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NRCOI Webinar February 9, 2011

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1 NRCOI Webinar February 9, 2011
Child Trafficking 101 NRCOI Webinar February 9, 2011

2 US Conference of Catholic Bishops, Anti- Trafficking Services: Shared Hope International: HER- LIFE

3 Training Outline Introductions
Child trafficking – definition, scope, nature Intersection with child welfare Overview of victim and trafficker profiles Victim identification Combating trafficking in the US National and local resources

4 What is Human Trafficking?
Modern day form of slavery Human rights violation The ultimate exploitation A federal and state (some places) crime in the U.S. Followed by drugs and arms, the fastest growing source of profit In 2005, International Labour Organization estimated $32 billion generated from forced labor and sexual exploitation

5 Trafficking Victims Protection Act (TVPA)
Defines “Severe Forms” of Trafficking as: sex trafficking in which a commercial sex act is induced by force, fraud, or coercion, or in which the person induced to perform such an act has not attained 18 years of age; or the recruitment, harboring, transportation, provision, or obtaining of a person for labor or services, through the use of force, fraud, or coercion for the purposes of subjection to involuntary servitude, peonage, debt bondage, or slavery.

6 Common trafficking types
Sex trafficking Prostitution Street prostitution Brothels Residential homes Massage Parlors Spas Strip Clubs Pornography Sex Tourism Labor trafficking Agricultural Work Domestic Service Sweatshops/factories Hotel housekeeping Construction Restaurant Work Nail Salons Peddling Informal labor sectors

7 Simply Those under 18 involved in commercial sex
Those 18 or over involved in commercial sex through force, fraud, or coercion Those forced to perform labor and/or services in involuntary servitude, peonage, debt bondage or slavery through force, fraud, or coercion

8 Abuse or threatened abuse of the legal system
Process (what) Recruiting, harboring, transportation, obtaining or provision of persons Means (how) Force Fraud Coercion End (why) Forced labor/services: Involuntary servitude, debt bondage, peonage, or slavery Commercial sex act (with minors, no force, fraud, coercion required) Force - includes rape, beatings, shootings, starvation, constraint, confinement Fraud - false and deceptive offers of employment, marriage, better life Coercion Threats of serious harm to the victim, the victim’s family or another person any scheme plan, plan or pattern intended to cause victims to believe that failure to perform an act would result in serious harm to or physical restraint against them Abuse or threatened abuse of the legal system

9 Smuggling vs. Trafficking
Not consensual Crime against a person No movement required Does not require payment Relationship with trafficker/smuggler is ongoing Typically consensual Crime against a country Movement across an international border Fee for service Relationship ends when smuggling is completed Smuggling often leads to trafficking. Individuals believe they are being smuggled in an agreed-upon context, but, in the process can be forced, coerced or deceived into labor or commercial sex trafficking. Not all victims of trafficking have been smuggled or crossed international borders.

10 Key Statistics 12.3 million children and adults are victims of human trafficking (The 2010 U.S. Department of State Trafficking in Persons Report). 1.2 million children under the age of 18 are estimated to be victims (The International Labour Organization and United Nation’s Children's Fund). More than 244, 000 children in the United States are estimated to be at risk of commercial sexual exploitation each year (Estes and Weiner, 2001)

11 Intersection with child welfare
Children are exploited and abused by traffickers (in and out of their home) Many child trafficking victims have at some point been in contact with or in the care of the child welfare system Many have history of abuse, running away, are homeless or throwaways Victims lack the protection of family or have no family to protect them Source: Estes and Weiner (2001). Estes and Weiner also point out children living in their own home have a greater risk of re-exploitation over a period of many years.

12 Traffickers are Diverse
Organized criminal groups Family members Business owners Labor contractors Recruiting companies Neighbors, friends, family members, boyfriends, acquaintances Government officials May act as recruiters, transporters and/or “guardians” Often traffic within their own ethnic group Often in US legally while victims may/may not have legal status

13 Recruitment tactics used by traffickers
False promises of… A good job A better life Love Marriage An opportunity to provide for their family Educational opportunities

14 Traffickers methods and tactics
Recruitment methods Word of mouth Newspaper ads Internet Fake employment agencies Family or acquaintances Force (abduction) Control tactics Physical and sexual abuse Threats against victim and or victim’s family Garnish income/wages Restrict contact with outside world Seize or destroy travel documents

