Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

The Sexual Marketplace Prostitution and Pornography FORMER HSC 425 STUDENTS.

Similar presentations


Presentation on theme: "The Sexual Marketplace Prostitution and Pornography FORMER HSC 425 STUDENTS."— Presentation transcript:

1 The Sexual Marketplace Prostitution and Pornography FORMER HSC 425 STUDENTS

2 Prostitution: Legal or illegal Should laws be established limiting choices done with one’s own body? Why does someone choose to pay for sexual activities? Would decriminalizing prostitution reduce the spread of HIV and other STIs? How do sexually explicit materials fit in the 1 st amendment? Should films, videos, magazines etc. be censored? Pornography discriminate certain groups? Does it promote rape? Other sexual violence? What can be done in child pornography?

3 Historical Perspective & Discovery The “oldest profession” 1996, archeologists discover ruins of an ancient Roman forum in Salonika – Bathhouse and brothels Uncovered 100 sexual depictions in myriad forms and combinations Clay dildos, clay masks oil lamps Many pictoral drawings

4 Prostitution Hooker, hustler, cocotte, harlot, bawd, tart, streetwalker, commercial sex trader etc Different districts, different perspectives: – (Nevada) no criminal penalties – (San Francisco & New York) misdeamors – (Iran) flogging – (pre 2003 Iran) public beheading

5 Defining Prostitution Sex worker, not a common research term Prostitute, returns millions of sites on the internet Most common definition; “sex for money” Sexual services exchanged for virtually anything – Money, valued objects, personal property, drugs, shelter, etc.

6 Types of Prostitution Streetwalker – Sell services on the street – Most of their earnings go to the “pimp” – Great danger for arrest, violence, contracting STIs – Manuel masturbation, oral sex, or quick vaginal intercourse Call girls – Contacted by a client when her services are desired – Maintain a list of clients – See fewer people than streetwalkers – Usually work for a “madam” – Many call girls earn 100 of thousands of dollars per yr.

7 Brothel Workers A prostitute who works in a house of prostitution Few areas are legal… Nevada Clients are screened before entering Less likely to contract STIs More consistent the use of condoms

8 Male prostitutes Most male prostitutes are for other men Services for women are rare Referred to as “gigolos” Use same tactics as streetwalkers – “hustlers” Linked to drug abuse & health issues – HIV (28%), Syphilis (37%), Herpes (67%) – Cocaine (76%), Crack (61%)

9 Prostitution as a choice Not all prostitutes would give up this profession if they were given the choice to have another career. Some will agree that they make too much money to give up this life up along with the choice to make their own schedules. Many feel that they cannot have these benefits if they had another job.

10 Being Forced Into this life Factors why some feel forced into prostitution: – Drug addiction – Threats to earn money – Pimps – Cannot find another job – Have to feed their children – Ending up in a sex trade by being sold, lured, or kidnapped Even prostitutes experience rape. – They are less likely to report it to the police.

11 Prostitution as a profession Not all prostitutes choose this profession by choice. Some factors that play into their decisions to be streetwalkers are: – They are being forced – Intimidation – Poverty – No other choice?

12 Illegal sex trafficking Victims of Trafficking and Violence Prevention Act established in Felony laws Offered temporary U.S. visas, protection for the victims, and social services 4 million victims involves mostly young girls – As young as the age of 9 – Sold by parents – Kidnapped – Lured – Thailand, China, Western Africa, and Eastern Europe Promised a better life and/or job

13 Prostitution + drugs Drug abuse is common in the lives of prostitutes Drugs can lead people into prostitution and keep them living that lifestyle Drugs can help prostitutes deal with their situations Prostitutes may use drugs to be able to perform their duties, to feel confident, to distract themselves from feeling guilty about what they are doing and to ignore the “lack of sexual intimacy” they are experiencing

14 Addictions and coping mechanisms Alcohol Marijuana Cocaine Amphetamines Heroin Crack Most prostitutes addicted to drugs will engage in unprotected sex, have sex to get drugs, and have sex with others that inject drugs

