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The Jacksonian Era 1824-1840. A New Era in Politics The spirit of democracy affected American ideas about social classes Most Americans did not feel the.

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Presentation on theme: "The Jacksonian Era 1824-1840. A New Era in Politics The spirit of democracy affected American ideas about social classes Most Americans did not feel the."— Presentation transcript:

1 The Jacksonian Era

2 A New Era in Politics The spirit of democracy affected American ideas about social classes Most Americans did not feel the rich deserved special respect During the 1820s, more people gained suffrage (any white males over 21, didn’t have to be property owners)

3 Who couldn’t vote Women Women Native Americans Native Americans Most African Americans Most African Americans As more whites were gaining suffrage, more blacks were losing it As more whites were gaining suffrage, more blacks were losing it

4 Alexis de Tocqueville Frenchman who was sent to study the American prison system Frenchman who was sent to study the American prison system Observed the growth of Democracy in America Observed the growth of Democracy in America Admired the American goals of freedom and equality Admired the American goals of freedom and equality [The results of the revolution]…are already incomparably greater than anything which has taken place in the world before.”

5 “An American girl…thinks for herself, speaks with freedom, and acts on her own impulse…for she is full of reliance on her own strength…”

6 The Disputed Election of 1824 John Quincy Adams New England support Andrew Jackson West support Henry Clay West support William Crawford South support

7 “The Corrupt Bargain”

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9 John Quincy Adams – an Unpopular President Americans were mad that Jackson hadn’t been elected Americans were mad that Jackson hadn’t been elected Adams’ plan for economic growth backfired Adams’ plan for economic growth backfired People feared that spending a lot of money on internal improvements would make the government too strong People feared that spending a lot of money on internal improvements would make the government too strong

10 What did JQA Want? The federal government should promote economic growth The federal government should promote economic growth Should pay for new roads and canals Should pay for new roads and canals Favored projects to promote arts and sciences Favored projects to promote arts and sciences Suggested building a national observatory for studying stars Suggested building a national observatory for studying stars

11 Fight for reelection (1828) Bitter mudslinging Bitter mudslinging Jackson said that Adams would become the next Napoleon Jackson said that Adams would become the next Napoleon Considered the dirtiest campaign in American history Considered the dirtiest campaign in American history

12 Attacks against Jackson Attacks on Jackson were unparalleled in American political history. His opponents accused him of murder, gambling, slave trading and treason. They called him a 'military chieftain,' and said his mother was a prostitute, his father a mulatto man, and his wife a bigamist.

13 Attacks against Adams Adams was accused of installing gambling tables in the White House at the public expense, of padding his expense account, and even of pimping women for the Tsar of Russia.

14 He was the first president to ride on a railroad train, the first to be born in a log cabin and the first president to be nominated by a political party. He was the first president to ride on a railroad train, the first to be born in a log cabin and the first president to be nominated by a political party. He survived the first attempt to assassinate a president. He survived the first attempt to assassinate a president. At age 13, while serving in the army, he was captured by the British. The British officer in charge ordered Jackson to clean his boots. Jackson refused; the officer struck him with his sword, leaving Jackson's face and hand permanently scarred. At age 13, while serving in the army, he was captured by the British. The British officer in charge ordered Jackson to clean his boots. Jackson refused; the officer struck him with his sword, leaving Jackson's face and hand permanently scarred.

15 Andrew Jackson’s Inauguration “Country men, farmers, gentlemen, mounted and dismounted, boys, women and children, black and white. Carriages, wagons, and carts all pursuing [Jackson] to the President’s house.”

16 The crowds were so huge, the President “was almost suffocated and torn to pieces by the people in their eagerness to shake hands.”

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18 Changes in Politics Jackson was the first Westerner to occupy the White House. Jackson was the first Westerner to occupy the White House. Caucus thrown out in favor of Nominating Convention Caucus thrown out in favor of Nominating Convention By 1820, the Federalist party had dissolved By 1820, the Federalist party had dissolved

19 New parties Whigs - Supported JQ Adams -programs for national growth -federal government helping the economy -eastern business people, southern planters, former Federalists Democrats - Supported Jackson -frontier farmers & workers in Eastern cities

