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Presentation on theme: "THE VICTORIAN AGE: A GOLDEN AGE OR AN AGE OF MISERY?"— Presentation transcript:


2 “A perfect wilderness of foulness” Why were towns so unhealthy?
'Dudley Street, Seven Dials', 1872; showing a Victorian slum in the City of Westminster, London. Broadwater School History Department

3 Urbanization During the Industrial Revolution

4 Why Look at the Social Impact?
Industrialization brought about profound changes in the societies of Europe, the USA and the rest of the world Not all changes were beneficial! State of living conditions for ordinary people has been the subject of much debate amongst historians (social history) options/notes/eu2.htm

5 Cities Grow and Change Before Industrial Age most cities served trade, political, military, religious functions In industrial city, new functions arose centered around manufacturing, distributing goods Industrial city needed factories, workforce, reliable transportation, warehouses, stores, offices The Industrial City Lowell, Massachusetts, one of first industrial cities Textile factories there employed young women from surrounding countryside Chicago’s meat-packing industries lured workers there Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, attracted workers to the steel industry Industrial Cities

Industrial revolution: the industrial revolution started with the introduction of capitalism. Technological advances: introduction of steam hammers, locomotives… Economical progress: Britain was the first economical power in the world till 1901, as the Usa became the leader, but it remained the first in manufacturing.

7 1820 Writers spoke about the “machine age” with a positive tone
BUT ON THE OTHER HAND it implied a high social and environmental cost.

8 Negative Aspects of the Victorian Age:
Pollution in the towns due to factory activity: in fact life in the countryside was much healthier. Hygienic conditions (cities were too densely populated, most people lived in miserable conditions; most houses shared water supplies) Epidemics (cholera,typhoid), with a consistant increase of death in the cities.

9 “A perfect wilderness of foulness” Why were towns so unhealthy?
Industrial - to do with how people make things Yards - an enclosed courtyard Privy - a toilet Night soil - toilet waste Epidemic - a disease that is spreading out of control Cholera - an disease of the intestine, causing diarrhoea and vomiting and then death within 48 hours Tuberculosis - a lung disease that prevents you breathing Typhus - a killer disease caught from flea and lice bites Broadwater School History Department

10 Living Conditions Population Growth
Statistics show that from 1760 to 1820 there was little improvement in living conditions Population growth meant: Oversupply of workers Low wages Rising food prices Growing numbers of people in poverty So the IR actually lowered living conditions at first Unemployed Rail Workers - London

11 List all the threats to public health p140

12 Was the countryside any safer?

13 Prior to the nineteenth century, cities were a drain on the rural economy
After the nineteenth century, they became centers of industrial output New factories of industry attracted huge numbers of people to cities Britain: 1850: 60% of the population lived in rural areas 1900: 75% lived in cities, 20% of total population in London 1900: 30 million lived in cities Manchester: : to Urbanization © UK Rail, 2003,

14 Urbanization Urbanization- the movement of people into the cities from the country In 1800, London was England’s only city with more than 100,000 By 1850, 5 out of 10 English people lived in country ,when in 1750, 8 out 10 people lived in the country. By 1914: 80% of the British population lived in cities 60% of the German population lived in cities 50% of the American population lived in cities 45% of the French population lived in cities

15 Crowded British Cities
Workers Laying Pipes, Hampstead Heath, London Ford Maddox Brown, Manchester City Art Gallery,peart/Victorian/brownwork A London Slum, by Gustav Dore

16 Lively, fast-paced cities
Constant stream of pedestrians, electric streetcars, horse-drawn carriages all competed for space on streets Merchants shouted prices from doorways Construction crews constantly at work on banks, office buildings, homes Health concerns Health of many residents suffered due to high population density Smoky air from coal running steam engines and warming homes London had problem with smoke combined with fog, term smog coined 1873 smog episode caused 268 deaths



19 Industrial Staffordshire

20 Urban Life

21 Effects of Urbanization
As people began to move into cities they started to marry younger Children could increase a family’s income by working in factories Because of this, people started having more children to work for the family

22 “A perfect wilderness of foulness” Why were towns so unhealthy?
What peoples’ houses were like Houses often shared a privy Houses had no running water Houses were built back to back Most houses did not have sewers Houses were built close to factories Houses were built of the cheapest materials Some rooms did not have any light or ventilation Sometimes a whole family lived in a cellar or a single room Broadwater School History Department

23 Housing The growth of cities was so rapid that there was not enough housing available Building codes were not common Building materials used was the cheapest a builder could find. Houses were built close together in rows Fire was always a constant danger Workers would gather in damp, cold, unsanitary rooms The poor had only a basement or an out house to live in and the orphans and the unemployed lived on the streets. Because of the poor living conditions diseases like typhoid, measles and cholera spread very quickly.


25 Housing cont’d. None of these homes were built with a bathroom, toilet, or running water Toilets would have been nothing more than cesspits. When these were filled they had to be emptied and what was collected was loaded onto a cart before being dumped in a local river. This contributed to the different diseases. A block in the city would have 40 houses and would only have 6 toilets for all persons. About 9 people lived in one house so there were 6 toilets for about 360 people. Because of the poor housing, bad working conditions and diseases, the life expectancy for city dwellers was much shorter at about 17 years.


27 Housing Cont. Workers lived in apartment style buildings provided by mill owners Many of these complexes were built back to back with a common wall and were dismal and overcrowded Water was only available for an hour a day at a pipe far from their homes Sometimes as many as 40 families shared a toilet or outhouse There was no street lighting and smoke from the coal burning furnaces and covered everything with gray soot.


29 Housing Continued Houses were built back-to-back in the newer mining towns along narrow alleys or around enclosed courtyards which could be accessed through a tunnel. Most tenements did not have running water and relied on water carriers who sold water by the pail Lack of ventilation intensified the stench of garbage and excrement Those who could not afford or find a room lived in cellars or courtyards


31 Housing Statistics In 1850 Manchester cellars house 15,000 people
Liverpool had 39,000 people living in 7,800 cellars Also in Liverpool about 86,000 inhabited the 2,400 courtyards that were there In Lille, France 15,000 people shared 3,000 cellars with damp, leaky walls.


33 Housing Statistics A working class family in London often lived in a single room with one bed sleeping from 3 to 8 people Sheets if any were changed at most 3 times a year The room would be crammed with bits of furniture and the tools and materials used by the father and mother in their trade It was impossible to sweep or dust Cracks in the doors and walls would be stuffed with rags There would be a heavy smell from an open drain

34 Worker Housing in Manchester


36 In 1842 in a city a person was only expected to live about 17 years.
In 1842 a farmer in a rural area was going to live about 38 years. In 1842 in a city a person was only expected to live about 17 years.

37 “A perfect wilderness of foulness”
'Dudley Street, Seven Dials', 1872; showing a Victorian slum in the City of Westminster, London.

38 Factory Workers at Home

39 The New Industrial City

40 Housing Primary Source
“Shepherd’s Buildings comprise two rows of houses with a street of seven yards wide between them. Each row consists of two lines of houses back-to-back…There is one outside toilet for each row…Each house contains two rooms, a common room, and a bedroom above it; each room is three yards square. In a typical house there are nine people belonging to the same family, and the mother about to give birth to a tenth. There are 44 houses in the two rows and 22 cellars all the same size.”


