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Encountering Conflict The Crucible At the heart of The Crucible lies ‘Ideological Conflict’. All sub-conflicts derive from adherence to ideologies, opposition/challenge.

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Presentation on theme: "Encountering Conflict The Crucible At the heart of The Crucible lies ‘Ideological Conflict’. All sub-conflicts derive from adherence to ideologies, opposition/challenge."— Presentation transcript:

1 Encountering Conflict The Crucible At the heart of The Crucible lies ‘Ideological Conflict’. All sub-conflicts derive from adherence to ideologies, opposition/challenge to ideologies and institutional powers, the limitations of ideology and the contested state of the human condition.

2 Ideas explored in The Crucible Arthur Miller explores a range of ideas associated with Encountering Conflict including : Arthur Miller explores a range of ideas associated with Encountering Conflict including : Different types of Conflict Different types of Conflict Causes of Conflict Causes of Conflict The Consequences of Conflict The Consequences of Conflict

3 Types of Conflict Salem is shown to be a society overwhelmed by Conflict. Including: Salem is shown to be a society overwhelmed by Conflict. Including: Religious Conflict Religious Conflict Conflict with the land Conflict with the land Conflict with the American Indians Conflict with the American Indians Conflict between factions or groups in the community. Conflict between factions or groups in the community. Personal conflict between individuals Personal conflict between individuals Internal conflicts of individuals. Internal conflicts of individuals.

4 Lets Recap! The majority of residents in Salem in 1692 were Puritans, who believed in the supreme power of God and were just as frightened of the Devil. The majority of residents in Salem in 1692 were Puritans, who believed in the supreme power of God and were just as frightened of the Devil. Early Puritans came to America to escape religious persecution in England and to establish a new society in which God’s law was held supreme. Early Puritans came to America to escape religious persecution in England and to establish a new society in which God’s law was held supreme. They believed that the Bible and its message were above man’s law. The law was therefore based on the Puritan religious principles and was a means to salvation. They believed that the Bible and its message were above man’s law. The law was therefore based on the Puritan religious principles and was a means to salvation. The Puritans settled in New England, and it was in these new colonies that they established a close-knit community governed by absolute religious faith and strict discipline. The Puritans settled in New England, and it was in these new colonies that they established a close-knit community governed by absolute religious faith and strict discipline.

5 The Puritans, 1692 The Puritans believed in predestination—that people were either born sinful and bound to a life in Hell, or they were destined to be saved. The Puritans believed in predestination—that people were either born sinful and bound to a life in Hell, or they were destined to be saved. Puritans believed in a life of hard work, self- discipline, and religious duty. Puritans believed in a life of hard work, self- discipline, and religious duty. Those who engaged in gossip, dancing, drunkenness, adultery, and other activities which were seen as the work of the Devil and a threat to the conformity of the community were subjected to public humiliation and punishment. Those who engaged in gossip, dancing, drunkenness, adultery, and other activities which were seen as the work of the Devil and a threat to the conformity of the community were subjected to public humiliation and punishment.

6 The Puritans, 1692 Rules included: Rules included: No dancing No dancing Read only the bible Read only the bible Surveillance and reporting of those who do not attend church Surveillance and reporting of those who do not attend church The court tried religious cases The court tried religious cases Torture was used to extract confessions Torture was used to extract confessions Unity and harmony was expected. Unity and harmony was expected.

7 The Puritans, 1692 As the Puritan community became so concerned with protecting their beliefs and way of life that they were quick to judge anyone who differed. As the Puritan community became so concerned with protecting their beliefs and way of life that they were quick to judge anyone who differed. “ In unity still lay the best promise of safety” “ In unity still lay the best promise of safety” They refused to tolerate other views in case their own ideals were “defiled and corrupted by wrong ways and deceitful ideas”. They refused to tolerate other views in case their own ideals were “defiled and corrupted by wrong ways and deceitful ideas”.

8 The Puritans, 1692 They believed they had to work to be redeemed by God and that the Devil was at work. Therefore their laws were strict with serious punishments. They believed they had to work to be redeemed by God and that the Devil was at work. Therefore their laws were strict with serious punishments. Puritan’s followed a strict code of conduct and those who broke this caused conflict Puritan’s followed a strict code of conduct and those who broke this caused conflict The witch hunts that arise cause the town to question the moral guidance of the church – Proctor claims that “God is dead” in Salem because the Devil has brought insanity upon them. The witch hunts that arise cause the town to question the moral guidance of the church – Proctor claims that “God is dead” in Salem because the Devil has brought insanity upon them.

9 Existing Conflict in Salem ACT 1 & 2 reveal deep seeded conflict in Salem, including: ACT 1 & 2 reveal deep seeded conflict in Salem, including: personal conflict personal conflict Conflicts surrounding the law and church Conflicts surrounding the law and church internal conflicts. internal conflicts. These existing conflicts are what causes the greater conflict of the witch hunt that is to come. These existing conflicts are what causes the greater conflict of the witch hunt that is to come.

