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Realism And Impressionism 1850-1895 The Artist as Himself.

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Presentation on theme: "Realism And Impressionism 1850-1895 The Artist as Himself."— Presentation transcript:

1 Realism And Impressionism The Artist as Himself

2 Industrial Revolution spread to the US and throughout Europe-plastics, machinery, chemicals, and oil- URBANIZATION-improving health and living conditions in the cities Increased emphasis on science- Darwinism- the theory of natural selection- highly controversial- contributed to secularism Became a social issue to justify racism, imperialism, nationalism, and militarism-by this time, most of the world was sectioned off and colonized Marx and Engels-goal was to create a socialist state- seizure of power by working class and the destruction of capitalism- emphasized class conflict and was instrumental in the rise of Labor Unions Technological change and exposure to other cultures brought about modernism- western culture’s lack of permanence Modernist artists seek to capture the images and sensibility of their age, critical examination of the idea of art itself Realism- reevaluation of reality- sights and experiences of everyday contemporary life- from the idea of empiricism- subject matter was expanded- peasants and working class Realism-departed from illusionism- paintings were defined by the paint’s application as well as the subject matter

3 Courbet, The Stone Breakers, 1849 (destroyed 1945) Courbet- proud of his rural background, socialist- believed that Romanticism was too much of an escape from reality “I cannot paint an angel because I have never seen one.” - strong link with Caravaggio Stone Breakers- used real workmen as models Dignity rather than sympathy

4 Courbet, Studio of a Painter: A Real Allegory Summarizing My Seven Years of Life as an Artist, Allegory must not conflict with the real identity of the figures Scene much like Velazquez and Goya- people were invited to view his painting-the artist’s hometown people on the left, and intellectuals on the right- a social environment rather than an audience

5 Manet, Luncheon on the Grass, 1863 Extremely controversial subject matter- an unidealized nude model posing with everyday people- her face is at ease and comfortable Tribute to older artists- classical subject matter- nether real life or an allegory Visual manifesto of artistic freedom-painter’s freedom to combine whatever elements he chooses for aesthetic affect alone Manet was the first to grasp Courbet’s mission

6 Manet, Olympia, 1863 Even more scandalous- shameless prostitute, defiant look Saw the inclusion of a black woman and a prostitute as an image of depravity Rough brushstrokes and rapid shifts in tonality - very defiant of the academy

7 Manet, The Fifer, 1866 The World of painting has “natural laws” that are distinct from reality- painter’s first loyalty is to his canvas- beginning of “Art for Art’s Sake” Brushstrokes and color patches alone are most important, not what they stand for Courbet thought that Manet’s paintings were too flat The Fifer has almost no depth, almost no value- reality of the figure is caused by foreshortening Canvas is no longer a window, but flat patches of color Very revolutionary way of painting

8 Impressionism- Not just pretty pictures!! An Art Revolution of Epic Proportions!! Reaction against the invention of the camera the Renaissance idea of the canvas being a window is dead Canvas is now a surface covered with pigments-Manet first decided this but he refused to call his artwork Impressionist New technology brought need for change- the camera, the railroad system, the all-important paint tube!!

9 Monet, Bathing, 1869 Critics said that it hurt their eyes to look at this painting Monet adapted Manet’s color patch idea and applied it to outside scenes painted outside!

10 Monet, Impression:Sunrise, 1872 Hostile critic applied the term “Impressionism” after viewing this painting First show of this work was in 1872 Incorporated the quality of sketches-abbreviation, speed, spontaneity-no polish or reworking Monet made no attempt to blend pigments- acknowledged the paint and the canvas

11 Renoir, Le Moulin de la Galette, 1876 Leisure activities of Paris were common subject matter- Parisian dance hal Dappled light, full of sensual experience Viewers are participants in the fun Sought to capture the moment- passing, momentary events- the opposite of Neo-Classicism and Romanticism

12 Manet, A Bar at the Folies-Bergeres, Lost in thought- separated from viewers and from patrons Brushstrokes are blurred and roughly applied, modeling and perspective are minimal Causes viewer to search the picture- there are discrepancies-reflection doesn’t make sense- proves that he really is the first modernist artist

13 Degas, The Glass of Absinthe, 1876 Design seems as unstudied as a snapshot but is really very ordered and organized-sets Degas apart from other Impressionists Distance from the viewer emphasizes the loneliness of the viewers