42 Excerpt from Charles Dickens’ “Hard Times”
“It was a town of red brick, or of brick that would have been red if the smoke and the ashes allowed it; but as matters stood, it was a town of unnatural red and black like the painted face of a savage. It was a town of machinery and tall chimneys, out of which interminable serpents of smoke trailed themselves forever and ever, and never got uncoiled. It had a black canal in it, and a river that ran purple with ill smelling dye, and vast piles of buildings full of windows where there was a rattling and trembling all day long, and where the piston of the steam engine worked monotonously up and down like the head of an elephant in a state of melancholy madness. It contained several large streets, all very like one another, and many small streets still more like one another, and inhabited by people equally like one another, who all went in and out at the same hours…”


44 The Life of the New Urban Poor: A Dickensian Nightmare!

45 Conditions in Manchester
. . . Here, as in most of the working-men's quarters of Manchester, the pork-raisers rent the courts and build pig-pens in them. In almost every court one or even several such pens may be found, into which the inhabitants of the court throw all refuse and offal, whence the swine grow fat; and the atmosphere, confined on all four sides, is utterly corrupted by putrefying animal and vegetable substances.... Such is the Old Town of Manchester, and on re-reading my description, I am forced to admit that instead of being exaggerated, it is far from black enough to convey a true impression of the filth, ruin, and uninhabitableness, the defiance of all considerations of cleanliness, ventilation, and health which characterise the construction of this single district, containing at least twenty to thirty thousand inhabitants. And such a district exists in the heart of the second city of England, the first manufacturing city of the world. If any one wishes to see in how little space a human being can move, how little air - and such air! - he can breathe, how little of civilisation he may share and yet live, it is only necessary to travel hither. From Friedrich Engels, The Condition of the Working-Class in England in 1844


47 Desire to Go Back in Time
It was this sort of nostalgia for a rapidly disappearing rural past which led William Morris to found the Society for the Preservation of Ancient Buildings, and led him, as well, to begin his The Earthly Paradise with the following lines: Forget six counties overhung with smoke, Forget the snorting steam and piston stroke, Forget the spreading of the hideous town; Think rather of the pack-horse on the down, And dream of London, small, and white, and clean, The clear Thames bordered by its gardens green While nigh the thronged wharf Geoffrey Chaucer's pen Moves over bills of lading. . .

48 Poverty Studies estimate that between one third to one half of men lived in poverty, but poverty affected women more as the men drank away the money in the pubs. A nurse who knew the London poor said that, “many a man gave his wife a small sum and expected that she ought to be able to feed four children, dress them and herself, and pay rent.”

49 Private Charities: Soup Kitchens

50 Poverty Primary Source
An official report on the death of a woman living in one room with her husband and son, shows the suffering of those living in slums. “She lay dead beside her son upon a heap of feathers which were scattered over her naked body, there being neither sheet nor coverlet. The feathers stuck so fast over the whole body that the physician could not examine the body until it was cleansed. Even then he found it starved and scarred from bites of vermin. Part of the floor of the room was torn up and the hole used by the family as a privy (toilet).”



53 Young carers, c. 1890

54 Private Charities: The “Lady Bountifuls”

55 The cartoons The first cartoon appeared in Cartoons were used to emphasise the importance of industry during the Victorian Age.

56 CITY SMOG Because of the industry in the cities, their pollution caused city smog “As a child I found the fanlights a bit depressing because the world outside was so dark.” Called “London fog” The Smoke, another nickname for London, was also a great industrial city in its own right. Even the rain, at times, was black, while smuts could fall from a clear sky if the wind were right.

57 Smog… As early as 1814, a German traveler reported that in Manchester, “…there is no sun and no dusk. Here there is always a dense cloud of smoke to cover the sun while the light rain turns the dust into paste…” In 1842, an official report said…”The rainwater is frequently like ink.”

58 London through the haze

59 Romanticized Version of London’s Smog by the Impressionist painter Monet

60 Smog Smog — a deadly mix of fog and smoke otherwise known as a “London Particular” or a “Pea-Souper”---because it was a strange yellowy green color and almost as opaque as pea soup. The deaths of over a thousand people in the last great smog led to the Clean Air Act of 1952, and the unintended end of blackened buildings. Most of the stained glass has gone as well, along with tiled porches and fireplaces.



63 London aka The Smoke by Monet

64 Darkness, Smog, and a Little Light in Victorian Cities
Even the rain, at times, was black, while smuts could fall from a clear sky if the wind were right. The great Victorian public buildings were unimaginably blackened. St Paul's, built of fine pale stone from quarries overlooking the sea on Portland Bill, was black as coal throughout Queen Victoria's reign. Side streets were gas-lit. If lit is not too strong a word for the faint pools of light around each lamp post. At dusk a lamp lighter ran from post to post carrying a long pole with a flame and a hook on top; the hook opened the tap, the flame lit the jet

65 The “Great Stink” This expression is used to describe the terrible smell in London, coming from the Thames. The “Miasmas”, exhalations from decaying matter, poisoned the air.

66 “A perfect wilderness of foulness” Why were towns so unhealthy?
Reasons why there was poor water supply and sewage Town Councils did not think it was their job to make sure that houses had piped water and to clean up the sewage, because it cost money. Town councils had no powers to force houses to be built with proper water supply, drains and sewage. Builders did not think it was their job to make sure that houses had piped water because they cost money. Nobody knew about the connection between dirt and disease. Broadwater School History Department

67 Infrastructure 1848-1849: 6,000 people died from cholera
Infrastructure rarely kept up with rapid growth Some well-intentioned improvements actually made things worse E.g. the ‘Great Stink’ of 1847: Parliament closed for a week Introduction of Water Closets s causes cesspits to overflow into the Thames Thames only source of drinking water for Londoners : 6,000 people died from cholera Early flush toilet Houses of Parliament in the Smog: (Monet)

68 Henry Mayhew was an investigative journalist who wrote a series of articles for the Morning Chronicle about the way the poor of London lived and worked. In an article published on 24th September 1849 he described a London Street with a tidal ditch running through it, into which drains and sewers emptied. The ditch contained the only water the people in the street had to drink, and it was ‘the colour of strong green tea’, in fact it was ‘more like watery mud than muddy water’. This is the report he gave: ‘As we gazed in horror at it, we saw drains and sewers emptying their filthy contents into it; we saw a whole tier of doorless privies in the open road, common to men and women built over it; we heard bucket after bucket of filth splash into it’ (2). Mayhew’s articles were later published in a book called London Labour and the London Poor and in the introduction he wrote: ‘…the condition of a class of people whose misery, ignorance, and vice, amidst all the immense wealth and great knowledge of “the first city in the world”, is, to say the very least, a national disgrace to us’ (3).

69 Sanitation cont’d. The people had no way to get fresh air, the cities had no parks or other grounds were the people could go. A housing row would be badly drained, the streets filled with holes and stagnant water and would be filled with dead cats and dogs.

70 Sanitation cont’d. The Victorian poor were known as “the Great Unwashed”; this was because there was little water available in the poorer areas of London. There was barely enough to cook with, so they went without washing Drainage was not introduced in London until 1865. Until then, water from sinks and makeshift toilets ran down old sewers into the Thames or drained into huge cesspools under houses.


72 Edwin Chadwick: Report on the sanitary conditions of the laboring population
Chadwick was asked by the government to draw up a report on living conditions in Britain's towns and cities. This official report, 'The Sanitary Conditions of the Labouring Population,' published in 1842 was of great importance in terms of forcing change. In it, Chadwick made a link between poverty, squalor and disease. As a result the body 'the health of Towns Association' was formed which pressured Parliament into making changes. These came some 6 years later in 1848 as a newly elected Liberal Government accepted some of Chadwick's proposals and implemented the First Public Health Act.: Based upon his studies, he proposed: Ridding the city of open sewers and exposed rotting corpses Pointed out the issues of the polluted air and overcrowded housing

73 From Chadwick's Sanitary Report
“The cottages in the neighbourhood were of the most wretched kind, mere hovels, built of rough stones and covered with ragged thatch. The wife's face was dirty, and her tangled hair hung over her eyes. Her cap was ill washed and slovenly put on. Her whole dress was very untidy, and looked dirty and slatternly; everything about her seemed wretched and neglected and she seemed very discontented. She immediately began to complain of her house. The wet came in at the door of the only room, and when it rained, through every part of the roof also: large drops fell on her as she lay in her bed: in short she had found it impossible to keep things in order, so she had gradually ceased to make any exertions. Her condition had been borne down by the conditions of the house. “

74 Edwin Chadwick Unfortunately many people found Chadwick rather rude and he often provoked opposition. In 1854 he was forced to retire. This letter was sent to 'The Times' to explain why he was unpopular. ' We prefer to take our chance with cholera than be bullied into health. There is nothing a man hates so much as being cleansed against his will or having his floor swept, his hall whitewashed, his dung heaps cleared away and his thatch forced to give way to slate. It is a fact that many people have died from a good washing.'