10 Personal Conflicts Personal grudges exist between: Personal grudges exist between: Abigail and Elizabeth Proctor (caused by jealousy, revenge) Abigail and Elizabeth Proctor (caused by jealousy, revenge) Abigail and John Proctor (caused by lust, jealousy, revenge, Proctor’s guilt) Abigail and John Proctor (caused by lust, jealousy, revenge, Proctor’s guilt) John and Elizabeth Proctor (see Act 2) John and Elizabeth Proctor (see Act 2) Parris and Putnam (over Parris’ appointment as minister. Putnam wants Parris to “move toward the abyss”. p. 23) Parris and Putnam (over Parris’ appointment as minister. Putnam wants Parris to “move toward the abyss”. p. 23) Ann Putnam looks to blame Tituba and Rebecca for the deaths of her babies. Accuses Rebecca of murder. Ann Putnam looks to blame Tituba and Rebecca for the deaths of her babies. Accuses Rebecca of murder. Mercy Lewis and Abigail don’t trust Mary Warren Mercy Lewis and Abigail don’t trust Mary Warren Proctor is unhappy with Mary Warren’s work ethic Proctor is unhappy with Mary Warren’s work ethic

11 Personal Conflicts Personal grudges exist between: Personal grudges exist between: Proctor believes Parris is ungodly “I see no light of God in that man” (p. 62) and greedy (land, house, candlesticks) Proctor believes Parris is ungodly “I see no light of God in that man” (p. 62) and greedy (land, house, candlesticks) Proctor and Putnam have fought over land Proctor and Putnam have fought over land Putnam resents Rebecca and Francis Nurse for stopping his brother-in-law becoming minister and for gaining wealth and status. Putnam resents Rebecca and Francis Nurse for stopping his brother-in-law becoming minister and for gaining wealth and status. Parris argues with Giles over his work conditions “I cannot offer one proposition but there be a howling riot of argument”(p. 34) Parris argues with Giles over his work conditions “I cannot offer one proposition but there be a howling riot of argument”(p. 34) Giles is blamed for any trouble that brews – “no man has been blamed for so much”. He is constantly suing people “a crank and a nuisance” (p. 43). Giles is blamed for any trouble that brews – “no man has been blamed for so much”. He is constantly suing people “a crank and a nuisance” (p. 43).

12 Community Conflicts Existing conflicts within the community: Existing conflicts within the community: It is made clear that this is a place where disputes are common. Rebecca Nurse observes “This will set us all to arguin’ again in this society, and we thought to have peace this year!” (p. 33) It is made clear that this is a place where disputes are common. Rebecca Nurse observes “This will set us all to arguin’ again in this society, and we thought to have peace this year!” (p. 33) There are many hidden agendas: “There are wheels within wheels in this village, and fire within fires!” (Ann Putnam, p. 33) There are many hidden agendas: “There are wheels within wheels in this village, and fire within fires!” (Ann Putnam, p. 33) Gossip is everywhere and is harmful “the rumour of witchcraft is all about”. p. 18 Gossip is everywhere and is harmful “the rumour of witchcraft is all about”. p. 18 There is no public way of confessing sins, so people dwell on them, resulting in accusation and hypocrisy (p.27). There is no public way of confessing sins, so people dwell on them, resulting in accusation and hypocrisy (p.27).

13 Community Conflicts Existing conflicts within the community: Existing conflicts within the community: There is a lot of disapproval of Reverend Parris’ leadership. Parris has “fought here three long years to bend these stiff- necked people” to him. – “there is a faction that is sworn to drive me from my pulpit”. p. 19 There is a lot of disapproval of Reverend Parris’ leadership. Parris has “fought here three long years to bend these stiff- necked people” to him. – “there is a faction that is sworn to drive me from my pulpit”. p. 19 Putnam has resentment for factions within the community who stopped his brother-in-law becoming minister Putnam has resentment for factions within the community who stopped his brother-in-law becoming minister People therefore are beginning to question the religious teachings. Abigails says “I never knew what pretence Salem way, I never knew the lying lessons I was taught”. A group has recently left Salem and made their own township – Topsfield (p. 32). People therefore are beginning to question the religious teachings. Abigails says “I never knew what pretence Salem way, I never knew the lying lessons I was taught”. A group has recently left Salem and made their own township – Topsfield (p. 32).

