Presentation on theme: "The Sexual Marketplace"— Presentation transcript:
1The Sexual Marketplace Prostitution and PornographyThe Sexual MarketplaceFORMER HSC 425 STUDENTS
2Prostitution: Legal or illegal Should laws be established limiting choices done with one’s own body?Why does someone choose to pay for sexual activities?Would decriminalizing prostitution reduce the spread of HIV and other STIs?How do sexually explicit materials fit in the 1st amendment?Should films, videos, magazines etc. be censored?Pornography discriminate certain groups?Does it promote rape? Other sexualviolence?What can be done in childpornography?
3Historical Perspective & Discovery The “oldest profession”1996, archeologists discover ruins of an ancient Roman forum in SalonikaBathhouse and brothelsUncovered 100 sexual depictions in myriad forms and combinationsClay dildos, clay masksoil lampsMany pictoral drawings
4ProstitutionHooker, hustler, cocotte, harlot, bawd, tart, streetwalker, commercial sex trader etcDifferent districts, different perspectives:(Nevada) no criminal penalties(San Francisco & New York) misdeamors(Iran) flogging(pre 2003 Iran) public beheading
5Defining Prostitution Sex worker, not a common research termProstitute, returns millions of sites on the internetMost common definition; “sex for money”Sexual services exchanged for virtually anythingMoney, valued objects, personal property, drugs, shelter, etc.
6Types of Prostitution Streetwalker Sell services on the street Most of their earnings go to the “pimp”Great danger for arrest, violence, contracting STIsManuel masturbation, oral sex, or quick vaginal intercourseCall girlsContacted by a client when her services are desiredMaintain a list of clientsSee fewer people than streetwalkersUsually work for a “madam”Many call girls earn 100 of thousands of dollars per yr.
7Brothel Workers A prostitute who works in a house of prostitution Few areas are legal… NevadaClients are screened before enteringLess likely to contract STIsMore consistent theuse of condoms
8Male prostitutes Most male prostitutes are for other men Services for women are rareReferred to as “gigolos”Use same tactics as streetwalkers“hustlers”Linked to drug abuse & health issuesHIV (28%), Syphilis (37%), Herpes (67%)Cocaine (76%), Crack (61%)
9Prostitution as a choice Not all prostitutes would give up this profession if they were given the choice to have another career.Some will agree that they make too much money to give up this life up along with the choice to make their own schedules.Many feel that they cannot have these benefits if they had another job.
10Being Forced Into this life Factors why some feel forced into prostitution:Drug addictionThreats to earn moneyPimpsCannot find another jobHave to feed their childrenEnding up in a sex trade by being sold, lured, or kidnappedEven prostitutes experience rape.They are less likely to report it to the police.
11Prostitution as a profession Not all prostitutes choose this profession by choice. Some factors that play into their decisions to be streetwalkers are:They are being forcedIntimidationPovertyNo other choice?
