Presentation on theme: "Deuteronomistic Sermons n Deuteronomy 4; 29 n Joshua 1 and 23 n Judg 2:11ff n 1 Samuel 12 n 1 Kings 8 n 2 Kings 17."— Presentation transcript:
Deuteronomistic Sermons n Deuteronomy 4; 29 n Joshua 1 and 23 n Judg 2:11ff n 1 Samuel 12 n 1 Kings 8 n 2 Kings 17
Deut 29:29 n The secret things belong to the LORD our God n but the revealed things belong to us and to our children forever n to observe all the words of this law
Theology in Joshua n Deut 31:7 Moses: promise of land to be carried out through Joshua n Joshua 2-12 fulfilled to a “T” n Josh 21:45 None of the promises failed (see also 23:14) n Josh 23:15-16 Judgment certain if covenant transgressed or if Israel would serve other gods
Theology in Joshua n 24:31 Israel served Yahweh all days of Joshua n Judg 2:10-11 The next generation did what was evil in eyes of Yahweh
Joshua: the Conquest Model n apparently faithful to the Bible n archaeological “confirmation:” Lachish, Bethel, Hazor, Tell Beit Mirsim, Eglon n Israelites? Philistines? natural catastrophes?
Conquest Model: Problems n Jericho--no city from 1300-1100 n Ai--gap between 2400-1200 n Gibeon--no LB city n also Hebron, Heshbon, Dibon, Hormah (Num 21:3), and Arad did not exist at the time of Joshua
Conquest Model: Presuppositions n Radical discontinuity between Israel and its Canaanite neighbors n Cultural change is caused by invasion of new people n Relationship between theory and imperialism? n Problems: Yahweh as warrior; land taken from Canaanites. If Jericho was not razed, is your faith vain?
Peaceful Immigration Model n Israel settled in area between older cities n Little continuity with biblical tradition; stories of conquest are etiological (Ai = “ruin”) n Move into land without theological significance; emphasis on promise of land to matriarchs and patriarchs n Embarrassing Holy Wars were not fought
Immigration Model: Presuppositions n Nomadism; but early Israelites raised crops and livestock; sophisticated ceramics n camel not domesticated until 1200 n Hence those who entered the land were not true nomads.
Peasants’ Revolt n Amarna (14c) Palestine ruled by city kings in class conscious society n These kings complained about lawless “Apiru” or “habiru” n Israelites in Exodus described as “mixed multitude”
Peasants’ Revolt n Fugitives from Egypt galvinized peasants into full-scale revolt (70 families became 250,000 people) n archaeological continuity between LB and Iron ages n Rahab the prostitute (lower class); cf. Judg 1:22-26 (informer from Bethel)
Results of Revolt Model n democratization of housing n equality of land distribution n hostility to kingship and hierarchy of every kind; harboring of runaway slaves encouraged (Deut 23:15-16) n but least like biblical picture
Theological implications of Revolt Model n Conquest was not imperialism but a mighty blow for justice n Connection of Yahweh with justice is central and original n unity of Israel is ideological or theological
More Theological Implications of Revolt Model n Yahweh is the one who puts down the mighty from their thrones n “Conquest” was more political than religious n Crimes against property are not capital crimes in the Bible; no class distinctions in law
Revolt Model: Weaknesses n Was covenant unity so early? n Why does the Bible indicate that majority came from outside the land n Are the Apiru really Hebrews? n Israel settled in hill country because they were unable to beat royal strongholds; ruralization and decline of city-states in LB n Egalitarian villages also outside the confines of premonarchic Israel
Dtr Scheme in time of Othniel n Sin 3:7 n Punishment 3:8 n Cry to the LORD 3:9a n Deliverance 3:9b-10 n Rest 3:11
Judges n Ehud n Deborah n Gideon n Jephthah n Samson n Minor judges in 10:1-5; 12:7-15
Judg 10:6-16 n Yahweh refuses to act until they actually dispose of other gods n They put away gods; Yahweh could no longer bear to see Israel suffer n Climactic sin: choice of king (1 Sam 12:19)