We think you have liked this presentation. If you wish to download it, please recommend it to your friends in any social system. Share buttons are a little bit lower. Thank you!
Presentation is loading. Please wait.
Published byAxel Menser
Modified about 1 year ago
CHAPTER 7 LANGUAGE AND PERSUASION COPYRIGHT © 2014 PEARSON EDUCATION, INC. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED 1 Prepared by Robert Gass & John Seiter
WORDS HAVE POWER Children’s names carry connotations Words affect perceptions, attitudes, beliefs, and emotions undocumented person vs. illegal immigrant person of color versus Black person, African-American, Negro, N-word COPYRIGHT © 2014 PEARSON EDUCATION, INC. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED 2
SYMBOLS Symbols are arbitrary words, images, or behavior that stand for or represent something else. Symbols are arbitrary: The word for “pig” could just as easily be “garp” Symbols include images (peace sign, thumbs up gesture) Symbols can include behavior (rituals and rites or other symbolic action) COPYRIGHT © 2014 PEARSON EDUCATION, INC. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED 3
Denotative meaning A word’s strict dictionary definition Animals names Alligator Moose Bison Python Elephant Rooster Leopard Zebra Connotative meaning Emotional associations surrounding a word References to females/males using animal names Bitch Fox Chick Pig Cougar Stud Cow Tiger Dog Wolf COPYRIGHT © 2014 PEARSON EDUCATION, INC. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED 4 SYMBOLS, MEANING, AND PERSUASION
ULTIMATE TERMS God terms family values, peace, truth, modern Devil terms deadbeat dad, sexual predator, sweatshop, hate crime Charismatic terms green, natural, freedom, democracy Terms may change, evolve over time political correctness, affirmative action, liberal COPYRIGHT © 2014 PEARSON EDUCATION, INC. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED 5
Famous sayings, proverbs, and folk wisdom can facilitate persuasion Such truisms function as peripheral cues “Rome wasn’t built in a day” “Don’t put all your eggs in one basket” “Money doesn’t grow on trees” Students heard a persuasive message that included familiar phrases Some students were distracted while listening Some students were not The distracted students were more persuaded than the ones who paid full attention (Howard, 1997) COPYRIGHT © 2014 PEARSON EDUCATION, INC. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED 6 APHORISMS, FAMILIAR PHRASES
People’s names influence impressions Perceived likeability, friendliness Perceptions of their “hotness” Food servers who used patrons’ names received higher tips Job titles Barista at Starbucks “Genius bar” at Apple stores Geek Squad at Best Buy Labels reflect attitudes male, guy, dude female, girl, chick, broad gay, queer, fag, homosexual COPYRIGHT © 2014 PEARSON EDUCATION, INC. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED 7 THE POWER OF LABELING
Prescription drug names branding companies typically earn between $50,000 and $250,000 for coming up with a unique name for a prescription drug Names that sound scientific, with an “X” or “Z” are popular Paxil Prozac Zoloft Xanax Lexapro Nexium COPYRIGHT © 2014 PEARSON EDUCATION, INC. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED 8 THE POWER OF LABELING
Language shapes the way we think Language can facilitate or inhibit certain types of thinking More precise language enables more focused thought Texting versus writing Texting is fast, generic Writing is slow, nuanced The average Joe or Jill might call a color “off-white” A painter or clothing designer might differentiate between subtle shades alabaster antique white bone China cream eggshell ivory parchment COPYRIGHT © 2014 PEARSON EDUCATION, INC. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED 9 SAPIR-WHORF HYPOTHESIS
THE POWER OF RENAMING “progressive” versus “liberal” “death panels” versus “health insurance” “troop reduction” versus “cut and run” “peer-to-peer file sharing” versus “internet piracy” “pre-owned” versus “used” “womyn” instead of “women” COPYRIGHT © 2014 PEARSON EDUCATION, INC. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED 10
EUPHEMISMS & DOUBLE-SPEAK It sounds so much better when you put it that way. commercial sex worker vs. prostitute or whore enhanced interrogation techniques vs. torture faith-based vs. religious downsizing, right-sizing, or bright-sizing vs. being fired hobo or homeless vs. vagabond or sojourner Euphemisms can help people save face “I’m between jobs right now” Euphemisms can convey tact, sensitivity “I need to visit the men’s room” COPYRIGHT © 2014 PEARSON EDUCATION, INC. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED 11