12Illegal sex trafficking 4 million victims involves mostly young girlsAs young as the age of 9Sold by parentsKidnappedLuredThailand, China, Western Africa, and Eastern EuropePromised a better life and/or jobVictims of Trafficking and Violence Prevention Act established in 2000.Felony lawsOffered temporary U.S. visas, protection for the victims, and social services
13Drug abuse is common in the lives of prostitutes Drugs can lead people into prostitution and keep them living that lifestyleDrugs can help prostitutes deal with their situationsProstitutes may use drugs to be able to perform their duties, to feel confident, to distract themselves from feeling guilty about what they are doing and to ignore the “lack of sexual intimacy” they are experiencingProstitution + drugs
14Addictions and coping mechanisms AlcoholMarijuanaCocaineAmphetaminesHeroinCrackMost prostitutes addicted to drugs will engage in unprotected sex, have sex to get drugs, and have sex with others that inject drugs
15Sexually transmitted infections Prostitution plays a huge role in spreading infections such as HIV and AIDSThe sex workers have higher rates of STIs due to:Having many partnersUnprotected sexSharing drugsCrack useMale Transvestite Prostitutes have a high risk of spreading STIsCrack users transmit STIs due to their damaged mouth linings from crack and giving oral sex to clients
16Massage parlors, saunas, and strip clubs Women working in these places have a greater risk of getting an infection than those who walk the streetsCustomers usually request unprotected sexVaginalAnalCustomers repeat customers so the women are likely to agreeCan charge a lot, they are likely to engage in risky sexual behaviors with customers
17Sexual Health HIV was rapidly spreading in the 1980s-90s Sex workers were targeted to help slow the spread of HIVOutreach program in 1990Goal was to reduce sex workers’ risks of receiving/giving infectionsSupplied condoms and lubeConduct ResearchInform workers about sexual healthBuild relationships with the womenIncrease awareness
18Clients Most Common Wants: Reasons for seeking sex Fellatio Usually called Johns or TricksSeeking services of prostitutes can be a misdemeanorPossible sentences:30 day sin jailYear in prisonCharacteristics of most clients:EmployedHeterosexualMarried menMiddle and upper classReasons for seeking sexLonelyCurious about sex with other womenUnsatisfied with sex with partnersStrong Sex driveMost Common Wants:FellatioSexual encounter that is uncomplicated, quick, no strings attached
19Sexually transmitted infections Prostitution plays a huge role in spreading infections such as HIV and AIDSThe sex workers have higher rates of STIs due to:Having many partnersUnprotected sexSharing drugsCrack useMale Transvestite Prostitutes have a high risk of spreading STIsCrack users transmit STIs due to their damaged mouth linings from crack and giving oral sex to clients
21Defining PornographyEach of us draw the line differently between acceptable sexually explicit materials and those that you would call pornographic.The word obsence comes closest to capturing the most formal (and legal) definition of pornography.
22The Moral StandardA tension has existed between the First Amendment to the Constitution and citizens’ rights to sell, distribute, look at, or otherwise participate in sexually explicit materials.However, exceptions exist to this basic right and the most pertinent to our discussion is obscenity.Sexually explicit works that meet specific legal criteria that render them exempt from First Amendment protections and may be declared illegal.
23The Moral Standard (cont) Catherine MacKinnon, Professor from the University of Michigan, advocated the following basic ideas to this approach:Pornography, by its vary nature, is discrimination against women. The distinction between sexually explicit materials and the actions they depict is meaningless.Pornography represents men’s power over women in society and embodies the dehumanization of women in an already male-dominated world.Pornography objectifies women by portraying women as nothing more than tools of male pleasure.
24Pornography or Erotica? Erotica is often applied to sexually explicit works, including films, books, and magazines, that portray expression of physical desire, passion, and attraction among people … and includes psychological and emotional factors as well.Erotica is about sexual sharing, whereas pornography is about sexual using.
25The Effects of Pornography Pornography and erotica exist primarily for the purpose of sexually arousing people.Some people are offended by sexual images, some sexual arousal may occur.Most conservative people react negatively to sexually explicit materials in general.
26The Effects of Pornography On Women.… found the videos depicting themes degrading women repugnant to them.… are more acceptable to videos whom had explicit sex with more plot and partner interaction.… their level of sexual arousal higher in response to the couples video than to the traditional male-oriented video.… thus arouse by a traditional male oriented video, it would evokes feelings of shame, guilt, and aversion.
27The Effect of Pornography On Men… reported more arousal and rated videos depicting themes degrading women as more acceptable.… prefer videos which display pure, explicit sex.… viewed all the videos more positively than the women did.… college men are more arouse to highly explicit video that contained a highly romantic story, instead of a less romantic story.
28Research on the Effects of Pornography This controversy over the effects of pornography may never lead to a definitive conclusion.Scientific evidence, allow us to have the tools to develop an informed, knowledgeable opinions.But overall, pornography material tends to objectify, dehumanize, or display violence toward women and devoid of intimacy.