75 Polluted Rivers “At the bottom flows, or rather stagnates, the Irk, a narrow, coal black, foul smelling stream, full of debris and refuse, which it deposits on the shallower right bank. In dry weather, a long string of the most disgusting, blackish green, slime pools are left standing on this bank, from the depths of which bubbles of miasmatic gas constantly arise and give forth a stench unendurable even on the bridge forty or fifty feet above the surface of the stream….Above the bridge are tanneries, bonemills, and gasworks, from which all drains and refuse find their way into the Irk, which receives further the contents of all the neighboring sewers and privies.” Engels


77 Polluted Rivers Cont’d.
Industrial poisons were dumped into the rivers such as: chlorine, coal tar, mercury, lead, sulphuric acid, copper sulfate, and tannic acid Joined with dead human and animal bodies, human waste, and garbage that turned the rivers into gray-black slimes where only algae could grow Fish were driven from the waterways


79 Polluted Thames London’s drains carried sewage and germs straight into the river – 200 sewers emptied into the river Raw sewage could be seen coming out of stand pipes into the streets of London and out of kitchen taps and the houses of the rich the water healthy “brown color” The river water was used for cooking, washing clothes, and drinking In the summer of 1858, the blinds of the House of Parliament had to be soaked in chloride of lime so that the MPs could meet without choking on the smell

80 Lack of Proper Sewers A correspondent of the Times illustrates exactly how bad the drainage system was in one part of London: “. . . the main sewer, from Coventry-street to Pantonstreet, is more than two feet above the level of the basement floor, consequently the houses on both sides of the street are below the drainage.” This statement enables the reader to imagine houses in which the basements were permanently flooded with sewage water. It was up to the city to rectify such problems.


82 Polluted Thames cont. In 1847, an inspector wrote of the sewage, “the filth was lying scattered around the rooms vaults, cellers and yards so thick and so deep that it was hardly possible to move through.” Some men were given the job of clearing rubbish from the rivers and recovering dead bodies There was a reward for finding dead bodies and stripping the dead bodies of their valuables Dickens wrote in Our Mutual Friend, “has a dead body any use of money? Is it possible for a dead man to have money? Can a corpse own it? Want it? Spend it? Claim it? Miss it?”


84 Polluted Thames

85 Observations on the Filth of the Thames: Letter to the Editor of the Times of London July 7, 1855
Sir: I traversed this day by steam-boat the space between London and Hangerford Bridges between half-past one and two o’clock; it was low water, and I think the tide must have been near the turn. The appearance and smell of water forced themselves at once to my attention. The whole of the river was an opaque pale brown fluid. In order to test the degree of opacity, I tore up some white cards into pieces, moistened them so as to make them sink easily below the surface, and then dropped some of these pieces into the water at every pier that the boat came to; before they had sunk an inch below the surface they were indistinguishable, though the sun shone brightly at the time;

86 Observations on the Filth of the Thames Continued
And when the pieces fell edgeways the lower part was hidden from sight before the upper part was under water. This happened at St. Paul’s Wharf, Blackfriars Bridge, Temple Wharf, Southwark Bridge, and Hungerford; and I have no doubt would have occurred further up and down the river. Near the bridges the feculence rolled up in clouds so dense that they were visible at the surface, even in water this kind. The smell was very bad and common to the whole of the water; it was the same as that which now comes up from gully-holes in the streets; the whole river was for the time a real sewer. Having just returned from out of the country air, I was, perhaps, more affected by it than others; but I do not think I could have gone on to Lambeth or Chelsea, and I was glad to enter the streets for an atmosphere which, except near the sink-holes, I found much sweeter than that on the river.

87 Observations on the Filth of the Thames Continued
I have thought it a duty to record these facts, that they may be brought to the attention of those who exercise power or have responsibility in relation to the condition of our river, there is nothing figurative in the words I have employed, or any approach to exaggeration; they are the simple truth. If there be sufficient authority to remove a putrescent pond from the neighbourhood of a few simple dwellings, surely the river which flows for so many miles through London ought not to be allowed to become a fermenting sewer. The condition in which I saw the Thames may perhaps be considered as exceptional, but it ought to be an impossible state, instead of which I fear it is rapidly becoming the general condition. If we neglect this subject, we cannot expect to do so with impunity; nor ought we to be surprised if, ere many years are over, a hot season give us sad proof of the folly of our carelessness.” M. Faraday, Royal Institution

88 DISEASE Unsanitary conditions spread epidemics of cholera, typhoid, smallpox and typhus to spread throughout the city.

89 As early as 1808, Southey - later to become Poet Laureate - was warning of the dangers inherent in Manchester's disgraceful housing situation. Writing of the cellar dwellings which were mushrooming all over the working class areas of the city, he said: "These places are so many hotbeds of infection; and the poor in large towns are rarely or never without an infectious fever among them, a plague of their own which leaves the habitations of the rich unvisited."

90 Little Ireland, on a site now occupied by Oxford Road Station, featured cellar dwellings that lay below the level of the neighbouring River Medlock, which flooded the homes whenever it rose more tha a few inches. Venedey explains: "Little Ireland was discovered during the period of the cholera epidemic. Until then, all the inhabitants of Manchester hurried past the place and turned their gaze away. Cholera chose these dwellings of misery and came as a compassionate visitor to put an end to them. "The authorities ordered that these dwellings should be examined, emptied and cleaned. It was then that the world first discovered this hideous hole of misery. "Hundreds were evicted from these cellars. Hundreds rotted alive next to the unburied dead. And the endless pestilence that was raging there had taken such a grip that all fumigation and cleaning were useless and the decision had to be made to brick up many of these pits. When the epidemic was over, the cellars were broken open and the inhabitants allowed back. But some cellars were found to be already inhabited again. The poor wretches ... emptied every morning, through the windows, with their eating and cooking vessels, the water which had flooded in overnight from the river."


92 “A perfect wilderness of foulness” Why were towns so unhealthy?
Reasons why disease was so common Doctors did not know that germs and bacteria existed. Doctors believed in the “miasma” theory. This meant that they thought that diseases were caused by bad smells. When some doctors showed the connection between dirty drinking water and cholera, nothing was done because it would have cost money to solve the problems. Local councils did not have the powers to clean up the towns and they didn’t think is was their job. The government did not believe that it was its job to do anything about public health. Broadwater School History Department

93 How healthy were people?
Medicine & hygiene very primitive Killer diseases – pneumonia, bronchitis, diphtheria, tuberculosis, cholera & smallpox Average life expectancy 30 yrs for a British citizen....combined urban and rural 15 in every 100 children died before 1st birthday 1 in 5 mothers died Bacteria

94 The Theories on Disease
Microbes were only discovered in 1864 by Louis Pasteur---who developed the pasteurization process, and the vaccines for anthrax, rabies, and chicken cholera A common belief - and one that dated back to Medieval England – was that disease was spread by bad smells and invisible poisonous clouds (miasmas). The majority of deaths were in the industrial cities. Therefore, doctors concluded, the two went together: death and bad smells/gasses

95 Typhoid Fever Is one of those unpleasant diseases that spread when food or water becomes contaminated with human feces. Typhoid can be fatal in about 10 to 20 percent of cases. People were getting this horrible disease during the industrial revolution because they would dump their feces out the window and pour sanitation. This horrible disease was the cause of Prince Albert’s death.

96 Typhoid was discovered by a German scientist when William Budd suspected the Great Stink was not causing the disease, but something was in the water.

97 DISEASE: TYPHOID Typhoid was caused by infected water and Typhus was carried by lice---two separate diseases Caused by the bacterium Salmonella enterica serovar typhi. Transmitted by the ingestion of food or water contaminated with feces from an infected person. Symptoms- fever, sweating, gastroenteritis and diarrhea.

98 Symptoms Early symptoms include fever, general ill-feeling, and abdominal pain. A high (over 103 degrees) fever and severe diarrhea occur as the disease gets worse. Some people with typhoid fever develop a rash called "rose spots," which are small red spots on the belly and chest. Other symptoms that occur include: Abdominal tenderness Agitation Bloody stools Chills Confusion Difficulty paying attention (attention deficit) Delirium Fluctuating mood Hallucinations Nosebleeds Severe fatigue Slow, sluggish, lethargic feeling Weakness


100 Disease: Smallpox Made a major re-occurrence in industrial cities even after Edward Jenner’s vaccine. Reason- very many in the industrial cities were ignorant of the fact that Jenner had developed a vaccine. Overcrowded tenements of the cities were a perfect breeding ground for smallpox.