LANGUAGE INTENSITY, VIVIDNESS, AND OFFENSIVENESS Profanity is rarely a persuader’s friend. Profanity tends to lower perceived credibility Perceptions of profanity are topic, audience, and situation specific Religious profanity was perceived less negatively than sexual profanity, with excretory profanity perceived somewhere in between COPYRIGHT © 2014 PEARSON EDUCATION, INC. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED 12
Evolving terms for African- Americans N-word Darkie Colored Negro Black African-American Person of color Bi-racial, multi-racial The control of language entails the control of social reality terrorist vs. martyr vs. freedom fighter The power of naming shapes perceptions and confers power The gay community has taken back the word “queer” and made it socially acceptable COPYRIGHT © 2014 PEARSON EDUCATION, INC. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED 13 POLITICAL CORRECTNESS
The language of disability Saying “wheel chair bound” emphasizes the disability first Saying “person with a disability,” (PWD) emphasizes the person first Persuaders who used empowering terms (heroic) for PWDs were perceived as more credible Persuaders who used pejorative terms (pathetic) were perceived as less credible COPYRIGHT © 2014 PEARSON EDUCATION, INC. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED 14
VIVIDNESS Vivid language is more memorable than pallid language Colorful, picturesque language increases attention and retention Pallid language is, well, boring Vivid language must be congruent with the message COPYRIGHT © 2014 PEARSON EDUCATION, INC. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED 15
Intense language demonstrates a source’s bias on a topic or issue National health insurance will lead to “death panels” (Sarah Palin) “Humans have no more value than slugs” (John Daley, editor of Earth First!) People who aren’t shifting to bio-diesel fuel are “raping the planet” (Fuel: Uncovering America’s Dirty Little Secret, 2008 documentary) Reinforcement Theory Intense language facilitates persuasion with a friendly audience Intense language can alienate a hostile audience Language Expectancy Theory Violations perceived positively facilitate persuasion Violations perceived negatively inhibit persuasion How a violation is perceived depends on the status and reward power of the violator COPYRIGHT © 2014 PEARSON EDUCATION, INC. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED 16 LANGUAGE INTENSITY
Information Processing Theory Intense language persuades via message discrepancy A previously unthinkable position becomes more thinkable Intense language may also backfire based on the contrast effect Communication Accommodation Theory Persuaders who match the language style of their audience are more effective Intense language users prefer intense speakers Non-intense language users prefer non-intense speakers COPYRIGHT © 2014 PEARSON EDUCATION, INC. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED 17 LANGUAGE INTENSITY
Powerful, assertive language is generally more persuasive “I have an important question…” “I loved that movie.” “Let’s grab some coffee and talk.” “My skill set is a perfect fit for your company.” Powerful language conveys confidence, credibility But… Powerful language requires good arguments and evidence Females may need to moderate their assertiveness for male audiences COPYRIGHT © 2014 PEARSON EDUCATION, INC. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED 18 POWERFUL VS. POWERLESS LANGUAGE
Powerless language signifies low status, low credibility This may sound like a dumb question but…” “That was a good movie, don’t you think?” “I was kind of hoping that maybe we could get together for coffee sometime, if you want.” “Uh, so I would, really, um, like to work here, um, at, like, your company.” Types of powerless language Disclaimers You’ll probably say ‘No’ but…” Hedges “kind of,” “sort of,” “I guess” Hesitations “uh,” “um,” “like,” “you know” Intensifiers “Very,” “really,” Polite forms* “If it’s okay…” “I’d appreciate it if…” Tag questions “don’t you think?” COPYRIGHT © 2014 PEARSON EDUCATION, INC. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED 19 POWERLESS LANGUAGE *Note: Some types of diplomatic language are polite, but not powerless
Yes! 50 Scientifically Proven Ways to Be Persuasive Robert B. Cialdini with Noah J. Goldstein and Steve J. Martin.
