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America’s History Seventh Edition CHAPTER 19 “Civilization’s Inferno”: The Rise and Reform of Industrial Cities, 1880-1917 Copyright © 2011 by Bedford/St.

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Presentation on theme: "America’s History Seventh Edition CHAPTER 19 “Civilization’s Inferno”: The Rise and Reform of Industrial Cities, 1880-1917 Copyright © 2011 by Bedford/St."— Presentation transcript:

1 America’s History Seventh Edition CHAPTER 19 “Civilization’s Inferno”: The Rise and Reform of Industrial Cities, Copyright © 2011 by Bedford/St. Martin’s James A. Henretta Rebecca Edwards Robert O. Self

2 1. Describe this street. 2. What does this photograph of Mulberry Street symbolize?

3 I. The New Metropolis A.The Shape of the Industrial City 1. Mass Transit and the Suburb as cities grew larger, technology assisted residents and visitors with travel electric trolley in Richmond, VA (1887) Chicago and New York City had elevated railroads Boston had an underground line (1897); railroads contributed to the growth of the “suburb,” areas on the outskirts of city where wealthy lived: “commuters” working class lived near cities’ centers where they worked telephone (1876) connected suburban people to the cities. 2. Skyscrapers 3. The Electric City

4 I. The New Metropolis A.The Shape of the Industrial City 2. Skyscrapers steel, glass, elevators changed buildings in downtown areas “skyscrapers” were expensive but a good use of small amounts of land Home Insurance Building (1885) in Chicago was first. 3. The Electric City gas lamps too dim for city streets invention of the incandescent bulb in 1879 changed urban life as night time was now illuminated urban life appeared safer and more appealing.

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6 I. The New Metropolis B.Newcomers and Neighborhoods 1. Ethnic Neighborhoods immigrants generally lived among people of shared ethnicity: Irish in Boston, Swedes in Minneapolis, Italians in Northeastern and Mid-Atlantic cities settled in neighborhoods where churches, shops, schools met their cultural needs. 2. African Americans turn of the century 90% of black Americans lived in the South, but many were moving from rural to urban areas in northern cities they faced discrimination and violence “race riots” occurred in several northern cities (New York 1900; Evansville, IN, 1903; Springfield, IL, 1908). 3. Tenements cheap housing, generally five to six stories, twenty or more families; disease rampant; in New York “Tenement House Law of 1901” required interior courts, indoor toilets, fire safety measures on new buildings.

7 I. The New Metropolis B.Newcomers and Neighborhoods 3. Tenements cheap housing, generally five to six stories, twenty or more families disease rampant; in New York “Tenement House Law of 1901” required interior courts, indoor toilets, fire safety measures on new buildings.

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11 I. The New Metropolis C.City Cultures 1. Urban Amusements “vaudeville” theater (1880s-1890s): patrons paid 25 cents to watch live entertainment appealed to all classes 5 cents for movie at the nickelodeons amusement parks (ex: Coney Island, NY) where people rode the roller coasters, ate, and danced. 2. Ragtime music by African American artists with a “ragged rhythm,” extremely popular among audiences used to Victorian hymns and parlor songs Scott Joplin most famous performer New York had more than 500 dance halls by 1910 the “blues” became popular in NYC, taken from African American folk music. 3. Sex and the City 4. Urban High Culture 5. Investigative Journalism

12 I. The New Metropolis C.City Cultures 2. Ragtime music by African American artists with a “ragged rhythm,” extremely popular among audiences used to Victorian hymns and parlor songs Scott Joplin most famous performer New York had more than 500 dance halls by 1910 the “blues” became popular in NYC, taken from African American folk music. 3. Sex and the City 4. Urban High Culture 5. Investigative Journalism

13 I. The New Metropolis C.City Cultures 3. Sex and the City amusement parks, theaters provided opportunities for “dating” that had not existed in previous generations less parental supervision working girls needed dates to “treat,” for some this meant exchanging sexual favors for the date (“charity girls”) gay subculture developed in urban areas with underground clubs term “queer” was used by Urban High Culture art and natural history museums, libraries, symphonies grew out of wealthy patrons’ interests and donations Andrew Carnegie spent more than $32.7 million developing 1,000 libraries nationwide. 5. Investigative Journalism

14 I. The New Metropolis C.City Cultures 5. Investigative Journalism increased interest in reading about current events, human-interest stories, sports, fashion, high society Sunday comics “yellow journalism” was a derogatory term for mass-market newspaper sensationalism grew as owners competed for sales (Joseph Pulitzer, William Randolph Hearst) papers played an increasing role in investigating corruption in government “muckrakers”: negative term for those newspaper reporters accused of drawing too much attention to negative stories.

