previous government and replaces them with their own appointees.
Five civilized tribes Cherokee Choctaw Seminole Creek Chickasaw These tribes were on valuable land, which was wanted by planters and miners. Indian Removal At 1830 Negotiate treaties to move the Native Americans out west. 90 treaties were signed
VP John C. Calhoun calls the 1828 Tariff a Tariff of Abominations. South Carolina nullified a new federal tariff and threatened to secede from the Union in 1832. Nullification Theory is a legal theory that a state has the right to nullify, or invalidate, any federal law which that state has deemed unconstitutional. The theory of nullification has never been legally upheld; rather, the Supreme Court has rejected it.
Bank of the United States (BUS) located in Philadelphia. Jackson veto's bill to recharter the BUS. 2 ND BUS charter not to expire until 1836 Henry Clay and Daniel Webster want to renew charter early.
Jackson and his allies made sure that people thought the BUS was a privileged institution that served to “make the rich richer and the potent more powerful.” BUS stockholders earned interest from deposits made instead of the average American taxpayer. Bank president Nicholas Biddle gave lower loan rates to congressman than average Americans. Pet Banks State banks Jackson wanted to withdraw government deposits and move them to pet banks. In 1836, BUS becomes Philadelphia bank after charter expires; 5 years later it was officially closed.
Opponents referred to him as King Andrew because used the veto more than any president to that time….. 12 times Opponents referred to him as King Andrew because used the veto more than any president to that time….. 12 times Used the veto for personal revenge against his enemies… Used the veto for personal revenge against his enemies… Opposed increasing federal spending and the national debt. Eliminated U.S. Debt
Whigs Created by Henry Clay and Daniel Webster Against “King Andrew” Originally formed in Britain to limit royal power.
Martin Van Buren Democrats choice for office As president, Van Buren had to confront the consequences of Jackson’s economic policies, which resulted in bank closings, bankrupt businesses, and widespread unemployment. Panic of 1837 Bank closings and collapse of the credit system. Many lost their savings Van Buren loses the election of 1840 to Whig candidate, William Henry Harrison
William Henry Harrison 1 month in office Died from pneumonia John Tyler VP for WHH Becomes president Opposes Whig program Was put on ballot to gain Southern support, but no one thought he would be president. “His Accidency”