14 Community Conflicts Conflicts within the community: Conflicts within the community: Conflicting ideas of what is good and what is evil. Miller says of both Salem society and 1950s America that “Ours is a divided empire in which certain ideas and emotions and actions are of God, and their opposites are of Lucifer.” p. 37 Conflicting ideas of what is good and what is evil. Miller says of both Salem society and 1950s America that “Ours is a divided empire in which certain ideas and emotions and actions are of God, and their opposites are of Lucifer.” p. 37 There are obvious scapegoats in the village – those who have little standing in society e.g. Goody Osburn (homeless and crazy) and Sarah Good. There are obvious scapegoats in the village – those who have little standing in society e.g. Goody Osburn (homeless and crazy) and Sarah Good.

15 Causes of the current conflict There are multiple causes for the Witch-hunt : There are multiple causes for the Witch-hunt : Personal grievances and revenge (the Putnams, Abigail, Hathorne, Parris) Personal grievances and revenge (the Putnams, Abigail, Hathorne, Parris) Grief and loss (Ann Putnam, Abigail) Grief and loss (Ann Putnam, Abigail) The desire for power and control (Parris, Putnam, Abigail) – fear creates unity “We must all love each other now” – Mary Warren. The desire for power and control (Parris, Putnam, Abigail) – fear creates unity “We must all love each other now” – Mary Warren. Fear of accusation (the afflicted girls) Fear of accusation (the afflicted girls) Fear of losing salvation and the Devil Fear of losing salvation and the Devil The need to seek God’s justice (Hale) The need to seek God’s justice (Hale) The desire to uphold the law (Danforth) – “A person is either with this court or he must be counted against it” The desire to uphold the law (Danforth) – “A person is either with this court or he must be counted against it”

16 Further Conflict that is created  Conflict over the nature of Good and Evil : Elizabeth Proctor “I cannot think the Devil may own a woman’s soul, Mr Hale, when she keeps an upright way”. p. 66. Proctor observes that “Hell and Heaven grapple at our backs.” p. 74  The true nature of individuals is revealed : “we are only what we always were, but naked now.” (Proctor, p. 75) –  Questioning the justice of the court – Hale says “There is prodigious fear of the court in this country”. Danforth asks him “you surely do not doubt my justice.” (p )

17 Internal Conflicts That arise John Proctor struggles over his lust for Abigail and guilt for what he has done. “The magistrate sits in your heart that judges you.” p. 55 John Proctor struggles over his lust for Abigail and guilt for what he has done. “The magistrate sits in your heart that judges you.” p. 55 He later struggles over whether to confess or to stay true to his name and innocence. He later struggles over whether to confess or to stay true to his name and innocence. Elizabeth Proctor struggles to forgive John. Elizabeth Proctor struggles to forgive John. In Act 3 & 4, Hale struggles to continue with the accusations when he sees that it is simply vengeance at work eventually declaring “I quit this court!” p. 105 In Act 3 & 4, Hale struggles to continue with the accusations when he sees that it is simply vengeance at work eventually declaring “I quit this court!” p. 105 Giles – “He’ll lay in jail if I give his name!” (p. 87) Giles – “He’ll lay in jail if I give his name!” (p. 87) Mary Warren must decide whether to tell the truth or give into the pressure from Abigail and her own fear. Mary Warren must decide whether to tell the truth or give into the pressure from Abigail and her own fear.

18 Consequences of Conflict Innocent people are killed because good people maintain their integrity – Giles, Proctor, Rebecca Innocent people are killed because good people maintain their integrity – Giles, Proctor, Rebecca Social division is increased due to the extent of arrests and hangings of innocent. “This way, unconfessed and claiming innocence, doubts are multiplied, many honest people will weep for them and our good purpose is lost in their tears.” p. 112 Social division is increased due to the extent of arrests and hangings of innocent. “This way, unconfessed and claiming innocence, doubts are multiplied, many honest people will weep for them and our good purpose is lost in their tears.” p. 112 The disappearance of Abigail and Mercy Lewis reinforce this doubt. They are now referred to as “harlots”. p. 114 Abigail becomes a prostitute? The disappearance of Abigail and Mercy Lewis reinforce this doubt. They are now referred to as “harlots”. p. 114 Abigail becomes a prostitute?

19 Consequences Loss of faith - Hale asks Elizabeth to lie for John “cleave to no faith when faith brings blood.” p. 115 Loss of faith - Hale asks Elizabeth to lie for John “cleave to no faith when faith brings blood.” p. 115 The Court tries to maintain order and control by enforcing the law, resulting in mistrust of it’s justice. Proctor tells Elizabeth “Show honour now, show a stony heart and sink them with it”. p. 125 The Court tries to maintain order and control by enforcing the law, resulting in mistrust of it’s justice. Proctor tells Elizabeth “Show honour now, show a stony heart and sink them with it”. p. 125 Parris loses his position and leaves. Parris loses his position and leaves. Land of some of the victims is left to ruin – their hard work is for nothing. Land of some of the victims is left to ruin – their hard work is for nothing.


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