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Impressionism and Post-Impressionism in Art 1860-1900.

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Presentation on theme: "Impressionism and Post-Impressionism in Art 1860-1900."— Presentation transcript:

1 Impressionism and Post-Impressionism in Art

2 Influences/Characteristics As people grew desensitized to the emotional expression of Romanticism, the need for a new perspective emerged Impressionism aimed to evoke an image or suggest an emotion- subtly Avoided art as commentary on morality Artists experimented with new techniques – Often painted outside and were careful to capture light and atmosphere at specific times of day – Had to devise methods to work quickly to capture the light – Used a few colors and applied them to canvas with bold strokes, leaving the blending of colors to the eyes of the viewer Subjects often included landscapes, structures, people—anything easily observed – Subjects were painted as though they appeared at the moment of the artistic creation (a snapshot of an image)

3 Edouard Manet French Known for his attention to the effects of light on objects in space Painted subjects considered scandalous by the academic establishment and public Banded together with experimental artists to exhibit rejected works in the Salon des Refuses Le Dejeuner sur l’Herbe (Luncheon on the Grass) – Scandalous for placing a nude woman among formally dressed gentleman – Olympia – Scandalous for the inclusion of several adornments that identify the subject as a prostitute (orchid in hair, bracelet, pearl earrings, shawl. The name Olympia was associated with prostitutes at the time – Ignores the flowers presented by her servant, thought to be a gift from a client – Boating – Excellent example of Manet’s attention to light and space – Employs sketch-like brushstrokes typical of Impressionism – %20New%20York%20City/Metropolitan%20Museum%20of%20Art%20Highlights/slides/Met%20Highlights% %20Paintings%20After%201860%20Edouard%20Manet%20Boating.jpg %20New%20York%20City/Metropolitan%20Museum%20of%20Art%20Highlights/slides/Met%20Highlights% %20Paintings%20After%201860%20Edouard%20Manet%20Boating.jpg Bar at the Folies Bergere – Folies Bergere was an establishment that presented a variety of entertainment, from ballets to circus acts – Barmaids at the Folis Bergere were assumed to also be prostitutes (suggested by the gentleman whose reflection appears in the mirror) – The placement of the barmaid (looking straight ahead) is contradicted by the angle of her reflection –

4 Claude Monet French Impression: Sunrise – Gave “Impressionism” its name – Banks of the Seine, Vetheuil – Studies the effect of light and atmosphere on water, trees, and foliage – Colors applied in bold patches, with no attempt to integrate them on the canvas – Details of trees and foliage are vague and obscure – Horizon placed high in the painting to create a large area of foliage in the foreground – Leaves suggested by individual brushstrokes – Rouen Cathedral, West Facade – One of thirty canvases he painted of the cathedral, each a study in a different light conditions This one a study in full sunlight – Lines are imprecise; design is determined by an impression of the acrchitecture – Color in patches of grays and tans that blend a distance away from the canvas –

5 Pierre-August Renoir French Maintained more structural form than other Impressionists, but utilized the colors and techniques of Impressionism By the Seashore – Landscape utilizes brushstrokes typical of Impressionist artists – Figure of the woman maintains attention to structural form – Le Moulin de la Galette – Intentional blurring of outlines – Effect of light on color a focus of the work Dappled (spotty) light suggests presence of trees Variety of color gives the impression of a lively group moving around in the sunlight Figures become less defined in the background—a few brushstrokes of color Auguste_Renoir,_Le_Moulin_de_la_Galette.jpg Auguste_Renoir,_Le_Moulin_de_la_Galette.jpg

6 Edgar Degas French Known for both painting and sculpture Ballerinas and horses were favorite subjects Sought to represent movement in space in both his painting and sculpture Suffered from severely deteriorating eyesight as a result of an injury during the Franco-Prussian War; as his eyesight worsened he painted less and sculpted more Araesque Ouverte Sur La Jambe Droite – Bronze sculpture – Figures balance, poise, and gesture create a graceful sense of movement – The lines of torso and limbs add to the dynamic effect – La Petite Danseuse de Quatorze Ans – Wax sculpture of a 14-year-old ballerina, Marie van Goethem – Sculpted in wax, dressed in a real bodice, tutu, and ballet slippers and has a wig of real hair. Everything except the tutu and hair ribbon are covered in wax – 28 reproductions in bronze are found in museums around the world – The original is housed at the Metropolitan Museum of Art – The Rehearsal – Shows a scene out of a dancer’s everyday life – Elevates the mundane, celebrates the modern experience – Attention to the positioning of the body to show movement – Use of open space invites the viewer to be a spectator; one can imagine that the dancers will soon move across the floor –

7 Post-Impressionism Bridges Impressionism to 20 th -century movements like Expressionism and Cubism Maintain some of the spirit of Impressionism, while moving in a new direction – New techniques Cezanne, Gauguin, van Gogh, and Seurat

8 Paul Cezanne French Post-Impressionist Reduced objects in his painting to simple geometric forms – Used cylinders, cubes, cones, and spheres Distorted nature by bringing out its natural forms (shapes) Painted landscapes and still-life subjects The Card Players – Creates an arch with the arrangement of his figures – Creates a triangle with the men’s forearms and table – Still Life With Apples in Fruit Bowl – bowl.jpg bowl.jpg Mont Sainte Victorie –

9 Paul Gauguin French Post-Impressionist After becoming dissatisfied with life in France, he moved to Tahiti Used bold color in flat, two-dimensional surfaces with strong outlines His style reflects the 19 th -century public’s fascination with the “exotic” Mahana No Atua (Day of the Gods) – Gives viewers a vicarious experience of a simple lifestyle in a faraway setting – Goddess Hina is in the center – To her right, women dance the upaupa, an ancient Tahitian dance – Trio in the center symbolizes birth, life, and death – The Siesta – Shows the grace and ease of the Tahitian women – Gauguin worked on this piece for an extended period of time, making numerous changes as he worked –

10 Vincent van Gogh Dutch Post-Impressionist Deeply religious and charitable – Gave away much of his money to the needy – Lived humbly – Said to be tormented by the suffering of others and was convinced that his destiny was to bring humanity together – Had a tumultuous friendship with Gauguin, ending with the infamous cutting of his left ear – Committed suicide Style – Used heavy oil paint in pure colors, applied in bold strokes and heavy lines – Color, line, and texture are of equal importance – Sought to reveal the movement found in nature The Starry Night – Expresses van Gogh’s feelings about nature The twisting cypress tress and swirling sky contrast with the simplicity of the horizon and houses A visual representation of the motion of the atmosphere Polychromatic – La Chambre de Van Gogh a Arles – Van Gogh’s bedroom in Arles – First of three versions of the painting – He wrote of the painting, “This time it simply reproduces my bedroom; but colour must be abundant in this part, its simplification adding a rank of grandee to the style applied to the objects, getting to suggest a certain rest or dream. “ –

11 Georges Seurat French Post-Impressionist Style called pointillism – Placed thousands of small dots of pigment on the canvas that merged into shapes Sunday Afternoon on the Island of La Grande Jatte – Incorporates pointillism – Forms are geometrically stylized and integrate dots of color in varying hues – Spatial recession achieved by the progessively smaller size of background figures – Little sense of movement—figures appear static – Grande-Jatte1.jpg Grande-Jatte1.jpg

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