The experience of exposure to actual or threatened death, serious injury or sexual violation The individual has an overwhelming sense of: overwhelming sense of: AND Terror Helplessness *Source: NCTSN “Think Trauma Training” Fear Horror
G Traumatic Events in the Lives of Youth Physical, emotional, or sexual abuse Community violence and victimization Abandonment and neglect Domestic violence Traumatic loss Prostitution/Sex trafficking Serious accident Medical trauma, injury, illness Natural disaster *Source: NCTSN “Think Trauma Training”
Potentially Traumatizing Events in JJ Settings Seclusion Restraint Routine room confinement Strip searches/pat downs Placement on suicide status Observing physical altercations Fear of being attacked by other youth Separation from caregivers/community *Source: NCTSN “Think Trauma Training”
IMPLICIT MEMORY A type of memory that is expressed through performance, rather than conscious recall, such as information acquired during skill learning, habit formation, classical conditioning, emotional learning, and priming. Also known as non- declarative memory A type of memory that is expressed through performance, rather than conscious recall, such as information acquired during skill learning, habit formation, classical conditioning, emotional learning, and priming. Also known as non- declarative memory.learning EXPLICIT MEMORY Memory in which there is a need for conscious recollection in order to recall something.
Thalamus “Encodes Sensory Input” Amygdala “ Emotional Response” Hippocampus “Short Term Memory to Long Term” Frontal Cortex “Quick Action Plan” “Quick Action Plan” *Source: NCTSN “Think Trauma Training”
Fight or Flee Functions of the Pre Frontal Cortex Controlling impulses Inhibiting inappropriate behaviors Initiating appropriate behaviors Stopping upon completion Shifting/Adjusting when situations change Organization/Planning Setting Priorities Decision Making Sensitivity to feedback Insight During Trauma the Pre Frontal Cortex quickly processes which action to take- Fight/Flight/Freeze and generally is not thought out *Source: NCTSN “Think Trauma Training”
Fight, Flee, or Freeze (to protect) Hypothalamus “Links the nervous system to the endocrine system to secrete stress hormones” Release of adrenaline and cortisol Heart rate and blood pressure increase Breathing rate increases Hippocampus “Stores memories of danger” Digestion and Immune Systems are shut off *Source: NCTSN “Think Trauma Training”
G Post Traumatic Stress Disorder Post Traumatic Stress Disorder Age of the youth TraumaHistory Trauma at the hand of caretakers Secondary adversities *Source: NCTSN “Think Trauma Training”
G How Youth Respond to Trauma: Traumatic Stress Reactions Intrusion Avoidance Negative Alt in cog/mood Hyperarousal/Reactivity *Source: NCTSN “Think Trauma Training”
G How Youth Can Respond to Trauma: How Youth Can Respond to Trauma: Images, sensations, or memories of the traumatic event recur uncontrollably. This includes nightmares disturbing thoughts flashbacks physiological reactions intense/prolonged psychological distress This includes nightmares disturbing thoughts flashbacks physiological reactions intense/prolonged psychological distress INTRUSIVE SYMPTOMS INTRUSIVE SYMPTOMS *Source: NCTSN “Think Trauma Training”
G There can also be physiological reactions to the reminders including racing heart, stomach ache, headache that occur frequently Or psychological distress, which is a sudden sense of unease or anxiety There can also be physiological reactions to the reminders including racing heart, stomach ache, headache that occur frequently Or psychological distress, which is a sudden sense of unease or anxiety INTRUSIVE SYMPTOMS INTRUSIVE SYMPTOMS These images and sensations can be so intense that we feel as if we are going through the trauma all over again. This is called a flashback. Young children may also re- experience or reenact traumatic experiences through their play. They may try in their play to make whatever happened turn out differently. *Source: NCTSN “Think Trauma Training”
G How Youth Can Respond to Trauma: Avoidance of internal reminders thoughts, feelings, or physical sensations Avoidance of external reminders People, places, objects Activities, situations, conversations Avoidance of internal reminders thoughts, feelings, or physical sensations Avoidance of external reminders People, places, objects Activities, situations, conversations AVOIDANCE SYMPTOMS AVOIDANCE SYMPTOMS *Source: NCTSN “Think Trauma Training”
G How Youth Can Respond to Trauma: Irritable or aggressive behavior Self-destructive or reckless behavior Jumpiness or quick to startle (Anxiety) Problems with concentration Sleep disturbance Rapid Heart Rate and Breathing Impulsive, inattentive Irritable or aggressive behavior Self-destructive or reckless behavior Jumpiness or quick to startle (Anxiety) Problems with concentration Sleep disturbance Rapid Heart Rate and Breathing Impulsive, inattentive Hyperarousal can lead to hypervigiliance: a need to constantly scan the environment and other people for danger. Hyperarousal can lead to hypervigiliance: a need to constantly scan the environment and other people for danger. ALTERATIONS IN AROUSAL & REACTIVITY Bodies are always primed to respond to any stress (Flight, Fight, Freeze). Resource: NCTSN “Think Trauma Training”
