2 Industrial Revolution spread to the US and throughout Europe-plastics, machinery, chemicals, and oil- URBANIZATION-improving health and living conditions in the citiesIncreased emphasis on science- Darwinism- the theory of natural selection-highly controversial- contributed to secularismBecame a social issue to justify racism, imperialism, nationalism, and militarism-by this time, most of the world was sectioned off and colonizedMarx and Engels-goal was to create a socialist state- seizure of power by working class and the destruction of capitalism- emphasized class conflict and was instrumental in the rise of Labor UnionsTechnological change and exposure to other cultures brought about modernism-western culture’s lack of permanenceModernist artists seek to capture the images and sensibility of their age, critical examination of the idea of art itselfRealism- reevaluation of reality- sights and experiences of everyday contemporary life- from the idea of empiricism- subject matter was expanded-peasants and working classRealism-departed from illusionism- paintings were defined by the paint’s application as well as the subject matter
3 Courbet, The Stone Breakers, 1849 (destroyed 1945) Courbet- proud of his rural background, socialist- believed that Romanticism was too much of an escape from reality “I cannot paint an angel because I have never seen one.” - strong link with CaravaggioStone Breakers- used real workmen as modelsDignity rather than sympathy
4 Courbet, Studio of a Painter: A Real Allegory Summarizing My Seven Years of Life as an Artist,Allegory must not conflict with the real identity of the figuresScene much like Velazquez and Goya- people were invited to view his painting-the artist’s hometown people on the left, and intellectuals on the right- a social environment rather than an audience
5 Manet, Luncheon on the Grass, 1863 Extremely controversial subject matter- an unidealized nude model posing with everyday people- her face is at ease and comfortableTribute to older artists- classical subject matter- nether real life or an allegoryVisual manifesto of artistic freedom-painter’s freedom to combine whatever elements he chooses for aesthetic affect aloneManet was the first to grasp Courbet’s mission
6 Manet, Olympia, 1863Even more scandalous- shameless prostitute, defiant lookSaw the inclusion of a black woman and a prostitute as an image of depravityRough brushstrokes and rapid shifts in tonality - very defiant of the academy
7 The World of painting has “natural laws” that are distinct from reality-painter’s first loyalty is to his canvas-beginning of “Art for Art’s Sake”Brushstrokes and color patches alone are most important, not what they stand forCourbet thought that Manet’s paintings were too flatThe Fifer has almost no depth, almost no value- reality of the figure is caused by foreshorteningCanvas is no longer a window, but flat patches of colorVery revolutionary way of paintingManet, The Fifer, 1866
8 Not just pretty pictures!! An Art Revolution of Epic Proportions!! Impressionism-Not just pretty pictures!!An Art Revolution of Epic Proportions!!Reaction against the invention of the camerathe Renaissance idea of the canvas being a window is deadCanvas is now a surface covered with pigments-Manet first decided this but he refused to call his artwork ImpressionistNew technology brought need for change- the camera, the railroad system, the all-important paint tube!!
9 Monet, Bathing, 1869Critics said that it hurt their eyes to look at this paintingMonet adapted Manet’s color patch idea and applied it to outside scenes painted outside!
10 Monet, Impression:Sunrise, 1872 Hostile critic applied the term “Impressionism” after viewing this paintingFirst show of this work was in 1872Incorporated the quality of sketches-abbreviation, speed, spontaneity-no polish or reworkingMonet made no attempt to blend pigments- acknowledged the paint and the canvas
11 Renoir, Le Moulin de la Galette, 1876 Leisure activities of Paris were common subject matter- Parisian dance halDappled light, full of sensual experienceViewers are participants in the funSought to capture the moment- passing, momentary events- the opposite of Neo-Classicism and Romanticism
12 Manet, A Bar at the Folies-Bergeres, 1881-82 Lost in thought- separated from viewers and from patronsBrushstrokes are blurred and roughly applied, modeling and perspective are minimalCauses viewer to search the picture- there are discrepancies-reflection doesn’t make sense- proves that he really is the first modernist artist
13 Design seems as unstudied as a snapshot but is really very ordered and organized-sets Degas apart from other ImpressionistsDistance from the viewer emphasizes the loneliness of the viewersDegas, The Glass of Absinthe, 1876
14 Degas, The Rehearsal, 1876Large off-center empty space creates the illusion that the viewer is in the roomArbitrarily cuts off figures- indicates the artist’s interest in reproducing single moments and show the artist’s interest in photography- used for preliminary studies for his paintings
15 Influenced by Manet (later married his brother) and he was influenced by her work as well Paintings centered around her mother and her sisterBirth of her child changed her work entirely- omitted non-essential details, figure is fully integrated into sceneMorisot, Reading, 1888
16 Joined the Impressionists in 1877 Able to pursue her career as an artist in France because she was independently wealthyInstrumental in bringing Impressionism to United States through social contactsMaternity was her number one subject matterInfluenced by Degas and by Japanese woodblock printsFlat forms and simplified colors, patternsCassatt, The Bath, 1891
17 Japonisme-1853- Commodore Matthew Perry became 1st westerner to establish trade with JapanJapanese aesthetic became in vogueJapanese began export business, Japan became industrializedJapanese art influenced Impressionists and Post-ImpressionistsSuzuki Harunobi
18 Katsushika HokusaiArtists were attracted to the simplicity, areas of flat color, two-dimensional quality, limited amount of gradation.