15 Sexually transmitted infections Prostitution plays a huge role in spreading infections such as HIV and AIDS The sex workers have higher rates of STIs due to: – Having many partners – Unprotected sex – Sharing drugs – Crack use – Male Transvestite Prostitutes have a high risk of spreading STIs Crack users transmit STIs due to their damaged mouth linings from crack and giving oral sex to clients

16 Massage parlors, saunas, and strip clubs Women working in these places have a greater risk of getting an infection than those who walk the streets – Customers usually request unprotected sex Vaginal Anal Customers repeat customers so the women are likely to agree Can charge a lot, they are likely to engage in risky sexual behaviors with customers

17 Sexual Health HIV was rapidly spreading in the 1980s-90s Sex workers were targeted to help slow the spread of HIV Outreach program in 1990 – Goal was to reduce sex workers’ risks of receiving/giving infections – Supplied condoms and lube – Conduct Research – Inform workers about sexual health – Build relationships with the women – Increase awareness

18 Clients Usually called Johns or Tricks Seeking services of prostitutes can be a misdemeanor Possible sentences: 30 day sin jail Year in prison Characteristics of most clients: Employed Heterosexual Married men Middle and upper class Reasons for seeking sex Lonely Curious about sex with other women Unsatisfied with sex with partners Strong Sex drive Most Common Wants: Fellatio Sexual encounter that is uncomplicated, quick, no strings attached

19 Sexually transmitted infections Prostitution plays a huge role in spreading infections such as HIV and AIDS The sex workers have higher rates of STIs due to: – Having many partners – Unprotected sex – Sharing drugs – Crack use – Male Transvestite Prostitutes have a high risk of spreading STIs Crack users transmit STIs due to their damaged mouth linings from crack and giving oral sex to clients

20 PORNOGRAPHY

21 Defining Pornography Each of us draw the line differently between acceptable sexually explicit materials and those that you would call pornographic. The word obsence comes closest to capturing the most formal (and legal) definition of pornography.

22 The Moral Standard A tension has existed between the First Amendment to the Constitution and citizens’ rights to sell, distribute, look at, or otherwise participate in sexually explicit materials. However, exceptions exist to this basic right and the most pertinent to our discussion is obscenity. – Sexually explicit works that meet specific legal criteria that render them exempt from First Amendment protections and may be declared illegal.

23 The Moral Standard (cont) Catherine MacKinnon, Professor from the University of Michigan, advocated the following basic ideas to this approach: – Pornography, by its vary nature, is discrimination against women. The distinction between sexually explicit materials and the actions they depict is meaningless. – Pornography represents men’s power over women in society and embodies the dehumanization of women in an already male-dominated world. – Pornography objectifies women by portraying women as nothing more than tools of male pleasure.

24 Pornography or Erotica? Erotica is often applied to sexually explicit works, including films, books, and magazines, that portray expression of physical desire, passion, and attraction among people … and includes psychological and emotional factors as well. Erotica is about sexual sharing, whereas pornography is about sexual using.

25 The Effects of Pornography Pornography and erotica exist primarily for the purpose of sexually arousing people. Some people are offended by sexual images, some sexual arousal may occur. Most conservative people react negatively to sexually explicit materials in general.

26 The Effects of Pornography … found the videos depicting themes degrading women repugnant to them. … are more acceptable to videos whom had explicit sex with more plot and partner interaction. … their level of sexual arousal higher in response to the couples video than to the traditional male- oriented video. … thus arouse by a traditional male oriented video, it would evokes feelings of shame, guilt, and aversion. On Women.

27 The Effect of Pornography … reported more arousal and rated videos depicting themes degrading women as more acceptable. … prefer videos which display pure, explicit sex. … viewed all the videos more positively than the women did. … college men are more arouse to highly explicit video that contained a highly romantic story, instead of a less romantic story. On Men

28 Research on the Effects of Pornography This controversy over the effects of pornography may never lead to a definitive conclusion. Scientific evidence, allow us to have the tools to develop an informed, knowledgeable opinions. But overall, pornography material tends to objectify, dehumanize, or display violence toward women and devoid of intimacy.