G How Youth Can Respond to Trauma: Mentally separating the self from the experience Derealization: May experience the self as detached from the body, on the ceiling, somewhere else in the room Depersonalization: May feel as if in a dream or unreal state DISSOCIATION DISSOCIATION *Source: NCTSN “Think Trauma Training”
G How Youth Can Respond to Trauma: Inability to remember parts of traumatic event Persistent negative emotions Persistent difficulty experiencing positive emotions Decreased interest or participation in activities Feeling detached from others Persistent exaggerated negative expectations Persistent distorted blame of self or others Inability to remember parts of traumatic event Persistent negative emotions Persistent difficulty experiencing positive emotions Decreased interest or participation in activities Feeling detached from others Persistent exaggerated negative expectations Persistent distorted blame of self or others NEGATIVE ALTERATIONS IN COGNITION/MOOD NEGATIVE ALTERATIONS IN COGNITION/MOOD *Source: NCTSN “Think Trauma Training”
Things, events, situations, places, sensations, and even people that a youth consciously or unconsciously connects with a traumatic event *Source: NCTSN “Think Trauma Training”
The NCSTN defines “severe forms of trafficking in persons” in the following two-tiered definition: Sex trafficking in which a commercial sex act is induced by force, fraud, or coercion, or in which the person induced to perform such an act has not attained 18 years of age; or, The recruitment, harboring, transportation, provision, or obtaining of a person for labor or services, through the use of force, fraud, or coercion for the purposes of subjection to involuntary servitude, peonage, debt bondage, or slavery. *Source: NCTSN
Action Recruiting or Harboring or Moving or Obtaining Means By Force or Fraud or Coercion Purpose For the purpose of: Involuntary Servitude or Debt Bondage or Slavery or Commercial Sex Acts *Source: NCTSN
Level One Age Foster Youth School Truancy Hx of physical, emotional, and sexual abuse Suspensions/Expulsions (not enrolled in school) LGBTQ Minority Populations Poverty Educational behavioral problems Runaway (first or second time)
Level Two Level One risk factors Exposure to a trafficker and/or exploited youth/person Homelessness CPS involvement Hx of arrest and juvenile detention Hx of exploitation in the family Hx of domestic violence Accessed emergency shelter Chronic runaway Group home and numerous foster care placements Arrest hx
Level Three Level One and Two risk factors Gang Activity First arrest for prostitution Level Four Level One, Two, and Three risk factors Multiple prostitution arrests Branding/Tattoos
Social Media Accounts Redbook account Craig’s list account Meet Up “Snap-Chat” app “Kik” App In addition: Inexplicable appearance of expensive gifts, clothing, or other costly items Presence of an older boy- /girlfriend Withdrawal or lack of interest in previous activities Multiple phones
Trafficked Minors 12-14 years old girls and 11-13 year old boys are the highest rated targeted population for “pimps” 100,000 to 300,000 youth per year are as risk in coming sexually exploited Of 1.7 million runaways annually, 1/3 rd are reported missing parents In the US., it is estimated average age of entry into prostitution is 12. One study estimates 30% of shelter youth and 70% of street youth are victims of commercial sexual exploitation. They may engage or be coerced into prostitution for “survival sex” to meet daily needs for food, shelter, or drugs. 75% of child victims engaged in prostitution are under the control of a pimp. *Source: NCTSN
Teens choose to prostitute themselves If they really wanted out, they could leave at any time Teens are willing participants/know what they are getting into Teens get paid to do this This only happens to females This only happens to "bad" kids or kids from "bad" families Resource: Sexually Exploited Children & Teens (www.sacramentosect.org) Waging War Against Sexual Exploitation Bridget’s Dream | 2013
A child victim does not know the reality of the violence and trauma she is facing Pimps use brute force, manipulation, and the illusion of love and acceptance to maintain control over their victims The average victim may be forced to have sex up to 20-48 times a day.* A pimp can make $150,000-$200,000 per child each year and the average pimp has 4 to 6 girls.* The average age of entry for boys is 11-13 and there are even fewer services and supports available for them Victims come from ALL backgrounds *Source: Department of Justice
1. Bagley, C. & Young, L. (1987). Juvenile Prostitution and Child Sexual Abuse: A Controlled Study. Canadian Journal of Community Mental Health. 2. Annual Report. (1991). Council for Prostitution Alternatives. Portland, Oregon. 3. Murphy, Patricia. (1993). Making Connections: Women, Work, and Abuse. Paul M. Deutsch Press, Florida.