Copyright © 2006 Elsevier, Inc. All rights reserved Chapter 11 Effective Communication and Team Building.
Culturally Competent Care. CULTURAL COMPETENCIES Involve understanding & respecting the patients cultural values, beliefs & practices Consider: –views.
Who am I as a Teacher? Final Project My Professional Identity as a Teacher: Beliefs about teaching, learning, literacy and assessment By Emily Mullins.
Marketing: Real People, Real Decisions Why People Buy: Consumer Behaviour Chapter 6 Lecture Slides Solomon, Stuart, Carson, & Smith Your name here Course.
5 Learning Objectives Understanding some basic concepts of marketing Talking about developing a new market Talking about promoting a product Talking about.
Microsoft ® Office Outlook ® 2007 Training Create and Use Your Own Electronic Business Card ICT Staff Development presents:
A Publication of Bridgemark Solutions Six Keys to Generating More Sales Leads AND WINNING MORE MARKET RESEARCH PROJECTS.
10 Focus Groups: Learning Objectives describe the history and uses of focus groups list the elements of an interview guide for focus groups summarize the.
Created by Susan Sampl, Ph.D. Adapted by John P Thompson MA, CDP.
MakesSenseStrategies.com P.O. Box 147 Northport, AL (205) TM Edwin Ellis, Ph.D.
How to talk to voters about health care: progressive framing and messages Presentation by Celinda Lake January 27 th, research.com.
Volunteer Essentials 2012/2013 Girl Scouts of Colorado While some of the information in this PowerPoint is only for Colorado Girl Scout Leaders, most of.
STUDY SKILLS Pisgah High School Freshman Transition Program.
Social Psychology Elliot Aronson University of California, Santa Cruz Timothy D. Wilson University of Virginia Robin M. Akert Wellesley College slides.
THE STUDENT NURSE AS A PERSON. STUDENT NURSE AS A PERSON Motivation to become a nurse Know & understand yourself – Self Awareness Conflict Moral & value.
CULTURAL COMPETENCE in VICTIM SERVICES. Objectives 1.List four best practices to overcome language barriers. 1.List four best practices to overcome language.
European Union Citizens & Intellectual Property Edelman Berland for ETYQ and OHIM Qualitative stage initial report – April 2013.
A Recruiting Workshop for Nutrition Educators Developed by Howard Armstrong and Linda Melcher Revised by Linda Melcher, MS, RD Creating Meaningful Conversations.
Rebuilding breastfeeding cultures in East Asia Presentation for iLactation Ted Greiner Professor of Nutrition Hanyang University Seoul, South Korea.
The people Look for some people. Write it down. By the water So there you are. Who will make it? You and I A long time What will they do?
Dr. Edward Gray, LMFT Harding University Building Healthy Marriages Through 12 Conversations About Marriages That Work Denver.
Why are films so popular? Here are five fabulous reasons...
Diversity & Sensitivity Prepared by Michael Cummings.
The Places Wherein You Live Your Life and the Routes You Regularly Take The way Degrees of Structure in your places effect your behavior. 1.How your family.
A. as is a couldn’t does could has wouldn’t.
5 th Edition Copyright © Prentice Hall Psychology Stephen F. Davis Emporia State University Joseph J. Palladino University of Southern Indiana.
Mastery and Building Profitable Relationships Developing the Skills of Writing Your s to Get the Results You Want.
C ONFLICT C OMMUNICATION Part II. C HAPTER 8 Anger.
The Research Paper What does this quote mean? What are you trying to tell your audience?
© 2016 SlidePlayer.com Inc. All rights reserved.