15 Victims are Varied Children, women and men
Individuals, families or groups Educated or illiterate U.S. citizen or foreign born Documented or undocumented Diverse in age, race, class, gender, religion and culture with multiple needs # countries

16 Recent cases in the news
A mother in Florida accused of child trafficking and abuse. The mother allegedly forced her 4 daughters, ages 9 to 15, to buy prescription drugs and beat them with cords and hangers. The oldest told officials she was forced to prostitute herself to earn drug money for the mother. Source: News Press

17 Recent cases in the news
A North Carolina woman was indicated on charges of forcing an undocumented teenager into slavery. She was charged with forced labor and document servitude. She is accused of forcing the teen to sell goods including alcohol; starvation and making him clean her yard and sleep on the floor of her mobile home. If convicted, she faces 20 years in prison and fine of up to $500, 000. Source: Charlotte Observer

18 Victim Identification

19 Child Trafficking Indicators
Compiled from the work of USCCB through the Anti-Trafficking Services Program and the United Nations Office of Drugs and Crime: Evidence of sexual, physical, mental or emotional abuse Engagement in work unsuitable for children Identification/documents confiscated by employer or someone else No access to family members or friends Not in school or significant gaps in schooling Work long hours, have no access to their wages or have few if any time off Living in workplace or with employer Have tattoos or other marks indicating ownership by their exploiter –“branding” Owing large sum of money Appear unusually fearful or anxious for themselves or family members

20 Who may encounter victims
Social service agencies including child welfare Runaway, throwaway and homeless shelters Federal, state and local law enforcement officers Medical personnel Community organizations Neighbors

21 General Challenges to Identification
Hidden nature of the crime Lack of understanding and awareness about human trafficking Perception that victims are criminals Trafficking victims rarely self-identify If arrested, trafficking victims may not disclose their situation out of fear/trauma Some are mistakenly identified as adults More on lack of self-identification: Do not realize they are victims and have rights Fearful of being imprisoned and/or deported Fearful of endangering family or their own safety Mistrust authorities Feelings of shame and disgrace Believe the situation will get better Communication obstacles May believe debts are their obligation to repay Physically isolated or guarded by traffickers Trauma bonds to trafficker Stigma, guilt, cultural constraints

22 Domestic Minor Sex Trafficking

23 Federal law relating to child sex trafficking
Any youth under the age of 18 involved in a commercial sex act = trafficking victim “Commercial” means anything of value given to or received by any person in exchange for a sex act (money, food, shelter) Victims should not be held responsible for crimes committed during the course of their exploitation

24 The National Report on Domestic Minor Sex Trafficking
Shared Hope International received a grant from the Department of Justice to assess Domestic Minor Sex Trafficking in eleven areas in the United States, which culminated in the National Report, released in July 2009. The findings: At least 100,000 children are used in prostitution every year in the United States (NCMEC) The average age of entry into prostitution is 13 years old American children are easy targets

25 Who are the Victims? Homeless and/or runaway youth
As many as 2.8 million children live on the streets Youth with history of abuse Youth with low self esteem, depression Youth with one parent in jail Age is the greatest vulnerability factor

26 Label determines access to services
Juvenile Delinquent run away child trafficking victim Ho promiscuous homeless Child Prostitute victim child sexual abuse Prostitute Commercially sexually exploited child

27 Who are the Traffickers?
Trafficker = Pimp Anyone exerting control over a minor, even a peer (Boyfriend, father, mother, brother, uncle, coach, teacher) Men or women; any age or race Street pimp to organized crime Anyone who benefits from or facilitates the commercial sexual exploitation of a minor

28 Pimp Control: Creating the Trauma Bond
Calculated targeting and recruitment Learn and exploit the child’s specific vulnerabilities Break down personal agency and autonomy Use physical and psychological torture Couple attachment to authority figure with fear, punishment, and abandonment Captor becomes savior

29 *INTERVENE-Practioner Guide & Intake Tool
Isolation Unfamiliar or unaware of geographic location Sever ties with all family and friends Forbidden interaction with any person outside of prostitution life Economic Dependence Refusing to allow victim to go to school Taking all money and property from a victim Refusing to allow victim to be employed Manipulation Exploiting a victim’s insecurities Acting the role of missing mentor/parental Sexual Violence Making victim prostitute Gang rapes Withholding sexual intimacy Bestiality, fringe sexual acts, sodomy Physical Violence Torture/constant threat of death Branding/tattooing Locking victim in small spaces Starvation Forced drug use Emotional Violence Isolating victim from social supports Cycles of affection followed by violence Shaming and humiliating Coercion and Threats Threatening family members and friends Making her do illegal acts Harming another girl for victim’s disobedience Power and Control DMST Power & Control Wheel* *INTERVENE-Practioner Guide & Intake Tool by Leitch and Snow