101 Tuberculosis---Used to be called Consumption
Is a chronic bacterial infection that has probably plagued humankind since antiquity. It can be transferred from humans and cattle. The White Death/ Pulmonary Tuberculosis became one of the greatest scourges of the industrial towns and cities in the 19th and 20th century.

102 Disease: Tuberculosis, also known as “Consumption”----The #1 KILLER
The disease caused a wasting of the body with the lungs being attacked. The lungs attempt to defend themselves by producing what are called tubercles. The disease causes these tubercles to become yellow and spongy and coughing fits causes them to be spat out by the sufferer. TB affected those who had been poorly fed and were under nourished and lived in dirty and damp conditions. TB can be spread by a person breathing in the exhaled sputum of someone who already has the disease. In the overcrowded tenements of the industrial cities, one infected person could spread the disease very easily. It is believed that TB killed 1/3 of all those who died in Britain between 1800 and 1850.

103 Symptoms of TB The primary stage of the disease usually doesn't have symptoms. When symptoms do occur, they may include: Cough (sometimes producing phlegm) Coughing up blood Excessive sweating, especially at night Fatigue Fever Unintentional weight loss Other symptoms that may occur with this disease: Breathing difficulty Chest pain Wheezing

104 In Croydon, typhoid swept through the town in 1852.
The local Board of Health went about looking for a smell that caused the disease but found nothing. In fact, sewage had seeped into the town’s water supplies and contaminated the water. It did not occur to the health officials that the water could be the cause of the disease as medical wisdom of the time dictated another cause.

105 Mary Mallon, known as Typhoid Mary, was the first healthy person in the United States to be identified as a carrier of typhoid fever. Mary worked as a cook and unknowingly infected 53 different people: three of whom died from typhoid. She became famous, partly because she was the first healthy carrier of typhoid, but mostly because she adamantly refused to admit her role in spreading the disease and would not take the necessary precautions to prevent its spread. It is now known that typhoid fever can be spread by food or water that has been handled by a carrier. Carriers are generally healthy people who have survived typhoid and have no further symptoms, but continue to have the typhoid bacteria surviving in their body. In Typhoid Mary's case, she may have actually been born with typhoid, as her mother was infected. Carriers can pass the bacteria along by poor hygiene when handling food and drink.

106 Typhoid Fever Immunization on wiseGEEK:
One is taken orally in pill form over eight to ten days. A total of four pills are taken to provide some typhoid fever protection, although protection is not 100%. The oral typhoid vaccine is a live attenuated version of Salmonella Typhi and the pill is not recommended for people who are under the age of six, or for those with any type of autoimmune disease or compromised immune system. The typhoid germs are carried on the hands to everything an infected person touches, such as food or water, and are then ingested by the next person. You should get a typhoid immunization before visiting several countries. These include Africa, Asia, and Latin America.

107 Cholera Disease: especially Cholera (caused by feces contamination of water supply) Acute infection of the intestines; death by loss of bodily fluids through vomiting and diarrhea In 1840: nearly 60% of children died before the age of five Vibrio cholerae Musee de la Medicine, Paris

108 Cholera Cholera is an extremely unpleasant and potentially fatal disease caused by the bacterium Vibrio Cholerae. Cholera is the spread when food or water becomes contaminated with fecal matter containing cholera bacteria. Cholera originated in India. It quickly spread into Asia and Russia, and eventually reached Europe. The first case of cholera in Britain was recorded in the northern port of Sunderland in October 1831. Although immediate quarantine precautions were taken, cholera had spread to London by February 1832. The disease was greatly feared by everyone because it spread very quickly and was not confined to any one social class. It could strike anyone, from the poorest to the wealthiest and the noble.

109 Disease: Cholera The cholera epidemic of struck rural as well as urban areas This took a heavy toll on the mining towns where housing conditions and sanitation were particularly bad 1,400 deaths in Berlin 6,700 deaths in London 18,600 deaths in Paris The poor people of Paris accused the authorities of poisoning them in order to reduce their swelling numbers

110 Disease: Cholera “King Cholera”
Cholera was a greatly feared disease. It was caused by contaminated water. Cholera caused violent diarrhea, vomiting, and rapid dehydration of the body Industrial Britain was hit by an outbreak of cholera in , , 1854 and 1867. They approximate 140,000 died from Cholera between all of those epidemics. Because many people used river water as their source of drinking water, the disease spread with ease. 50% of the people who caught cholera died which caused 15,000 deaths in London The disease usually affected those in poorer areas, but the rich did not escape the diseases An attack of cholera is sudden and painful though not necessarily fatal.

111 It was only in 1849, when an epidemic killed over people, that Dr. John Snow discovered that the cholera bacteria were contracted from polluted water. Robert Koch was a German Scientist. He used Pasteur's findings of the late 1860's to begin his own study into the cause of disease. Koch had the advantage of being a Doctor, so he could apply medical knowledge to his experimentation. By 1875 he had successfully identified the microbe that caused Anthrax. A link was now made between germs and diseases, which allowed for Jenner's earlier work to now be more fully understood and used. (Pasteur found the vaccine for Anthrax in 1881). Koch used this new knowledge to begin a study of the causes of blood poisoning, or septicemia.

112 King Cholera Cholera was one of the most feared infectious diseases of the Industrial age. Indeed, it is still a major killer in the Third World and in areas where sanitation is poor. Cholera first struck England in 1831, killing some 30,000 people in an outbreak lasting the best part of a year. The vast majority of these deaths were of people living in overcrowded slums with poor housing and little, if any, provision of clean water. The rate of death prompted several enquiries into the cause of the disease, including John Snow's breakthrough in the 1850's. Known as 'King Cholera' due to the way in which the disease mastered, controlled and decided the fate the people it struck on several further occasions in the 19th century. Pasteur's germ theory and the subsequent identification of the cholera germ provided the scientific evidence required to force through change, and by the turn of the century, Cholera was no longer king.

113 -Newspaper reporter in October 1831
‘a sick stomach…vomiting or purging of a liquid like rice-water…the face becomes sharp and shrunken, the eyes sink and look wild, the lips, face and …whole surface of the body a leaden, blue, purple, or black.’ -Newspaper reporter in October 1831

114 Symptoms of Cholera Abdominal cramps Dry mucus membranes or mouth
Dry skin Excessive thirst Glassy or sunken eyes Lack of tears Lethargy Low urine output Nausea Rapid dehydration Rapid pulse (heart rate) Sunken "soft spots" (fontanelles) in infants Unusual sleepiness or tiredness Vomiting Watery diarrhea that starts suddenly Diarrhea has a "fishy" odor Stool looks like water with flecks of rice in it

115 Failed Treatment for Cholera
One of the first forms of treatment for cholera was the practice of blood-letting. Many times this practice was simply ill-fated in that many patients, being so dehydrated from the disease that their blood became localized in the core of their body. One physician, a Dr. Kennedy, wrote the Times stating, “The character of venesection has been libelled in a peculiar manner. At an early period, during the process of this singular malady, the blood deserts the superficial vessels of the body, for the deep seated and internal parts even before the period has arrived in which loss of blood could be injurious, ... not a drop of that fluid can in general be procured, after the opening of both veins and arteries. In 99 cases out of 100, where patients are said to have died despite blood-letting, no blood flowed from the incised veins, or that it came away in drops, or in a small broken stream rarely exceeding a few ounces in quantity. <15>”

116 Even a great reformer like Edwin Chadwick was convinced that disease was carried in the atmosphere which had been poisoned by foul smells. In 1849, he persuaded the authorities in London to clean up the sewers in their districts. This, so Chadwick believed, would get rid of the bad smells and therefore disease. Each week an estimated 6000 cubic yards of filth was swept into the River Thames – London’s main source of water. Cholera was given a chance to spread and 30,000 Londoners got the disease in 1849 with 15,000 dying as a result.