19 Monet, Waterlilies, 1907Around 1890, began to paint in series- same subject under different conditionsImportance of brushstroke and rhythmCreated an estate (given to him by the government)- a self-contained world for his personal enjoymentReflections of both reality and his imagination
20 American RealismEakins studied both painting and anatomyMelded well for the 19th century American ideal of the search for the truthVery brutal realism- was rejected by the Philadelphia exhibition for the centennialReflects the public’s faith in scientific and medical technologyViewers found it difficult to look at the painting in great detailThomas Eakins, The Gross Clinic, 1875
21 Desire to depict the lives of ordinary people Son of an African American minister- quiet devotion and intimate look at everyday lifeInfluenced by Rembrandt and the Dutch way of observing everyday events with great sanctityHenry Osawa Tanner, The Banjo Lesson, 1894
22 Winslow Homer, Dressing for the Carnival, c. 1870 Painted in Paris, but left before Impressionism made an impactReporter and magazine illustrator during the civil warMade regular people look beautiful, one of the first artist to document the lives of newly-freed former slaves
23 Realism in EnglandPortrayed the heroism of everyday life in a more dramatic fashion than CourbetEmigrants- subject taken from contemporary timesTheatrically treatedMedieval type style of painting-both photographic and unrealFord Maddox Brown, The Last of England,
24 This medieval model was used by the Pre-Raphaelites- inspiration from the Medieval primitives- to return to the freshness of art before RaphaelFictional arrangements using realistic techniquesUrge to reform the ills of modern civilization through their artRosetti did not want to change social problems, but rather reform aesthetic sensibilities of the masters.Repressed eroticismDante Rosetti, The Annunciation,
25 American ex-patriot who settled in England Interesting mix of Impressionism and a personal styleShared interest in contemporary life and sensations of colorInterested in creating harmonies of color like in musicCalled his paintings nocturnes or arrangementsThis painting represents an exploding rocket- color splatters represent fireworksInterest in creating a harmonious arrangement of shapes and colors on his canvasJames Abbott McNeill Whistler, Nocturn in Black and Gold, 1875
26 Impressionism revitalized sculpture Rodin- rejected because the finished bronzes look like sketchesMade unfinishedness an aesthetic principleThe Thinker was meant for the entrance of the E’cole des Arts in Paris- influenced by early christian pose and Michelangelo action in reposeForm and meaning are oneRodin, The Thinker,
27 Artful unfinishedness- reminiscent of a Michelangelo sculpture Becomes a symbol for earthbound, carnal loveRodin, The Kiss,
28 Remained as a plaster cast for years because it was a rejected commission Spiritually and physically larger than lifeGenius of the man overpowers the surroundingsCloak creates the sense of an inner agonyRodin, Monument to Balzac,
29 Camille Claudel, Ripe Age, 1907 Was an assistant to Rodin and became his “collaborator” and mistresStyle is much more smooth and lyricalCreated when she was being replaced by another woman- a self-portrait of personal struggle
30 Henri Labrouste, Bibliotheque’ Ste- Genevieve, 1843-50 Gradual introduction of new materials and techniques in the field of architecture, most importantly ironCast iron columns and supports became standard for large spacesOutside style is drawn from Renaissance libraries, inscribed the names of great writers to identify building as a libraryReading room recalls gothic interiors- reading takes us on journeys of the mind
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