Presentation on theme: "Encountering Conflict"— Presentation transcript:
1Encountering Conflict The CrucibleAt the heart of The Crucible lies ‘Ideological Conflict’. All sub-conflicts derive from adherence to ideologies, opposition/challenge to ideologies and institutional powers, the limitations of ideology and the contested state of the human condition.
2Ideas explored in The Crucible Arthur Miller explores a range of ideas associated with Encountering Conflict including:Different types of ConflictCauses of ConflictThe Consequences of Conflict
3Types of ConflictSalem is shown to be a society overwhelmed by Conflict. Including:Religious ConflictConflict with the landConflict with the American IndiansConflict between factions or groups in the community.Personal conflict between individualsInternal conflicts of individuals.
4Lets Recap!The majority of residents in Salem in 1692 were Puritans, who believed in the supreme power of God and were just as frightened of the Devil.Early Puritans came to America to escape religious persecution in England and to establish a new society in which God’s law was held supreme.They believed that the Bible and its message were above man’s law. The law was therefore based on the Puritan religious principles and was a means to salvation.The Puritans settled in New England, and it was in these new colonies that they established a close-knit community governed by absolute religious faith and strict discipline.
5The Puritans, 1692The Puritans believed in predestination—that people were either born sinful and bound to a life in Hell, or they were destined to be saved.Puritans believed in a life of hard work, self- discipline, and religious duty.Those who engaged in gossip, dancing, drunkenness, adultery, and other activities which were seen as the work of the Devil and a threat to the conformity of the community were subjected to public humiliation and punishment.
6The Puritans, 1692 Rules included: No dancing Read only the bible Surveillance and reporting of those who do not attend churchThe court tried religious casesTorture was used to extract confessionsUnity and harmony was expected.
7The Puritans, 1692As the Puritan community became so concerned with protecting their beliefs and way of life that they were quick to judge anyone who differed.“In unity still lay the best promise of safety”They refused to tolerate other views in case their own ideals were “defiled and corrupted by wrong ways and deceitful ideas”.
8The Puritans, 1692They believed they had to work to be redeemed by God and that the Devil was at work. Therefore their laws were strict with serious punishments.Puritan’s followed a strict code of conduct and those who broke this caused conflictThe witch hunts that arise cause the town to question the moral guidance of the church – Proctor claims that “God is dead” in Salem because the Devil has brought insanity upon them.
9Existing Conflict in Salem ACT 1 & 2 reveal deep seeded conflict in Salem, including:personal conflictConflicts surrounding the law and churchinternal conflicts.These existing conflicts are what causes the greater conflict of the witch hunt that is to come.
10Personal Conflicts Personal grudges exist between: Abigail and Elizabeth Proctor (caused by jealousy, revenge)Abigail and John Proctor (caused by lust, jealousy, revenge, Proctor’s guilt)John and Elizabeth Proctor (see Act 2)Parris and Putnam (over Parris’ appointment as minister. Putnam wants Parris to “move toward the abyss”. p. 23)Ann Putnam looks to blame Tituba and Rebecca for the deaths of her babies. Accuses Rebecca of murder.Mercy Lewis and Abigail don’t trust Mary WarrenProctor is unhappy with Mary Warren’s work ethic
11Personal Conflicts Personal grudges exist between: Proctor believes Parris is ungodly “I see no light of God in that man” (p. 62) and greedy (land, house, candlesticks)Proctor and Putnam have fought over landPutnam resents Rebecca and Francis Nurse for stopping his brother-in-law becoming minister and for gaining wealth and status.Parris argues with Giles over his work conditions “I cannot offer one proposition but there be a howling riot of argument”(p. 34)Giles is blamed for any trouble that brews – “no man has been blamed for so much”. He is constantly suing people “a crank and a nuisance” (p. 43).
12Community Conflicts Existing conflicts within the community: It is made clear that this is a place where disputes are common. Rebecca Nurse observes “This will set us all to arguin’ again in this society, and we thought to have peace this year!” (p. 33)There are many hidden agendas: “There are wheels within wheels in this village, and fire within fires!” (Ann Putnam, p. 33)Gossip is everywhere and is harmful “the rumour of witchcraft is all about”. p. 18There is no public way of confessing sins, so people dwell on them, resulting in accusation and hypocrisy (p.27).
13Community Conflicts Existing conflicts within the community: There is a lot of disapproval of Reverend Parris’ leadership. Parris has “fought here three long years to bend these stiff- necked people” to him. – “there is a faction that is sworn to drive me from my pulpit”. p. 19Putnam has resentment for factions within the community who stopped his brother-in-law becoming ministerPeople therefore are beginning to question the religious teachings. Abigails says “I never knew what pretence Salem way, I never knew the lying lessons I was taught”. A group has recently left Salem and made their own township – Topsfield (p. 32).
14Community Conflicts Conflicts within the community: Conflicting ideas of what is good and what is evil. Miller says of both Salem society and 1950s America that “Ours is a divided empire in which certain ideas and emotions and actions are of God, and their opposites are of Lucifer.” p. 37There are obvious scapegoats in the village – those who have little standing in society e.g. Goody Osburn (homeless and crazy) and Sarah Good.
15Causes of the current conflict There are multiple causes for the Witch-hunt:Personal grievances and revenge (the Putnams, Abigail, Hathorne, Parris)Grief and loss (Ann Putnam, Abigail)The desire for power and control (Parris, Putnam, Abigail) – fear creates unity “We must all love each other now” – Mary Warren.Fear of accusation (the afflicted girls)Fear of losing salvation and the DevilThe need to seek God’s justice (Hale)The desire to uphold the law (Danforth) – “A person is either with this court or he must be counted against it”
16Further Conflict that is created Conflict over the nature of Good and Evil: Elizabeth Proctor “I cannot think the Devil may own a woman’s soul, Mr Hale, when she keeps an upright way”. p. 66. Proctor observes that “Hell and Heaven grapple at our backs.” p. 74The true nature of individuals is revealed: “we are only what we always were, but naked now.” (Proctor, p. 75) –Questioning the justice of the court – Hale says “There is prodigious fear of the court in this country”. Danforth asks him “you surely do not doubt my justice.” (p )
17Internal Conflicts That arise John Proctor struggles over his lust for Abigail and guilt for what he has done. “The magistrate sits in your heart that judges you.” p. 55He later struggles over whether to confess or to stay true to his name and innocence.Elizabeth Proctor struggles to forgive John.In Act 3 & 4, Hale struggles to continue with the accusations when he sees that it is simply vengeance at work eventually declaring “I quit this court!” p. 105Giles– “He’ll lay in jail if I give his name!” (p. 87)Mary Warren must decide whether to tell the truth or give into the pressure from Abigail and her own fear.
18Consequences of Conflict Innocent people are killed because good people maintain their integrity – Giles, Proctor, RebeccaSocial division is increased due to the extent of arrests and hangings of innocent. “This way, unconfessed and claiming innocence, doubts are multiplied, many honest people will weep for them and our good purpose is lost in their tears.” p. 112The disappearance of Abigail and Mercy Lewis reinforce this doubt. They are now referred to as “harlots”. p Abigail becomes a prostitute?
19ConsequencesLoss of faith - Hale asks Elizabeth to lie for John “cleave to no faith when faith brings blood.” p. 115The Court tries to maintain order and control by enforcing the law, resulting in mistrust of it’s justice. Proctor tells Elizabeth “Show honour now, show a stony heart and sink them with it”. p. 125Parris loses his position and leaves.Land of some of the victims is left to ruin – their hard work is for nothing.