Presentation on theme: "The Protestant Reformation. Catholic Theology 101 ÁWay to Heaven: Good Works (“Salvation is only possible through the Church”) Sacraments ÁProper."— Presentation transcript:
Catholic Theology 101 ÁWay to Heaven: Good Works (“Salvation is only possible through the Church”) Sacraments ÁProper Form & Function of Clergy: Celibate clergy in hierarchy of popes, cardinals, bishops, & priests; exclusive right to administer sacraments & interpret scripture ÁUltimate Authority: Pope ÁEucharist transubstantiation ÁLook of the Church/Mass: Mass in Latin Elaborate rituals & highly decorated churches ÁScope of Church: World wide (Catholic = universal)
R. H. Bainton The Reformation of the 16c Thus, the papacy emerged as something between an Italian city-state and European power, without forgetting at the same time the claim to be the vice- regent of Christ. The Pope often could not make up his mind whether he was the successor of Peter or of Caesar. Such vacillation had much to do with the rise and success of the Protestant Reformation.
Desiderius Erasmus Colloquia familiaria (1514)...as if the Church had any enemies as pestilential as impious pontiffs who by their silence allow Christ to be forgotten, enchain [him] by their mercenary rules…and crucify him afresh by their scandalous life…As to these Supreme Pontiffs, who take the place of Christ, were wisdom to descend on them, it would inconvenience them!...It would lose them all that wealth and honor, all those possessions, triumphal progresses, offices, dispensations, tributes and indulgences… ÁThe Colloquia sold 24,000 copies the 1 st year it was printed!!!
The Selling of Indulgences “As soon as gold in the basin rings, right then the soul to Heaven springs!”
The Ninety-Five Theses (Oct. 31, 1517) Truth or Fiction? The Legend of Luther Lego Luther w/ 95 Theses
Luther’s Main Ideas: ÁSalvation by FAITH alone ÁBIBLE is sole religious authority ÁPriesthood of all believers ÁConsubstantiation Jesus present in Eucharist bread & wine change inside person’s body ÁRejected clerical celibacy ÁOnly 2 sacraments baptism & communion ÁChristians must obey secular rulers
The Empire of Charles V Charles V was committed to maintaining the power & unity of Catholicism
The Diet of Worms (1521) Unless I am convinced by Scripture and plain reason…my conscience is captive to the Word of God. I cannot and I will not recant anything, for to go against conscience is neither right nor safe. Here I stand. I cannot do otherwise. God help me. Amen.
Lutheranism ÁWay to Heaven: Faith ÁClergy: Priesthood of all believers ÁUltimate Authority: Bible ÁScope of Church: All people w/ faith against forcing people to convert National church ruler held authority over church except in matters of faith ÁEucharist consubstantiation ÁRules of the church: Vernacular liturgy reading Bible, preaching & singing Ministers allowed to marry Simpler church no statues of saints
Zwinglianism ÁWay to Heaven: Faith ÁClergy: Theocracy (religious leaders also control government) ÁUltimate Authority: Bible ÁScope of Church: Zwingli attempted to build a league of Protestant evangelical cities failed to convince German leaders to join ÁEucharist only a symbolic act (memorial) ÁRules of the church: Relics & religious images abolished white-washed churches New liturgy of Scripture reading, prayer & sermons Music eliminated all remnants of Catholicism abolished
Calvinism ÁWay to Heaven: Predestination God decides who will be saved or damned ÁClergy: Theocracy each town had theocracy run by elders Ministers trained; est. schools ÁUltimate Authority: Bible ÁScope of Church: Worldwide Scope try to find the other elect (saved) ÁRules of the church: Ministers in black suits No altars, stained-glass windows, music, statues, etc. Strict rules & laws for followers punished w/ whippings, burnings & exile Protestant work ethic the “calling”, hard work, saving, & frugality Cleanliness next to Godliness clean towns, beggars, poor prohibited
Henry’s Children: 1510 Daughter - died 1511 Son - died 1513 Son - died 1514 Son - died 1516 Mary - survived 1518 Daughter - died 1533 Elizabeth - survived 1534 Son - died 1535 unknown - died 1536 Son - died 1537 Edward - survived Edward VI Mary I [28 years old] Queen Elizabeth I j
Anglicanism (Church of England) ÁWay to Heaven: Good works ÁClergy: Church Hierarchy similar to Catholic Church except King is head ÁUltimate Authority: King ÁScope of Church: All of England & English controlled territories ÁRules of the church: Little change from Catholicism while Henry was alive Became more Protestant under King Edward VI & Archbishop Cranmer clergy can marry, elimination of images & revised Protestant liturgy under Book of Common Prayer
The Radical Reformation The Radical Reformation
The Anabaptists Dutch persecution of Anabaptists (Mennonites) Started in Zurich, Switzerland & spread throughout Germany, Poland & Netherlands
The Anabaptists ÁWay to Heaven: Faith ÁClergy: Ministers help explain scripture & provide moral guidance ÁUltimate Authority: Bible (Adhered to accounts of early Christian communities in New Testament) ÁScope of Church: Small Communities of believers No one should be forced to accept Bible ÁRules of the church: Adult Baptism Complete separation b/t church & state Refused to hold political office or bear arms Rejected theological speculation for simple Christian living
The Catholic Response: The Catholic (Counter) Reformation The Catholic Response: The Catholic (Counter) Reformation
Goals of the Catholic Reformation: Revive the best features of Medieval Catholicism New mysticism Regeneration of old religious orders New religious orders created Reform the Catholic Church Reconcile w/ the Protestant movement?
St. Teresa of Avila (1515-1582): ÁGianlorenzo Bernini ÁThe Ecstasy of St. Theresa (1645-53)
Ignatius of Loyola (1491-1556) & the Jesuits (Society of Jesus)
Final Decrees of Council of Trent: Reaffirmed traditional Catholic teachings in opposition to Protestant beliefs: Salvation is gained by both faith & good works Only church could interpret Scripture Upheld 7 sacraments, transubstantiation & clerical celibacy Affirmed belief in purgatory & principle of indulgences Prohibited abuse in the selling of indulgences Est. theological seminaries to train priests Church’s 2 weapons in its battle against Protestantism Roman Inquisition (Holy Office) Index of Banned Books
The Impact of the Reformation The Impact of the Reformation
Political & Economic Effects: Most of No. Europe adopted Protestantism Unity of Western Christianity was shattered Protestant spirit of individualism encouraged development of democracy, science & capitalism Protestantism (esp. Lutheranism) justified nationalism by making church subordinate to the state in all but theological matters
Social Effects: New view of the family Changes in women’s roles: Obedient wife & bearer of children Left few alternatives for women o Destroyed monasticism; career as nun unavailable o Condemned prostitution; career as prostitute unavailable o Couldn’t take active role as religious reformers o Mothers no longer controlled families’ religious life Changes in education Protestants focused on humanistic methods of education Est. public schools – not just for wealthy or elite
Inside a Catholic & Protestant Church – Differences? 18 th c. Baroque Catholic Church (Ottobeuren, Bavaria) 17 th c. Calvinist Church (Palatinate)