14 Degas, The Rehearsal, 1876 Large off-center empty space creates the illusion that the viewer is in the room Arbitrarily cuts off figures- indicates the artist’s interest in reproducing single moments and show the artist’s interest in photography- used for preliminary studies for his paintings

15 Morisot, Reading, 1888 Influenced by Manet (later married his brother) and he was influenced by her work as well Paintings centered around her mother and her sister Birth of her child changed her work entirely- omitted non- essential details, figure is fully integrated into scene

16 Cassatt, The Bath, 1891 Joined the Impressionists in 1877 Able to pursue her career as an artist in France because she was independently wealthy Instrumental in bringing Impressionism to United States through social contacts Maternity was her number one subject matter Influenced by Degas and by Japanese woodblock prints Flat forms and simplified colors, patterns

17 Japonisme Commodore Matthew Perry became 1st westerner to establish trade with Japan Japanese aesthetic became in vogue Japanese began export business, Japan became industrialized Japanese art influenced Impressionists and Post-Impressionists Suzuki Harunobi

18 Katsushika Hokusai Artists were attracted to the simplicity, areas of flat color, two-dimensional quality, limited amount of gradation.

19 Monet, Waterlilies, 1907 Around 1890, began to paint in series- same subject under different conditions Importance of brushstroke and rhythm Created an estate (given to him by the government)- a self-contained world for his personal enjoyment Reflections of both reality and his imagination

20 Thomas Eakins, The Gross Clinic, 1875 American Realism Eakins studied both painting and anatomy Melded well for the 19th century American ideal of the search for the truth Very brutal realism- was rejected by the Philadelphia exhibition for the centennial Reflects the public’s faith in scientific and medical technology Viewers found it difficult to look at the painting in great detail

21 Henry Osawa Tanner, The Banjo Lesson, 1894 Desire to depict the lives of ordinary people Son of an African American minister- quiet devotion and intimate look at everyday life Influenced by Rembrandt and the Dutch way of observing everyday events with great sanctity

22 Winslow Homer, Dressing for the Carnival, c Painted in Paris, but left before Impressionism made an impact Reporter and magazine illustrator during the civil war Made regular people look beautiful, one of the first artist to document the lives of newly-freed former slaves

23 Ford Maddox Brown, The Last of England, Realism in England Portrayed the heroism of everyday life in a more dramatic fashion than Courbet Emigrants- subject taken from contemporary times Theatrically treated Medieval type style of painting- both photographic and unreal

24 Dante Rosetti, The Annunciation, This medieval model was used by the Pre- Raphaelites- inspiration from the Medieval primitives- to return to the freshness of art before Raphael Fictional arrangements using realistic techniques Urge to reform the ills of modern civilization through their art Rosetti did not want to change social problems, but rather reform aesthetic sensibilities of the masters. Repressed eroticism

25 James Abbott McNeill Whistler, Nocturn in Black and Gold, 1875 American ex-patriot who settled in England Interesting mix of Impressionism and a personal style Shared interest in contemporary life and sensations of color Interested in creating harmonies of color like in music Called his paintings nocturnes or arrangements This painting represents an exploding rocket- color splatters represent fireworks Interest in creating a harmonious arrangement of shapes and colors on his canvas

26 Rodin, The Thinker, Impressionism revitalized sculpture Rodin- rejected because the finished bronzes look like sketches Made unfinishedness an aesthetic principle The Thinker was meant for the entrance of the E’cole des Arts in Paris- influenced by early christian pose and Michelangelo action in repose Form and meaning are one

27 Rodin, The Kiss, Artful unfinishedness- reminiscent of a Michelangelo sculpture Becomes a symbol for earthbound, carnal love

28 Rodin, Monument to Balzac, Remained as a plaster cast for years because it was a rejected commission Spiritually and physically larger than life Genius of the man overpowers the surroundings Cloak creates the sense of an inner agony

29 Camille Claudel, Ripe Age, 1907 Was an assistant to Rodin and became his “collaborator” and mistres Style is much more smooth and lyrical Created when she was being replaced by another woman- a self-portrait of personal struggle

30 Henri Labrouste, Bibliotheque’ Ste- Genevieve, Gradual introduction of new materials and techniques in the field of architecture, most importantly iron Cast iron columns and supports became standard for large spaces Outside style is drawn from Renaissance libraries, inscribed the names of great writers to identify building as a library Reading room recalls gothic interiors- reading takes us on journeys of the mind


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