117 Koch used this new knowledge to begin a study of the causes of blood poisoning, or septicemia.
He knew that a Microbe must be responsible for causing the spread of the disease, but at first couldn't see the microbe, even with the aid of the most powerful microscopes. Industrialization however led to the development of dyes that could be used to stain microbes. Koch created a liquid that contained just one germ, and dyed it. Through testing on mice he could show that this specific microbe, or germ, was responsible for the spread of the disease. (Koch photographed the spread of the dye, the start of the disease and it's spread to prove his theory). Koch later developed a solid culture to grow germs on. this meant that germ theory could be done much more reliably than with liquid cultures such as those by Pasteur. Koch's work led him to discover the germs that caused tuberculosis and cholera.

118 John Snow Snow's great breakthrough theory was that cholera spreads through means of an impure water supply. He outlined his ideas in an essay about the communication of cholera which was published in 1849, and awarded a prize by the Institute of France. In 1855 a second edition was published, with a much more detailed investigation into the water supply in certain districts of South London during in the epidemic of 1854. Snow was also interested in the properties of ether, then newly adopted in America as an anesthetic. He made great improvements in the method of giving patients the drug. He obtained permission to demonstrate his results in the dental out-patient room at St. George's Hospital surgery which was highly successful. Nevertheless, Snow appreciated the value of other anaesthetizing drugs, notably chloroform.


120 Cholera Primary Source
“Sir, we live in muck and filth. We ain’t got no privies, no dust bins, no water supply, and no drain or sewer in the whole place. If the Cholera comes Lord help us.” From The Times newspaper


122 The Cholera in Bradford; by October 420 deaths had occurred in the borough.
"....that dreadful scourge brought many facts before the Council to demonstrate the insufficiency of its powers in dealing with the sanitary condition of the town. The scourge in question was most destructive of life" in districts which "abounded with places presenting unmistakable evidences of the violation of the laws of health and common decency, and were the certain and prolific sources of pestilence. Notwithstanding this, the Council found their endeavours towards improvement retarded on all sides: on the one hand by the indisposition of private owners to effect any improvement" not forced on them by law;" and again, by the slow and tortuous process of the law"





127 Typhus Typhus: an acute infectious disease that is transmitted by body louse (lice). Was prevalent where there was overcrowding and poor standards of hygiene, causing horrible suffering and innumerable deaths. It is now relatively uncommon, but does still occur in parts of Asia, Africa, and Central and South Africa.

128 Typhus/Lice Typhus is a disease that we now know is spread by body lice or their infected feces. Lice live and lay their eggs in the warm clothes of humans. They do not jump, hop, or fly. If the lice sucks the blood of an infected person they will die, leaving the dead body to be picked up from someone else to catch the disease. It is possible to get the disease by sniffing in lice feces or touching the wound of a person with typhus.

129 Symptoms of Typhus Symptoms of murine typhus may include:
Abdominal pain Backache Dull red rash that begins on the middle of the body and spreads Extremely high fever ( degrees Fahrenheit), which may last up to 2 weeks Hacking, dry cough Headache Joint pain (arthralgia) Nausea Vomiting

130 Typhus and Napoleon During 1812, Napoleon marched to Russia with more than a half a million men in the summer time. By mid-September he had lost 90,000 by the time he reaches Moscow. Napoleon retreated back to France because they had no chance against Russia. Russian winter was coming and the hospitals were awful! Crowded, filthy, smelly, starving, and diseased Breeding ground for Typhus After the winter, 30,000 men died out of the 600,000 left and only 1,000 were fit for battle!

131 Typhus during Irish Potato Famine
In the ‘Great Hunger’ occurred in Ireland. Around a million people died from famine related diseases such as typhus, relapsing fever, scurvy, and dysentery. Typhus was quickly spread because of the beggars in the street. Many of the sick migrated to England and North American, but dying on the ships. Leaving them to be called ‘coffin ships’. The population of Ireland dropped from 9 million to 6.5 million.

132 “ Swords and lances, arrows, machine guns, and even high explosives have had far less power over the fates of nations than the typhus louse, the plague flea, and the yellow-fever mosquito.” - Hans Zinsser

133 There was little improvement in this dire, unhealthy milieu until the mid- to late nineteenth century when the advances of the aforementioned Industrial Revolution and the discovery of the germ theory of disease brought about public health measures that, building upon the importance of good hygiene and sanitation, culminated in the rise of the scientific era of medicine. The heroes and heroines of this age included such notable medical figures as: Edward Jenner ( ), Oliver Wendell Holmes ( ), Florence Nightingale ( ), Clara Barton ( ), Louis Pasteur ( ), Joseph Lister ( ), Robert Koch ( ). In the words of the surgeons and medical writers Nathan Hiatt and Jonathan R. Hiatt, "The industrial revolution, however, also brought a raised standard of living, with higher wages, improved nutrition, cheap soap, and inexpensive cotton clothing. Cotton clothing, unlike the louse-ridden woolens worn in the past, could be and had to be washed, thus dispossessing lice and helping to end typhus epidemics. By 1900, improved nutrition, better sanitation, and, especially, contributions from bacteriologists increased life expectancy at birth by almost six years (to age 47.3)..."

134 Florence Nightingale Florence Nightingale would challenge the ideas of Public Health within the armed forces. The Army and Navy had got used to losing more soldiers and sailors from disease than from warfare. Nightingale would change that idea

135 Florence Nightingale Returned to England in 1821
Taught at home with her older sister Mathematics Felt a ‘calling’ to help the sick and needy Stipend from father One of Florence Nightingale’s childhood homes – Lea Hurst, Derbyshire The Nightingales spent part of the year here and part of the year in Hampshire

136 Kaiserwerth A newly built German institution to help the sick

137 Florence Nightingale In 1854 the Crimean War broke out – England was at war with Russia Communications advances taught the British Public about the harsh conditions for the soldiers William Russell – The Times Public outcry – the government had to respond Florence was invited to take a group of 38 female nurses to work in hospitals in the Crimea.

138 Scutari

139 Scutari

140 Polar Area Diagram The blue wedges measured from the centre of the circle represent area for area the deaths from Preventable or Mitigable diseases, the red wedges measured from the centre the deaths from wounds, & the black wedges measured from the centre the deaths from all other causes.

141 Royal Commission, 1857 To investigate the disasters of the Crimean War. This was an independent, high-level committee appointed to look into a problem and recommend changes. Women were not allowed to be on the commission or testify so she writes and compiles facts about the war and sends it all to the commission

142 School for Nurses, 1860 Turned nursing into a respected profession with proper training for well motivated individuals Student nurses would learn: The role of Hygiene Caring for the sick Fresh air, ventilation Organisation Students would be sent to hospitals and war zones all over the world.


144 Public Health Acts In 1848, said about the city and providing clean water created a Central General Board of Health. Some of the things this did: Collected statistics and made maps of the cities Experimented with different pipes sizes and clays Led to the development Metropolitan Board of Works in 1855: Chief Engineer Joseph Bazalgette “The Sewer King” developed a plan for improving London’s drainage and waste removal Involved large trunk sewers running either side of the Thames River and carrying waste to points well below the city into the tidal estuary. With this, large pumping engines maintained the flow in these sewers Between miles of sewage pipes were laid and used over 300 million bricks

145 Public Health Acts cont.
They built great reservoirs in the upland districts to collect fresh water and then pipe it to the city centers Public bath houses for washing clothes were built and they no longer taxed soap---considered a necessity in fighting disease! Volunteer organizations distributed soap and disinfecting powder as educated women taught the lower class about the importance of washing clothes, covering food against flies, and proper nutrition of infants As a result of these measures, Cholera epidemics were eliminated Additional public health acts were passed in 1858, 1866, 1872, and 1875

146 Three key facts to show that ideas about power were changing.
“A policy of sewage” - Why did politicians pass the Public Health Act in 1875? Three key facts to show that ideas about power were changing. For most of the 19th richer people controlled Parliament. They believed in “laissez-faire”. This meant ... that they did not think it was their job to spend rich people’s money cleaning up the poorer areas of towns. Cholera epidemics changed attitudes to laissez-faire. Many town councils had to be forced to... do something about the poor state of their towns. The 1867 Reform Act gave the vote to working class men in the towns. Town councillors and politicians had to start doing things that would please to poorer voters, like improving public health.