62% of respondents had been raped in prostitution 73% had experienced physical assault in prostitution 72% were currently or formerly homeless 92% stated that they wanted to escape prostitution immediately A Prostitution Alternatives report revealed that their participants were being raped an average of 16 times a year by pimps, and were raped 33 times a year by johns. ▪ Melissa Farley, Isin Baral, Merab Kiremire, Ufuk Sezgin, "Prostitution in Five Countries: Violence and Posttraumatic Stress Disorder" (1998) Feminism & Psychology 8 (4): 405-426 ▪ Susan Kay Hunter, Council for Prostitution Alternatives Annual Report, 1991, Portland, Oregon
What do we need to understand about CSEC so that we can help them to Heal?
Childhood Trauma Symptoms/Fear Responses Violation of Boundaries Guilt & Shame Level 1 View Self as Sexual Object Low Self-Esteem Runaway/ Homeless (Survival Sex) Poverty & Need (Survival Sex) Level 2 Unequal Power Dynamics of Adult/Child Relationships Media Influence Actions/Means/ Purpose Demand Approached by Recruiters, Pimps, Traffickers Level 3 Trauma Bonding Level 4 Sexual Exploitation of Children (SEC) Child Trauma Commercial Sexual Exploitation of Children (CSEC)
Debriefing Question: What impact does sex-trafficking have on children?
Psychological/Emotional Impact of CSEC Disruption of healthy psychological development Self-concept, intimacy, beliefs and goals Post Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) Impulse to revisit traumatic events, intrusive emotions & memories, flashbacks, hyper arousal, exaggerated startle reaction, panic symptoms Self-injurious and suicidal behavior Dissociative disorders Anxiety Paranoia Clinical depression Explosive outbursts Sleep disturbance & nightmares Bond with perpetrators Hyper-sexualization Physical Impact of CSEC Continuous physical abuse Rape & gang rape STDs & STIs HIV & AIDS Loss of bowel control Pregnancy (wanted and unwanted) Sterility Facial/dental reconstruction Tattoos & branding Brain damage Substance abuse/addiction Self-cutting Suicide/Death Spiritual Impact of CSEC Despair Hopelessness Lack of belief in humanity Lack of faith in spiritual power Emotional Impact of CSEC Anger and rage Deep emotional pain/grieving Feelings of humiliation/shame Stigma of exploitation Self-blame/Self-loathing Loss of sexual desire, feelings, or response Social Impact of CSEC Isolation from peer group Disconnection from community Isolation from mainstream society Homelessness Incarceration/Criminal record as obstacle Disempowerment Lack of life skills Trust issues/Difficulty maintaining relationships Obstacles to vocation Lack of access to legal economies, lack of job experience/skills Educational deprivation Missed school, disconnection with school system
Experts speak of the trauma suffered by child sex trafficking victims as more severe than most sexually based trauma given the chronic nature coupled with the reinforced victimization from the community at large of buyers. Additionally, CSEC report severe stigma emanating from first responders as well as from other children.
G Crisis housing Long-term housing Food Clothing Education Job or income Viable alternatives for employment Transportation Opportunities to Develop Spiritual Care Crisis housing Long-term housing Food Clothing Education Job or income Viable alternatives for employment Transportation Opportunities to Develop Spiritual Care Victims Need New skills and strengths Medical and/or dental care Health education Mental healthcare Counseling and/or case management Safety plan Childcare and/or parenting skills Legal representation and/or advocacy
Isolation Pimp Use Tactics Of Coercion and Control that create impediments to rehabilitation Threats Demonstrating “omnipotence” Induced debility & exhaustion Monopolization of perception Enforcing trivial demands Occasional indulgences Degradation
The presence of a perceived threat to one's physical or psychological survival and the belief that the abuser would carry out the threat The presence of a perceived small kindness from the abuser to the victim Isolation from perspectives other than those of the abuser The perceived inability to escape the situation What needs to be present for Stockholm Syndrome to occur?
How is Stockholm Syndrome displayed? Positive feelings by the victim toward the abuser/controller Negative feelings by the victim toward family, friends, or authorities trying to rescue/support them or win their release Support of the abuser's reasons and behaviors Positive feelings by the abuser toward the victim Supportive behaviors by the victim, at times helping the abuser Inability to engage in behaviors that may assist in their release or detachment
Keep an open and non-judgmental mind Familiarize yourself with resources for rehabilitation o Identify key community partners that can assist Foster a trusting relationship with identified victims o “I believe you…” o Stay calm o Avoid “Why” questions o Meet them where they are o Respect cultural differences Assess risk Notify appropriate authorities (i.e. CPS, Support Programs for Victims, etc.)
Court County Agencies Attorney Groups Community Providers & Advocates Law & Enforcement Education Probation, Behavioral Health Child Protective Services County and School Districts District Attorney Public Defender County Counsel Children’s Law Center Parents’ Attorneys Local and Federal Youth