30 Pimp Control “You'll start to dress her, think for her, own her. If you and your victim are sexually active, slow it down. After sex, take her shopping for one item. Hair and/or nails is fine. She'll develop a feeling of accomplishment. The shopping after a month will be replaced with cash. The love making turns into raw sex. She'll start to crave the intimacy and be willing to get back into your good graces. After you have broken her spirit, she has no sense of self value. Now pimp, put a price tag on the item you have manufactured.” The Pimp Game; An Instructional Manual (Royal, 1998)

31 The Buyer Predominantly male
Any age, socioeconomic status, race, IQ, or marital status Often motivated by pornography Further motivated by social acceptance

32 Quantifying DMST Trauma
5 rapes/day x 7 days a week for 1 year = 1,800+ rapes per year Life expectancy of a child entering the life at 13 is seven years* *Sergeant Byron Fassett, Dallas Police High Risk Victims’ Unit, CAC Conf 2008

33 Indicators Characteristics: Observations: Memory difficulty Branding
Lying Depression Anxiety Hostility Suicidal ideation Affect dysregulation* Somatization* Disassociation* Aggression* Character pathology* Observations: Branding Wounds, bruises Drug addiction Hostility Language of “the life” Unfamiliarity with surroundings Unable to provide name of school False or no identification Prepaid credit card or cell phone Scripted/inconsistent story No eye contact * Disorders of Extreme Stress symptomology

34 Challenges to Rehabilitation
Reluctance to self-identify Loyalty to trafficker/pimp Running away/relapse Adhering to rules and structure Resistance Lack of trust Sexual confusion Glamorizing the exploitation Availability of appropriate shelter/services

35 Treatment Approach Preventing Revictimization
Trauma-informed Strengths-based Survivor-informed Starting with the intake experience, goal is to help flag a potential victim, empower the survivor, and minimize retraumatization caused by invasive questioning

36 Combating Trafficking in the United States

37 Trafficking Victims Protection Act (TVPA)
Reauthorized as TVPRA in 2003, 2005 and Purpose of the law: Prevention Protection Prosecution Comprehensive anti-trafficking law, reauthorized, created polices and mechanisms to prevent, protect and serve victims and prosecute traffickers reauthorization – w/I 24 hours of identifying juvenile victims, law enforcement must notify HHS, defined key aspects of coercion, expanded criminalization of benefiting financially from trafficking

38 Federal Agencies Dept. of Health and Human Services – Rescue and Restore Campaign, Per Capita Program, issues certification letters Website Dept. of Homeland Security – investigates cases, adjudicates continued presence status, awards the T visa Website Dept. of Justice – investigates cases, prosecutes traffickers, funds task forces/services, complaint line Dept. of Labor – investigates labor complaints Dept. of State – international anti-trafficking efforts

39 State Initiative – Shared Hope’s Protected Innocence Initiative
Evaluation of current state law for: Protection of children Services for survivors Penalties for traffickers and buyers Output Grade for efficacy of current law Roadmap for future legislation Training recommendations

40 Local Anti-Trafficking Coalitions and Task Forces
Purpose Identify Trafficking Victims Collaborate with law enforcement who investigates cases Coordination of community response to Trafficking Coordinate training to the community Coalition Members law enforcement, social service providers, advocacy groups, legal providers, medical providers, local government offices, faith based organizations, emergency personnel Training & Resources Education of the Community Inviting community agencies that could identify victims of trafficking Designing protocols between agencies

41 Questions

42 References Estes, Richard and Neil Weiner. The Commercial Sexual Exploitation of Children in the U.S., Canada, and Mexico. The University of Pennsylvania School of Social (2001). [ pdf] The 2010 U.S. Department of State Trafficking in Persons Report: United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime: News-Press-Mother accused of abuse, trafficking: /SS08/ /1075/Lee-County-mother- accused-in-abuse--trafficking-case-wants-girls-back Charlotte Observer-Woman held teenage as slave: held-boy-as-slave.html

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