20 Jackson in the White House

21 A Self-Made Man 13 yrs old – fought in the Revolutionary War & captured by the British 13 yrs old – fought in the Revolutionary War & captured by the British Both parents had died by the time he was 15 Both parents had died by the time he was 15 Early 20s – elected to Congress Early 20s – elected to Congress Became a war hero in War of 1812 Became a war hero in War of 1812 Complex personality, explosive temper, could inspire and lead others well, champion of the common man Complex personality, explosive temper, could inspire and lead others well, champion of the common man

22 “King Andrew” Spoils System Kitchen Cabinet

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24 Bank War Jackson thought the National Bank was too powerful Jackson thought the National Bank was too powerful Henry Clay and Daniel Webster fight back Henry Clay and Daniel Webster fight back They make the bank an issue in the next election They make the bank an issue in the next election Common people voted for Jackson and he closed the bank Common people voted for Jackson and he closed the bank Its closing contributed to an economic crisis Its closing contributed to an economic crisis

25 Andrew Jackson on the $20 bill

26 A New Crisis

27 Setting the Scene President Jackson and Vice President John C. Calhoun had once been friends and allies. But that was about to change…. The issue? States’ rights Calhoun

28 Tariff of Abominations In 1828, Congress passed the highest tariff in the nation’s history In 1828, Congress passed the highest tariff in the nation’s history Meant to protect manufacturers from foreign competition Meant to protect manufacturers from foreign competition Helped the North, hurt the South Helped the North, hurt the South Calhoun said the states had the right to nullify, or cancel, a federal law they felt was unconstitutional Calhoun said the states had the right to nullify, or cancel, a federal law they felt was unconstitutional He actually resigned from being Vice President! He actually resigned from being Vice President!

29 Nullification Act South Carolina threatened to secede from the Union South Carolina threatened to secede from the Union SC passed the Nullification Act, declaring the new tariff illegal SC passed the Nullification Act, declaring the new tariff illegal Jackson supported a slightly lower tariff, and asked Congress to pass a Force Bill, saying he could use the army to enforce the tariff Jackson supported a slightly lower tariff, and asked Congress to pass a Force Bill, saying he could use the army to enforce the tariff

30 Tragedy for Native Americans The Creek, Choctaw, Chickasaw, Cherokee, and Seminole nations lived in the Southeast The Creek, Choctaw, Chickasaw, Cherokee, and Seminole nations lived in the Southeast White settlers wanted their land for plantations White settlers wanted their land for plantations Jackson sided with them Jackson sided with them He persuaded the government to set aside lands beyond the Mississippi for the Native Americans He persuaded the government to set aside lands beyond the Mississippi for the Native Americans

31 Cherokee Wanted to preserve their culture and be respected by the whites Wanted to preserve their culture and be respected by the whites So they created a written alphabet and published a newspaper So they created a written alphabet and published a newspaper Created a legal system and government that blended European and Cherokee traditions Created a legal system and government that blended European and Cherokee traditions

32 Sequoyah ( )

33 Worcester v. Georgia Chief Justice Marshall said Georgia had to honor federal treaties that protected the Native Americans Chief Justice Marshall said Georgia had to honor federal treaties that protected the Native Americans “Marshall made his decision, now let HIM enforce it.” –Jackson “Marshall made his decision, now let HIM enforce it.” –Jackson Congress pushed through the Indian Removal Act, 1830 Congress pushed through the Indian Removal Act, 1830

34 The Trail of Tears The U.S. Army drove more than 15,000 Cherokees hundreds of miles west over a period of several months The U.S. Army drove more than 15,000 Cherokees hundreds of miles west over a period of several months Nearly 1/3 died during the march, mostly children and the elderly Nearly 1/3 died during the march, mostly children and the elderly

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37 Seminoles Resist The Seminoles fought the U.S. army The Seminoles fought the U.S. army 3 wars 3 wars In the end, the government forced the Seminoles to leave Florida In the end, the government forced the Seminoles to leave Florida

38 Martin van Buren Panic of 1837 – economic crisis brought on by speculators who lost money when Jackson closed the National Bank and state banks printing money without backing Panic of 1837 – economic crisis brought on by speculators who lost money when Jackson closed the National Bank and state banks printing money without backing Cotton prices went down because of a surplus Cotton prices went down because of a surplus Van Buren believed in hands off policy Van Buren believed in hands off policy The Whigs did what they could to destroy him politically The Whigs did what they could to destroy him politically


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