147 Three key facts to show that fear of disease was growing by 1875.
“A policy of sewage” - Why did politicians pass the Public Health Act in 1875? Three key facts to show that fear of disease was growing by 1875. Diseases like tuberculosis and typhoid are... killing thousands of poor people every year. We are the only people with the powers to bring about improvements. Britain has been struck by a new epidemic disease called ... cholera. This is killing both the rich and to poor. Rich people want us to ... spend money cleaning up the slums where the disease comes from. Prince Albert died from ... typhoid, caught from the sewers at Windsor Castle. Britain needs a healthy workforce if ... we are to be able to compete with France and Germany.

148 1875 Public Health Act All local authorities must appoint a medical officer Local authorities must be responsible for public services like sewers, water supplies & rubbish All new houses must have piped water and proper toilets, drains & sewers

149 Crime Prostitution became a way for many women to make money.
Prostitution was called the “Great Social Evil” In 1857 there were 8,600 prostitute in London alone. Crime was a big problem because of the cities lack of an official police force.

150 Maintenance of Law and Order before 1829
Authorities had few resources to cope with riot, crime and disorder. Country parishes and smaller market towns had constables and the local watch and ward. Troops were used to keep order. Local militias were used for local problems. Spies were used to track down those who were suspected of disaffection.

151 Law and Order cont’d. Industrial Revolution put new pressures on society, leading to violence. Collective living led to collective organization and this led to large scale social disorder Robert Peel, the Home Secretary, made a large-scale reform of the penal code Peel created the first bureaucratic police force in England


153 Law and Order cont’d. Peel’s Metropolitan Police Act 1829
All of London’s police were the responsibility of one authority, which was under the direction of the Home Secretary, with its headquarters at Scotland Yard 1,000 men were recruited to supplement the existing 400 police Being a policeman became a full-time occupation Funds came from a special Parish Rate levied by the overseers of the poor Police were responsible only for the detection and prevention of crime

154 Law and Order cont’d. Police also:
Lit lamplights Called out the time Watched for fires And provided other public services The police were not immediately accepted and were often jeered at by the common people They faced battles against the Chartists in Birmingham and London and came away victorious in all. This proved their ability to handle major disorders and street riots Despite the early success of the police in the city their expansion to the suburbs was very gradual

155 Law and Order cont’d. The Municipal Corporations Act of 1835
Ordered all incorporated boroughs to set up police forces under the control of the watch committee 1839 Rural Constabulary Act Direct result of the Royal Commission on Constabulary Forces of the same year Cause some boroughs to panic and reorganize their own police forces to avoid the heavy expense of being involved with county forces.

156 Law and Order cont’d. In 1856, they created the inspector of Constabulary with the power to enforce a standard of police protection Police officers became well trained and the public began to respect them In 1868, there were only 8500 police officers in London; by 1886, there were 15,000

157 Law and Order cont’d. Provinces were slow to implement the Constabulary Act because: They saw the new police as a means of executing the new Poor Law, which was largely unpopular There was opposition to the idea of the police, as a challenge to the liberties of England The expense was deemed too great Local government inertia Difficulty in getting advice from London Lack of cooperation between the borough and the counties No provision was made until 1856 for government inspection, audit, or regulation

158 JACK THE RIPPER By Miss Boughey

159 Who was Jack the Ripper? “Jack the Ripper" is the popular name given to a serial killer who murdered several prostitutes in the East End of London in 1888. The name came from a letter written and published in the local paper by an individual claiming to be the killer. The killings took place within a mile area and involved the districts of Whitechapel, Spitalfields, Aldgate, and the City of London. He was also called the Whitechapel Murderer and "Leather Apron."

160 London in 1888 London in 1888 was a divided city.
Just like today, the West End was the wealthiest area, and the East End was much poorer. Jack the Ripper operated in the East End, for a variety of reasons. .


162 First Victim Charles Cross walked through Whitechapel just before four in the morning in August 1888. The street was dark and looked deserted. It was chilly and damp, typical for London in the summer. He saw something that looked like tarpaulin lying on the ground before the entrance to a stable. He walked closer, and saw a woman lying on her back, skirts lifted almost to her waist. He saw another man walking the same way. "Come and look over here," he asked the man, assuming that the woman was drunk or a victim of an assault. They tried to help her in the darkened street, neither saw the awful wounds that had nearly decapitated her. They fixed her skirt for modesty's sake and went to look for a policeman. Victim One Charles Cross walked through Whitechapel just before four in the morning in August The street was dark and looked deserted. It was chilly and damp, typical for London in the summer. He saw something that looked like tarpaulin lying on the ground before the entrance to a stable. He walked closer, and saw a woman lying on her back, skirts lifted almost to her waist. He saw another man walking the same way. "Come and look over here," he asked the man, assuming that the woman was drunk or a victim of an assault. They tried to help her in the darkened street, neither saw the awful wounds that had nearly decapitated her. They fixed her skirt for modesty's sake and went to look for a policeman.

163 A few minutes later, Police Constable John Neil found the body whilst walking his beat.
From the light of his lantern, he saw that blood was oozing from her throat which had been slashed from ear to ear. Her eyes were wide open. Even though her hands and wrists were cold, Neil felt warmth in her arms. The wounds to the victim’s throat had been fatal. Since parts of her body were still warm, a local doctor felt she had been dead no longer than half-hour. Her neck had been slashed twice, cutting through her windpipe. She had been killed where she was found, but there was very little blood on the ground. Most of the lost blood had soaked into her clothing. The body was taken to the local mortuary, which was part of the workhouse there. When the body was stripped, Inspector Spratling discovered that her abdomen had been mutilated. Who was the victim?

164 The Double Murder Louis Diemschutz was driving his cart to Dutfield Yard in Whitechapel on Sunday, September 30, As he did so, he saw an object on the ground near the wall of a building. He lit a match and saw it was a woman. He rushed into a nearby building and asked a man for help. When they saw that the object was a woman with a stream of blood running from her body, the two men ran screaming for a policeman. The police arrived and discovered that her neck was warm, as were the legs and face. The hands were cold. The right hand was open on the chest and smeared with blood. The left hand was lying on the ground. The face was peaceful. The mouth was slightly open. In the neck there was a long cut which started on the left side below the angle of the jaw, and almost in a direct line with it, severing the vessels on that side, cutting the windpipe completely in two, and stopping on the opposite side.

165 Why Prostitutes? In the poorer areas of the city such as Whitechapel the housing was poor. There was no sanitation and sewage ran openly through the overcrowded, maze-like streets. There was little work available for women, and no help for those women who were unemployed other than the workhouse. Many were forced to become prostitutes to survive.

166 Trapped in this Lifestyle
For many such women, their only escape from their terrible lives was drink, and they quickly became helpless alcoholics. The Whitechapel area had a large amount of Pubs and Inns to profit from the poverty and depression of the people.

167 Prostitution in those days was dependent upon the circumstances of the women.
Some worked in brothels – houses where prostitutes were employed. The other type of prostitute was more common. These were women forced to go on the streets to make ends meet. All the victims that Jack killed were these type of prostitutes.

168 There were no identifying marks on the body.
The victim was approximately five feet two inches tall with brown hair, brown eyes and several missing front teeth. As news of the murder spread around Whitechapel, the police learned of a woman named "Polly," who lived in a local lodging house. Eventually a woman from the Lambeth Workhouse identified the victim as Mary Ann Nichols, age 42. The next day her family identified the body. Polly had been a heavy drinker. Mostly, Polly had been living off her small earnings as a prostitute. Every once in awhile, she would try to get her life back together, but it never worked out. She was a sad, destitute woman, but one that most people liked and pitied. Her death upset many people. Polly Nicholls

169 Who were Jack-the-Ripper’s Victims?
It is generally agreed that the Ripper killed 5 women, but many believe the true # to be closer to 9. 1. Mary Ann (Polly) Nichols, murdered Friday, August 31, 1888. 2. Annie Chapman, murdered Saturday, September 8, 1888. 3. Elizabeth Stride, murdered Sunday, September 30, 1888. 4. Catharine Eddowes, also murdered that same date. 5. Mary Jane Kelly, murdered Friday, November 9, 1888. All 5 victims were prostitutes killed between August & November 1888. It was thought each of the victims was drunk at the time of their murders.