29 Pornography, Violence, & Rape Victimization & violence towards women – Porn the cause of it? Studies conducted produce mixed & confusing results

30 Men with Anti-Women Attitudes Two Groups – First Group: Exposed to Violent Porn More likely to force rape/sexual force – Second Group: Not Exposed to Violent Porn Less likely to force rape/use sexual force than previous group

31 Strict Porn Enforcement 4 States Strictly Enforced Porn – Maine, N. Carolina, Pennsylvania, & Washington After Enforcement Was Lifted – 10% increase of internet use – 7.3% decrease in rape incidents Suggestion of Increasing Access to Sexually Explicit Material – May decrease sex-related crimes – Prove men rape/sexually assault for other reasons

32 Other Findings: Non-Violent sexually explicit material – Doesn’t matter how explicit – Doesn’t produce negative effects on men’s attitude/behavior towards women But if shown Violent porn – Results in negative changes in men’s attitude/behaviors/intentions Some men get idea women secretly enjoy sexual assault

33 The Study Three Groups, Different Versions of Same Film – Group 1 Shown sexual aggression scene which woman is violently tied up, threatened with a gun and raped – Group 2 Same film, same scene but violence was shown and sexually explicit rape sequence removed – Group 3 Same film, same scene; Rape scene shown, violence deleted

34 The Results Group 2 (Violence w/o Rape) – Most insensitive attitude toward rape – Large % admitted to likelihood of raping w/ sexual force (if not caught) Group 3 (Sex Content Only) – Less likely to rape Group 1 (Sex & Violent Content) – Fell in between the other two groups

35 Child Pornography

36 Child Porn Huge Business makes approx. $3 billion per year in US During 1980s – Child Porn = Dying Menace Child Pornographers = isolated, became hunted individuals Access to Child Porn very, limited – Put into “deepest, darkest recesses of society” After Internet came along, changed world of Child Porn – Now, 100,000 pornographic child images can be downloaded

37 Child Porn & The Law Any use of Child Porn (Producing, Viewing, Selling, or Distrusting) is illegal worldwide! – Int’l Police Agencies, FBI Interpol = becoming skilled at finding, tracing, & arresting perpetrators In England – No distinction between 1 or 100,000 child porn images Result in max 5 years in jail

38 Child Porn & The Law (Cont’d) In US – Passed SAFE (Securing Adolescents from Exploitation Online) Internet Providers = tripled penalties for not reporting distributors using their channel Perpetrators fined $150,000 per image per day, 1 St Offense – Repeated Offenders, $300,000 per image per day! Depending on severity of crime, punishments are widely ranged (Table 15.5)

39 The Problem Blocks porn sites but also non-porn sites that contain key words, phrases or graphics interpreted as forbidden – Ex. Fine Arts, Sex-Ed and Health Related Sites Communities have asked public libraries to use filter – Libraries refuse, see it as a form of censorship of public material

40 Internet Pornography Cyber Porn  sexually explicit materials accessible online Like child porn, has many internet issues – Difference: laws & definitions “turn away” from X- rated adult sites US Congress & Legislature Worldwide – Attempting to write laws to control sexually explicit material online Courts have shot down laws b/c they violate 1 st Amendment & there’s no basis to judge whether or not sexually explicit material is offensive or deemed obscene

41 As one judge put it… “I believe that ‘indecent’ and ‘patently offensive’ are inherently vague, particularly in light of the government’s inability to identify the relevant community by whose standards the material will be judged”

42 Game Questions or True/False Win a Prize

43 True or False Is Prostitution one of the “oldest professions”? True

44 Question This type of prostitution gives her earnings to her ”pimp”? Street Walker

45 True or False Prostitution plays a huge role in spreading infections such as HIV and AIDS True

46 Question Some prostitutes may use drugs to be able to perform their duties, why? to feel confident, to distract themselves from feeling guilty about what they are doing and to ignore the “lack of sexual intimacy” they are experiencing

47 True or False The word obsence comes closest to capturing the most formal (and legal) definition of pornography True

48 Question The difference between erotica and pornography? Erotica is about sexual sharing, whereas pornography is about sexual using.

49 Question What does SAFE stand for? Securing Adolescents from Exploitation Online

50 Question The last name of the professor of this class? Matza


Download ppt "The Sexual Marketplace Prostitution and Pornography FORMER HSC 425 STUDENTS."

Similar presentations


Ads by Google