29Pornography, Violence, & Rape Victimization & violence towards womenPorn the cause of it?Studies conducted produce mixed & confusing results
30Men with Anti-Women Attitudes Two GroupsFirst Group: Exposed to Violent PornMore likely to force rape/sexual forceSecond Group: Not Exposed to Violent PornLess likely to force rape/use sexual force than previous group
31Strict Porn Enforcement 4 States Strictly Enforced PornMaine, N. Carolina, Pennsylvania, & WashingtonAfter Enforcement Was Lifted10% increase of internet use7.3% decrease in rape incidentsSuggestion of Increasing Access to Sexually Explicit MaterialMay decrease sex-related crimesProve men rape/sexually assault for other reasons
32Other Findings: Non-Violent sexually explicit material Doesn’t matter how explicitDoesn’t produce negative effects on men’s attitude/behavior towards womenBut if shown Violent pornResults in negative changes in men’s attitude/behaviors/intentionsSome men get idea women secretly enjoy sexual assault
33The Study Three Groups, Different Versions of Same Film Group 1 Shown sexual aggression scene which woman is violently tied up, threatened with a gun and rapedGroup 2Same film, same scene but violence was shown and sexually explicit rape sequence removedGroup 3Same film, same scene; Rape scene shown, violence deleted
34The Results Group 2 (Violence w/o Rape) Group 3 (Sex Content Only) Most insensitive attitude toward rapeLarge % admitted to likelihood of raping w/ sexual force (if not caught)Group 3 (Sex Content Only)Less likely to rapeGroup 1 (Sex & Violent Content)Fell in between the other two groups
36Child Porn Huge Business makes approx. $3 billion per year in US During 1980sChild Porn = Dying MenaceChild Pornographers = isolated, became hunted individualsAccess to Child Porn very, limitedPut into “deepest, darkest recesses of society”After Internet came along, changed world of Child PornNow, 100,000 pornographic child images can be downloaded
37Child Porn & The LawAny use of Child Porn (Producing, Viewing, Selling, or Distrusting) is illegal worldwide!Int’l Police Agencies, FBI Interpol = becoming skilled at finding, tracing, & arresting perpetratorsIn EnglandNo distinction between 1 or 100,000 child porn imagesResult in max 5 years in jail
38Child Porn & The Law (Cont’d) In USPassed SAFE (Securing Adolescents from Exploitation Online)Internet Providers = tripled penalties for not reporting distributors using their channelPerpetrators fined $150,000 per image per day, 1St OffenseRepeated Offenders, $300,000 per image per day!Depending on severity of crime, punishments are widely ranged (Table 15.5)
39The ProblemBlocks porn sites but also non-porn sites that contain key words, phrases or graphics interpreted as forbiddenEx. Fine Arts , Sex-Ed and Health Related SitesCommunities have asked public libraries to use filterLibraries refuse, see it as a form of censorship of public material
40Internet PornographyCyber Porn sexually explicit materials accessible onlineLike child porn, has many internet issuesDifference: laws & definitions “turn away” from X-rated adult sitesUS Congress & Legislature WorldwideAttempting to write laws to control sexually explicit material onlineCourts have shot down laws b/c they violate 1st Amendment & there’s no basis to judge whether or not sexually explicit material is offensive or deemed obscene
41As one judge put it…“I believe that ‘indecent’ and ‘patently offensive’ are inherently vague, particularly in light of the government’s inability to identify the relevant community by whose standards the material will be judged”
43Is Prostitution one of the “oldest professions”? True or FalseIs Prostitution one of the “oldest professions”?True
44This type of prostitution gives her earnings to her ”pimp”? QuestionThis type of prostitution gives her earnings to her ”pimp”?Street Walker
45True or FalseProstitution plays a huge role in spreading infections such as HIV and AIDSTrue
46QuestionSome prostitutes may use drugs to be able to perform their duties, why?to feel confident, to distract themselves from feeling guilty about what they are doing and to ignore the “lack of sexual intimacy” they are experiencing
47True or FalseThe word obsence comes closest to capturing the most formal (and legal) definition of pornographyTrue
48The difference between erotica and pornography? QuestionThe difference between erotica and pornography?Erotica is about sexual sharing, whereas pornography is about sexual using.
49Securing Adolescents from Exploitation Online QuestionWhat does SAFE stand for?Securing Adolescents from Exploitation Online
50The last name of the professor of this class? QuestionThe last name of the professor of this class?Matza