170 Mary Ann Nichols August 31, 1888 Incisions in the lower abdomen
Cuts in neck Dead of loss of blood.

171 Annie Chapman September 8, 1888 Sliced Throat Cuts in abdomen

172 Elizabeth Stride September 30, 1888 Throat gashed

173 Catharine Eddows September 30, 1888 Deep cut over bridge of nose.
Cut throat Mutilations Cut from the throat to an inch from the genitals Bruises, cuts, and stabbing

174 Mary Jane Kelly November 9, 1888 Abdomen and thighs was removed
Uterus, kidney and one breast under head. Other breast by foot Liver between feet Intestines on one side and spleen on other side. She was gutted

175 Possible Victims Fairy Fay, December 26, 1887
Annie Millwood, February 25, 1888 Ada Wilson, March 28, 1888 Emma Smith, April 3, 1888 Martha Tabram, August 7,1888 The White Hall Mystery, October 3, 1888 Annie Farmer, November 20, 1888 Rose Mylett, December 20, 1888 Elizabeth Jackson, June 1889 Alice Mackenize, July 17, 1889 Pinchen St. Murder, September 10, 1889 Frances Coles, February 13, 1891 Carrie Brown, April 24, 1891

176 How did the Ripper murder his victims?
He strangled them until they died or were unconscious. Autopsies of the victims support this cause of death. The Ripper then lowered his victims to the ground, their heads to his left. The victims’ throats were cut on the ground as evidenced by the blood splatter patterns (pooled beside neck & head, rather than in front if body if victim had been standing). Ripper cut the victims’ throats from left to right, suggesting he was right handed & could flee the scene blood free (blood flow would be in direction opposite the killer).

177 Why is Jack-the-Ripper so infamous?
Although not the first serial killer in history, the Ripper’s crimes are legendary for several reasons: 1. The Ripper was the first serial killer in a major city with an educated populace. Hence, his crimes were well documented by the police and the press. 2. The Ripper appeared during a time of political turmoil. 3. The Ripper terrified a city by leaving his grossly mutilated victims in plain sight. 4. Finally, the Ripper was never caught adding to the mystery.

178 Ripper’s Modus Operandi:
The Ripper mutilated his victims’ in numerous ways following the throat slashing (cutting out their internal organs, cutting their genitalia, face, extremities, etc.). There was NO forensic evidence of rape or masturbation (lack of semen fluid/stains; no physical evidence of forced vaginal/anal penetration). Note: they didn’t have DNA tests in 1888 so there still could have been sexual activity that was undetected. The Ripper took usually took a piece of the victim’s viscera (gut lining) as a memento of the murder. It should be noted that the killer had extensive knowledge of human anatomy & may have been a surgeon or butcher.

179 The Ripper Letters It is now generally agreed by experts on this case, that none of the letters thought to have been written by the Ripper were in fact actually written by him. A letter dated September 25 & received on the twenty-seventh by the Central News agency was the first to be signed "Jack the Ripper". A postcard post marked October 1st followed. Since it referred to a "double event" the police thought it might be from the killer since it was posted the day after the Ripper killed two women.

180 The police were convinced the letters were the work of a journalist.
Letters contd. The post card also referred to the letter & must have come from the same source as the letter had not been released to the public yet. If the post card had been sent on September 30, the day of the "double event", instead of October 1, the likelihood that it was really written by the murderer would be significantly greater. The police were convinced the letters were the work of a journalist.

181 Letters (contd.) One other letter was sent by the suspected killer. In mid-October, a small package was sent to the authorities. Inside this parcel was half of a human kidney that the killer claimed he had removed from the 4th victim, Catharine Eddowes. Eddowes suffered from a disease that would deform the kidneys, and the kidney looked deformed (consistent with her diagnosis). However, because DNA wasn’t available, there is no way to know for sure, if it was her kidney. In addition, even if it was Eddowes’s kidney, that wouldn’t prove Jack the Ripper himself, sent the parcel & kidney. to know for sure if the Ripper really did send it Most of the arguments in favor of it being from Jack have been based on inaccurate information and the myths rather than the facts surrounding the case. However, Eddowes did suffer from Bright's disease and the description of the kidney does match what a Bright's disease kidney would look like.

182 4 Main Suspects Michael Ostrog, a Russian doctor, and convict, who was held in a lunatic asylum as a homicidal maniac. His whereabouts at the time of the murders could never be discovered. A Mr. Druitt, was a doctor in a good family, who disappeared at the time of the Miller's Court murder, & whose body was found in the Thames on 31st December. In 1992  Michael Barrett, from Liverpool, found a diary reputedly written by James Maybrick who died in 1889.  In this diary, Maybrick confessed to being Jack the Ripper. A well known theory is that Prince Albert was the Ripper because he liked to slum it in the East End and he had the influence to cover up murders

183 Other Suspects M.J. Druitt—a barrister turned teacher committed suicide in December 1888. It was argued by the Chief Constable, Sir Melville Macnaghten, that Druitt was the main suspect in the murders. He argued that Druitt was a 41-year-old doctor who committed suicide immediately after Mary Kelly’s murder and was the most likely to kill the women. However, his theory was not supported by others and he was wrong about some of the details. Druitt was actually a 31 year-old man who killed himself a month after the Kelly murder. He was not a doctor. As of today, most researchers do not believe he committed the murders.

184 James Maybrick Seriously ill from overdose He was in a insane asylum
He had a diary that was signed Jack the Ripper.

185 Prince Albert Victor One of the most famous suspects
Had a reputation of a ladies man He suffered from syphilis that he contracted at a shore party in the West Indies. The infection drove him insane and compelled him to commit the murders.

186 Jill the Ripper Mad Midwife
London would be looking for a man so it would allow a woman to walk the streets Midwife would have anatomy knowledge

187 Walter Sickert DNA evidence on Ripper’s letter

188 Aaron Kosminski Violet Tendencies
A witness testified but it was a Jew man so no charges

189 Other Suspects Severin Klosowski (aka George Chapman), a poisoned multiple wives , was thought to be the Ripper. However, there was little support for this theory from other officers. Modern profiling rejects Klosowski as the murderer.

190 Why do the Ripper cases remain unsolved?
1. Its always hard to catch a serial killer. In the 1880’s with primitive technology & no real forensic science, even the basics of criminology (finger printing, blood typing, DNA) are unavailable to the investigators. 2. The Ripper attacked at times when the streets were largely deserted & chose victims who were usually drunk & defenseless. 3. The Ripper attacked swiftly leaving little time for him to be caught & he didn’t get much of the victim’s blood on him, thereby making him hard to detect.

191 Legacy of Jack the Ripper
Jack the Ripper was and still is, the most well-known and notorious serial killer in history. His reign of terror in the streets of East London, England was short but brutal. The case was never solved, and the murderer never identified. Over a hundred years later, his crimes have inspired books, films, songs and sadly, copycat killers across the world.