15 1. Riis photographed this boy and many others for his 1899 work How the Other Half Lives. What does this image of a working-boy tell us about the “other half” at the turn of the century?

16 2. Who was Riis’s audience for this photograph? In your opinion, what did Riis hope to accomplish by photographing the poor at work and at home?

17 II. Governing the Great City A.Urban Machines 1. Tammany Hall well-organized political party organizations referred to as “machines” viewed by the middle class as corrupt Tammany Hall: NYC, led by George Washington Plunkitt, who made deals for city contracts and services; the “honest graft” middle-class Americans were critical of immigrants’ support for political machines, but immigrants needed the jobs and aid that they provided in exchange for their political support. 2. Successes and Failures B.The Limits of Machine Government 1. The Depression of the 1890s 2. Programs

18 II. Governing the Great City A.Urban Machines 2. Successes and Failures built and/or improved public parks, markets, paved streets, clean water, gaslight, sewerage removal better organized municipal agencies massive public projects such as aqueducts, bridges limited in what the “boss” could do to stop widespread poverty could help the individual, but not the bigger causes of the problems. B.The Limits of Machine Government 1. The Depression of the 1890s 2. Programs

19 II. Governing the Great City B.The Limits of Machine Government 1. The Depression of the 1890s cities struggled to deal with the extreme growth in population during 1890s unemployment reached 25% in some urban areas homelessness and hunger increased middle-class reformers encouraged private charity rather than public assistance urban voters became radicalized by the poverty forcing politicians to make changes to their programs (ex: Cleveland’s mayoral race). 2. Programs

20 II. Governing the Great City B.The Limits of Machine Government 2. Programs some American mayors began to model programs after European successes: public baths, gyms, swimming pools, playgrounds, free public concerts, lowering fares for street car travel, efforts to reduce crime and increase municipal ownership of gas and electricity.

21 III. Cities as Crucibles of Reform A.Public Health 1. Disease late 19th-century Europeans began to understand how to prevent disease, even if they could not yet cure understood germs and bacteria initiatives for clean water in urban areas of Massachusetts were able to decrease the number of deaths from cholera, typhoid, yellow fever. 2. Pollution more noticeable in urban areas than rural children played in trash, consumed contaminated food, milk, water reformers made efforts to teach hand washing to urban residents to stop tuberculosis publication of The Jungle by Upton Sinclair (1906) increased concerns about the meatpacking industry creation of Food and Drug Administration (1906) to respond to concerns and ensure compliance with food and drug safety laws.

22 III. Cities as Crucibles of Reform A.Public Health 2. Pollution more noticeable in urban areas than rural children played in trash, consumed contaminated food, milk, water reformers made efforts to teach hand washing to urban residents to stop tuberculosis publication of The Jungle by Upton Sinclair (1906) increased concerns about the meatpacking industry creation of Food and Drug Administration (1906) to respond to concerns and ensure compliance with food and drug safety laws.

23 1. According to this cartoonist, how do “cities invite the cholera”? 2. Why did this artist choose skeletons as peddlers on this city street? 3. In your opinion, what specific audience is the artist seeking to capture with this depiction of city life?

24 III. Cities as Crucibles of Reform B.Campaigns Against Urban Prostitution 1. “White Slavery” allegations that white women were being kidnapped into sex industry were overstated, but led to reform efforts investigations found that low wages, sexual and domestic abuse were likely causes of a woman working as a prostitute efforts made to reduce the demand for prostitutes (punish men) were unpopular. 2. Vice Commissions early 1900s effort to close down brothels and red-light districts Mann Act (1910) prohibited the transport of a prostitute across state lines commissions closed brothels but worsened conditions for women who continued to work in the sex industry.

25 III. