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AP Possible Essay themes Male Human Form Female Human Form Nature Sacred Spaces Public Spaces Art of Worship Art of War, Violence Political Art, Propaganda.

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Presentation on theme: "AP Possible Essay themes Male Human Form Female Human Form Nature Sacred Spaces Public Spaces Art of Worship Art of War, Violence Political Art, Propaganda."— Presentation transcript:

1 AP Possible Essay themes Male Human Form Female Human Form Nature Sacred Spaces Public Spaces Art of Worship Art of War, Violence Political Art, Propaganda Narrative Feminism Social Event Patronage Art to Influence Class Structure Animals Not in Original Location Jesus Biblical Story Narrative Pagan Myth Narrative Portraiture Landmark of Painting Landmark of Sculpture Landmark of Architecture Love, Romance, Sexuality, Psychological, emotional Symbolism, Allegory, Power, Authority Images and words Perspective Radical departures Funerary, graves, mausoleums, necropolis Technological advances Science and knowledge Historical Narrative Satire, humor

2 Amy O’Neill

3 Discuss the female human form shown in the two images below. How does this relate to their meanings and culture? Compare and contrast the two images. Praxiteles, Aphrodite of Knidos. Roman marble copy of an original of ca. 350-340 BCE, 6’8” high. Yakshi, detail of the east torana, Great Stupa, Sanchi, India, mid-first century BCE to early first century CE. Sandstone, 5’ high.

4 Essay The image of Aphrodite of Knidos portrays the first nude statue of a goddess. Praxiteles uses elements of the classic Greek and Roman form for his figures, yet erases some of their breadth and adds sensuality. Although the figure is not openly erotic, she still offers sensuality. First off, she is nude. Secondly, she hides her pelvis with her hand. Although she is hiding it, she is still drawing attention to that area. Her face also suggests a welcoming smile. Her body looks as though it has the texture of soft, radiant flesh. The pose is also sensual. Her form is not stiff, but relaxed as she leans into the hydria (water pitcher) which her garment is laid across. Praxiteles also creates the female figure well in that she has large hips and a shape to her stomach, which represents fertility. Also, he creates shadows which draw attention to her breasts. The short hair also is less distracting than longer locks, leaving the focal point to her sensuality in form and stance. The stance of her body relates to the Greek and Roman cultures’ contrapposto. Her leg is slightly forward and she is in a relaxed position with her knee bent and hips at a slight angle. She is the goddess of love and Praxiteles wanted to represent her nude to emphasize her lust. Her garment is laid next to her accentuating that she had to have taken it off. This also relates the goddess to a person’s everyday life, which was unusual at the time. It shows her removing her garment and draping it, about to take a bath. It was so abnormal because the only women who were depicted nude were commonly courtesans or slave girls. She was atypical and shocking for her time, but accepted by many people. The image of the Yakshi is also one of a sensuous woman. Her form is stretched and relaxed, creating a sense of sexuality. Her breasts are enlarged and her stomach form has wide hips, representing fertility. There is also attention drawn to her pelvis shown in the slight crease between her thighs. Her body is curvy, as a child bearer’s would be. The stance is with her right foot forward as her stability, as she stretches upward to hold on to the tree. This elongates her body end dramatizes her form and structure. She does not stand in a stiff awkward position, but leans forward, relaxed. The Yakshi is a goddess who is worshipped throughout India because she personifies fertility and vegetation. Her pose is of her reaching up to hold the mango branch, while at the same time pressing her left foot against the trunk. This symbolizes bringing the tree to flower. Because of this, Buddhists adopted the pose and associated the image with with Buddha’s mother giving birth. Buddhists adopted pan-Indian symbolism when creating their own iconography. The two images show different form, although they represent the same idea. The Yakshi has enlarged breasts, while the image of Knidos’s breasts are small in comparison to her enlarged hips, emphasizing their fertility. Also, the Yakshi is outstretched and reaching up toward the tree branch, representing her relation to her culture and elongating her figure. Knidos contrasts this image with a more natural and everyday stance, which separated it from it’s norm in it’s own culture. Although there are several differences, these images also share similarities. Both images represent sensuality in their culture. There are signs of fertility in their breasts and hips. Also, their poses are both relaxed and welcoming to the viewer. There is attention drawn to their pelvises, although not obvious attention. Also both of their forms are curvaceous and create lust in their poses.

5 Historical Context Aphrodite of Knidos During the 4 th century BCE, Greece was filled with chaos. This was due to political upheaval which had an effect on the art they produced. It was also due to the Peloponnesian war. During the 5 th century BCE, Greeks had a belief that they could discover “correct” mathematical formulas for construction of Temples such as the Parthenon, and also create “perfect” statues such as the Canon of Polykleitos. The war put an end to the serene idealism of the previous century and disillusionment and alienation followed. This also created a change in the Greek’s art perspective and they focused less on the perfection of the ideal image and focused more on the individual and the real world of appearances. Yakshi, Great Stupa The last ruler of the Maurya was assassinated by one of his generals, causing an end to their dynasty and a creation of the Shungas. The Shungas never ruled an empire as extensive as the Maurya, and were overthrown by the Andhras. They were then overthrown by an even larger group, the Kushan. They took over a greater territory of northern India. The Kushans grew rich in trade and their King created capitals in an area known today in Pakistan. They traveled the Silk Road and struck coins, some featuring Greco-Roman deities. Their King also carried portraits of himself and images of Buddha and various Hindu deities.

6 Many times in war and violence are represented to reveal the sentiment felt by the artist or population during that time period and society. Choose two specific images depicting art or violence, at least one of which must be from beyond the European tradition. Explain how each work reveals different cultural attitudes towards war/violence. Presentation of captives to Lord Chan Muwan, Maya, Mexico Francisco Goya, Third of May,1808, 1814- 1815, oil on canvas Claire Buhr

7 Explanation The Mayan mural embraces bloodshed, war, and sacrifice, and the reverent portrayal of this ceremony shows the culture’s acceptance and integration of violence and war. In this mural, there is an unashamed portrayal of blood and gore with the prisoners awaiting death, some already exectued, many with mutilated hands. The context of war is placed within the formal, ceremonial setting of the Mayan. All the nobles and Lords are represented with luxurious pelts and warrior hides. This almost nonchalent portrayal of victims/prisoners of war being sacrificed in an elaborate cermony shows the ritual and habitual involvment of war and violence in mayan culture. The emotion evoked from the use of brilliant paints and intricate details to the scene show the Mayan’s pride in their strength in war and violence. Third of May elicits emotion and empathy for the peasants being masacred. Third of May uses dark and lights with the darker values appearing in the faceless, wall of French soldiers. There is a lack of humanity since all are shown in the same position, and their faces are not individualized. In contrast, the lighter values are in the peasants being massacred, specifically focusing on the central man with his arms spread outward like Christ’s position on the cross. These peasants have faces, and show relatable emotions of terror, sadness, and death. Also, the use of violence involving blood of the already killed peasants evokes more sympathy and anguish. This painting shows society’s attitude against violence and war. The eliciting of emotions that relate to the massacred as well as use of violence on innocent people show that this society did not approve of such bloodshed. However, it also shows the resistance and patritiotism for the Spanish. Both portray scenes of war and violence. Each show different feelings towards concept: one of reverence, one of anguish and patriotism.

8 Historical Context The Mayan civiliation began around 600 BCE. During this time period, power was maintained through war and domination. Also, the Mayans did not have contact with any European society. The Maya city-state was a unified kingdom with a central religion. Religion was very important to the Mayans, and they held dramatic rituals many times involving sacrifices to the gods. Mayans fought many wars with neighboring city-states, and held public bloodletting rituals. Warfare was mainly used to accrue victims. Torturing the victims was used to “nourish” the gods and make their enemies and subjects fear them. In Spain during the early 1800s, the Spanish and French were fighting the Peninsular War. Napoleon invaded Spain, and the reigning King abdicated the throne. Napoleon's brother took over resulting in the citizens’ of Madrid rebellion. During this rebellion, the French army slaughtered the citizens. The painting was commissioned by Ferdinand VII who reclaimed the throne from the French after the war to show the patriotism and eventual success.

9 How are feminist ideals conveyed through these two works and how do they reflect the societal standards of the time in which they were created? In relation to the time that they were created, which made a bolder statement and why? Shield Jaguar and Lady Xoc, Maya, lintel 24 of temple 23, Yaxchilán, Mexico, ca. 725 CE. Limestone, 3’ 7” X 2’ 6 1/2”. British Museum, London. Barbara Kruger, Untitled (Your Gaze Hits the Side of My Face), 1981. Photograph, red painted frame, 4’7” X 3’5”. Courtesy Mary Boone Gallery, New York. Jacqueline Fagan Period 2 6 Jan. 2011

10 Part 1 Answer Part 2 Answer Part 3 Answer Both works reflect women’s social rights, for Shield Jaguar and Lady Xoc it is the right to have a significant role in the religious bloodletting ritual and for Untitled (Your Gaze Hits the Side of My Face) it is the right to be viewed as an equal and not be objectified Being a women in both cultures meant job inequality and Shield Jaguar and Lady Xoc asserts that women are capable of holding important jobs while Untitled (Your Gaze Hits the Side of My Face) is commenting on sexual tensions and inequalities that still exists in everyday life, including the workplace Shield Jaguar and Lady Xoc reflects the societal standards from its time because it is simply conveying roles that a women were already allowed to fill and is not making commentary that there is a need to advance women’s roles Untitled (Your Gaze Hits the Side of My Face) was completed as Third-wave feminism was coming about, which is reflected in the statement as Kruger suggests that female objectification stems from society’s acceptance of unequal standards and its reinforcement of this through the media Kruger’s work made a bolder statement for its time period because it directly confronts an issue through the use of a simple, but powerful image in conjunction with strategically placed words that are meant to intensify the work’s meaning However, Shield Jaguar and Lady Xoc makes a statement by reminding viewers at the time that women had significant roles that extended beyond childbearing

11 Historical Context Shield Jaguar and Lady Xoc The Maya of Mesoamerica had a highly developed writing system and some knowledge of mathematical calculations The Maya, an advanced people, kept specific records, had a sophisticated calendar, and studied astronomy Like many esteemed architectural accomplishments of the Western tradition, the temples, palaces and plazas of the Mayas were immense complexes decorated with painted relief sculptures Untitled (Your Gaze Hits the Side of My Face), The Feminist art movement came about during the 1970s primarily through the works of Judy Chicago and Miriam Schapiro Kruger aimed to parallel her knowledge of the media with her feminist message- people complacently absorb deceptive media messages just as they complacently allow women to be second class citizens Cultural theorists believe that language assists in reinforcing stereotypes and gender roles but Kruger ironically uses it to expose them

12 Identify these works then compare and contrast these two images from Western and Eastern art in their depictions of Love and Romance. How did they impact society or how did society impact them at the time?

13 The French oil painting on the left is titled “Olympia” (1863 Paris) and was painted by Eduouard Manet. -Olympia=Courtesan=classy prostitute -This oil painting shows defiance with courtesan’s direct glare at the viewer. -her hand firmly protects her knick knacks, asserting dominance -black maid adds “animalistic” quality and the fact that she is ignored when presenting flowers from a client shows that the prostitute could care less about men. -said to be looking unwelcomingly at an unannounced client -The black cat represents prostitution -inspired controversy in society when released not because of implications of prostitution but of the unbridled female dominant sexuality and rough brush strokes The Indian watercolor on the right is titled “Krishna and Radha in a Pavilion” (1760) New Delhi -The image depicts the idealistic Love between the joint gods Radha Krishna. -This is a more romantic depiction of lovers on a bed. -Krishna (the blue God) fondles one of Radha’s breasts and Radha turns her gaze away which shows her submission to Krishna’s sexual dominance. -The sexual dominance is reversed in this watercolor -The lightning bolt symbolizes sexual excitement - These gender roles were not only accepted in their society, but used as a model of devotion

14 Olympia Historical Context -Manet was widely criticized for his subject matter and his manner of painting. First to depart from the accepted way of using harsh brush strokes and “shameless” -Realism Period: a movement that developed in France around midcentury against the background of increasing emphasis on science. Focused their attention on experiences of everyday life. -Rise of rationalism: what you see is what you get Krishna and Radha Historical Context -Hinduism still strong but lead to rise of Islam -Muslim Babur starts the Mughal Empire and defeats the Rajput Hindu Kings -piece made under Rajput King, so resembles Mughal or Persian painting format and material and artists worked in anonymity

15 Compare the religious significance of each work of art in relation to each religion’s beliefs. How do the body positions of each main character signify his importance? How do the surrounding sculptures relate to the main sculpture of each piece?

16 Answer Buddha seated on the lion throne of Mathura relates to the Buddhist quest of conquering suffering and ending desire. Buddha had reached his state of enlightenment after six years of sitting in the yogic position underneath the bodhi tree, as seen in this image. Christ appears in the center of the Sarcophagus of Junius Bassus indicating his central role in Christianity and as ruler of the universe through his stepping on the head of the sky god. Buddha is position in the yogic position, with both legs crossed, seated beneath the bodhi tree indicating his newly found state of enlightenment. Buddha’s hand position the abahaya indicates to worshippers that they need not fear. Christ is seated as ruler of the universe with feet stepping on the sky god. The two fly whisk bearing celestials signify the sweeping away of ignorance. Peter and Paul flanking Christ on the right and left stand as his chief apostles.

17 Historical Context Under the patronage of the Kushan emperors, the Buddhist religion greatly flourished and several images of the Buddha and Bodhisattavas were produced after the earlier yaksha types. The Mathura statues are more closely related to the Indian portrayal of yakshas. Mathura’s Buddha wears a monks robe and lacks jewelry and other signs of wealth of the yakshas. Junius Bassus, the owner of the sarcophagus, was baptized just before he died in 359, according to the sarcophagus’s inscription. The sarcophagus is decorated on three sides in the Western Roman manner and in the Asiatice manner of being divided into 2 registers each containing 5 compartments. In contrast to other sarcophagi of the time, Junius Bassus is not depicted in the decoration of his sarophagus.



20 Jan Van Eyck- Symbols include: the dog=lust and bride’s fidelity, bedpost=St. Margret, patron saint of childbirth, red curtains=female sexuality, bed=sex, and connection between hands=passion felt between the man and wife The sexual passion depicted in this image is shown in a fashionable way because of all of the bride’s fashion forward clothing and style. Her “pregnant” stomach and the horns on her head are an illusion to the fashion of that time period. Krishna and Radha in a Pavillion- Symbols include: the lightning bolt=electric passion, lush gardens=the huge amounts of passion in their relationship, flowering shrubs=start of something new and good, night=time of illicit trysts, and jewels=power these sexual gods had over the Hindu people The sexual passion is shown in this image through the entangled naked bodies of Krishna and Radha. There is also passion shown through Krishna touching Radha’s breast and looking directly into her eyes. Lightning is a common symbol used in symbolizing sexual excitement. Similarities- The presence of God or Hindu gods. Jan Van Eyck – God presence: the single lit candle on the hanging chandelier=God and his all seeing eye, and the mirror frame= the passion of the Christ Krishna and Radha in a Pavillion – God Presence: Both of the people pictured are Hindu gods that are sharing a sexual moment in the lush gardens. Radha's passion for Krishna symbolizes the soul's intense longing and willingness for the ultimate unification with God. These Hindu gods are part of a bigger power the all powerful God.

21 During the Middle Ages a church ceremony for a marriage was not necessary, all that was required was for the man and the woman to promise to abide by the marriage vows they exchanged in front of witnesses. Two popular types of art during this time period were oil painting and print making. There was also a lot of merging of religious imagery with contemporary settings and symbols. Donor portraits were also a big part of the culture during this time period. During this time period the Mughal emperors ruled vast territories, but much of northwestern India remained under the control of Hindu Rajput ruler The small kingdoms that stubbornly resisted the Mughal expansion, but every kingdom eventually succumbed to the pressures and let the Mughal emperors take over. Rajput painting resembles Mughal painting in format and material, but it differs sharply in other respects. A popular subject for Rajput paintings was the amorous adventures of Krishna, the “Blue God,” the most popular of the avatars, or incarnations, of the Hindu god Vishnu, who descends to earth to aid mortals. Gods were an important part of the Hindu religion and controlled everything they did.

22 ALLEGORY POWER AUTHORITY Art from Europe and Beyond the Western Tradition Mirette Boushra

23 EQUESTRIAN PORTRAIT OF CHARLEMAGNE AKBAR AND THE ELEPHANT HAWAI Select and identify two works of art—one from Europe and one from beyond the European tradition that reflect power and authority through the use of allegory. Describe any symbols that contribute to the moral or political allegory, and discuss the similarities or differences between how power is represented in the two pieces.

24 ANSWER ● Wild and charging elephants = symbol of Akbar's rule; political allegory ● Akbar's steady power over the ferocious elephant is allegory for his ability to govern over an unruly populace ● Power is emphasized through collapsing of bridge (shows strength of elephants and thus shows Akbar's strength) ● Composition is bold which also reflects the power of Akbar ● Wardrobe suggests royalty and privilege ● Straight posture = stability and political control/authority ● Hierarchy of scale = emperor's importance/power ● Globe and sword are symbols of his authority as a conquerer; world dominion ● Power is represented mainly through symbols AKBAR CHARLEMAGNE

25 HISTORICAL CONTEXT ● Many rulers in south and southeast Asia killed people by crushing them with elephants (this practice continued until the mid 20 th century) ● Elephants served military/executional purposes; death under the foot of an elephant was common for army fugitives or prisoners ● Hawai was the deadliest Elephant in the empire and Akbar's ability to control it shows great authority ● Charlemagne was very interested in artistic patronage and commissioned many imperial portrait statues ● He desired to centralize the authority of his kingdom through art and culture ● The Carolingian emperors sought to revive the glory and imagery of the ancient Roman Empire ● The portrait proclaimed the renovatio of the Roman Empire's power and trappings in the 9 th century AKBARCHARLEMAGNE

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