192 Despite Government Intervention, Inequalities Remained
1889, 1/3 of the population of London lived in conditions of extreme want 1901 census: 10% houses dangerously overcrowded Victorian London

193 Education, Leisure, and Arts
With the growth of cities in the 1800s, new educational opportunities developed. In addition, new sports, other leisure activities, and changes in the arts world affected society. Industrialization created need for more educated workforce Military leaders wanted officers who knew more about the world Education People supported public education to develop informed, patriotic citizens Governments passed laws requiring education for all children Support Lower class children in school only as long as law required Vocational and technical training schools offered opportunities for working class Not All Equal

194 Education, Leisure, and Arts
Education lagged behind for girls as it did for the lower classes Some countries did not require girls go beyond elementary school grades Few girls in high schools took science and math Few colleges allowed women to enroll Some educators thought women should have more opportunities, founded colleges just for women

195 Educational Improvements
More people can read and write Higher Education Universities More modern and relevant subjects taught Less RE and Classics Medical training available Scientific Specialisation Mathematics and Statistics used to aid research and understanding of spread of diseases

196 Education, Leisure, and Arts
With a more educated populace, more cities began printing newspapers. Included not only current events, but arts and sciences Weekly installments of stories to keep readers coming back Political cartoons poked fun at public figures Newspapers had specific viewpoints Readers could find one which identified with their views Expanded Coverage Innovations, linotype and electric press Improved newspaper printing process Reporting of foreign affairs improved with telegraph Journalism profession began to grow New Technology

197 Education, Leisure, and Arts
Leisure time More time to play, watch sports British football, American football, rugby developed Baseball became popular during Civil War Railroads Growth meant sports fans could travel to see teams play Allowed more families to enjoy range of activities Traveled to vacation spots Cultural activities New concert halls and theaters built by governments More orchestras, bands, choral groups evolved Public funding lowered ticket prices Art Moved from private homes Museums made great works available to all Public libraries also opened

198 Leisure Time Leisure time was expanded for the middle classes and working classes Newspapers made people interested in places and events outside of their own communities 1700’s the fine arts was available to the upper class City governments built concert halls and opera houses to hold concerts for upper class, middle class, and working class people in the city Activities such as visiting museums, libraries, and amusement parks became very popular So did sports such as rugby, soccer, archery, lawn tennis, and cricket Royal Albert Hall in London (erected in1871)

199 Leisure Time Cont. Enjoying the Fine Arts Parks and open spaces
Parties and social occasions Clubs and pubs The seaside Sports-The Victorian development of sport as individual activity and mass entertainment: — bathing (i.e. swimming), boxing, cricket, football, golf, horse racing, mountain climbing, rowing, rugby, track and field

200 Leisure Time Cont. The railway separated classes and encouraged vacation time The steam press caused an increase in consumption of pulp fiction and cheap newspapers The bicycle had a big effect on women and freed them from wearing restrictive clothing and encouraged building better roads Commercialisation of leisure by the latter quarter of the nineteenth century became an increasingly influential factor.

201 London Coffee Houses Coffee was introduced to London by Turkey.
It was brought by David Saunders in 1652 It promoted conversation, lent itself to social gatherings, and afforded opportunities for gambling People went to coffee houses not so much for the coffee but for the conversation Conversations were mostly about business or public affairs

202 The Clubs The clubs had their origin in the coffee houses, but they contributed to increase the difference between social classes. In fact only people belonging to high classes could be members of a club.

203 London Clubs Clubs were houses for the chosen few who were of common tastes and social class to meet together The clubs were very exclusive and most of the time were only open to intellectuals, nobles, and high ranking government officials Whigs would gather at St. James’s Coffee House Tories gathered at Ozinda’s Jacobites gathered at the Cocoa Tree

204 The Victorian Novel The novel was the dominant form in Victorian literature. Victorian novels seek to represent a large and comprehensive social world, with a variety of classes. Victorian novels are realistic. Major theme is the place of the individual in society, the aspiration of the hero or heroine for love or social position. The protagonist’s search for fulfillment is emblematic of the human condition. For the first time, women were major writers: the Brontes, Elizabeth Gaskell, George Eliot. The Victorian novel was a principal form of entertainment.

205 Victorian Poetry Victorian poetry developed in the context of the novel. Poets sought new ways of telling stories in verse All of the Victorian poets show the strong influence of the Romantics, but they cannot sustain the confidence the Romantics felt in the power of the imagination. Victorian poets often rewrite Romantic poems with a sense of belatedness. Dramatic monologue – the idea of creating a lyric poem in the voice of a speaker ironically distinct from the poet is the great achievement of Victorian poetry. Victorian poetry is pictorial; poets use detail to construct visual images that represent the emotion or situation the poem concerns. Conflict t between private poetic self and public social role.

206 Victorian Drama The theater was a flourishing and popular institution during the Victorian period. The popularity of theater influenced other genres. Bernard Shaw and Oscar Wilde transformed British theater with their comic masterpieces.

207 Images of the Victorian Period


209 Liverpool Liverpool is a port on the north bank of the estuary of the Mersey.

210 Liverpool cont’d. Liverpool replaced London as the principal cotton port After the formation of the Liverpool and Manchester Railway Liverpool became an important trading center The major industries were marine engineering, clothing manufacturing, and food processing They traded with the American colonies

211 Liverpool: Primary Source
“There is no town in England, London excepted, that can equal Liverpool for the fineness of the streets, the beauty of the buildings; many of the houses are all of stone and the rest are brick.” Daniel Defoe 1724

212 Liverpool: Primary Source
“Her importance is derived from her situation as a seaport; her life is purely commercial, and her wealth is derived from handling the produce of other towns and countries. Her docks are crowded with ships from all parts of the world. And the city, with its population with six-hundred-thousand souls, is one of the most prosperous in the United Kingdom.” Ida Wells 1894

213 London

214 London The city became a true capital under Edward III, who placed the royal administrative center at Westminster during his reign in the fourteenth century. London was the only British city in medieval times which was comparable in size to the great cities of Europe. The urbanization of London continued and intensified during the Industrial Revolution, and on through the nineteenth century. By 1750 one tenth of the population of England resided in London, and it was the undisputed cultural, economic, religious, educational, and political center of the nation. London was Britain's artistic and literary capital.

215 London: Primary Source
“That great foul city of London, - rattling, growling, smoking, stink – ghastly heap of fermenting brickwork, pouring out poison at every pore…” John Ruskin, 1860s “When a man is tired of London, he is tired of life; for there is in London all that life can afford.” Johnson

216 London: Primary Source
“Nothing here is natural: everything is transformed, violently changed, from the earth and man himself, to the very light and air. But the hugeness of this accumulation of man-made things takes off the attention from this deformity and this artifice; in default of a wholesome and noble beauty, there is life, teeming and grandiose.” Hippolyte Taine

217 London: Primary Source
“On a Saturday night, butchers, bakers, greengrocers, clothiers, furniture dealers, all the caterers for the wants of the populace, are open till a late hour; there are hundreds of them trading around and about, but the whole lot do not take as much money as three publicans – that is a fact ghastly enough in all conscience. Enter the public-houses, and you will see them crammed. Here are artisans and laborers drinking away the wages that ought to clothe their little ones. Here are the women squandering the money that would purchase food, for the lack of which the children are dying.” George Sims, 1889

218 Manchester

219 Manchester The transformation from a market town to a major city began in 1761 when the Duke of Bridgewater canal began to bring cheap coal to Manchester. By the end of the 18th century Manchester had established itself as the centre of the cotton industry in Lancashire. Manchester experienced a 6 times increase in population between Manchester became the obvious place to build textile factories. Large warehouses were also built to store and display the spun yarn and finished cloth. The town's population grew rapidly. With neighbouring Salford, Manchester had about 25,000 inhabitants in 1772. By 1800 the population had grown to 95,000.

220 Manchester Cont’d. Manchester is famous for its libraries. The library founded by Humphrey Chetham ( ) was the first free public library in Britain. The Liverpool & Manchester Railway was opened on 15th September, 1830. The prime minister, the Duke of Wellington, and a large number of important people attended the opening ceremony that included a procession of eight locomotives.

221 Manchester

222 Manchester Primary Source
“Manchester has no Building Act, and hence, with the exception of certain central streets,…each proprietor [owner] builds as he pleases. New cottages, with or without cellars, huddled together row behind row, may be seen springing up in many parts…A cottage row may be badly drained, the streets may be full of pits, brimful of stagnant water, the receptacle [holder] of dead cats and dogs…”

223 Manchester Primary Source cont’d.
“The number of cellar residences…is very great in all quarters of town…That it is an evil must be obvious…, for how can a whole 12 to 15 feet square admit of [let in] ventilation so as to fit it for a human habitation?...Food is dear, labor [work] is scarce, and wages…very low; consequently…disease and death are making unusual havoc [destruction]…Unpaved and badly sewered streets, narrow alleys, close, unventilated courts and cellars…exhibit their malign [evil] influence in augmenting [adding to] the suffering which that greatest of all physical evils, want of sufficient food, inflicts on young and old…”


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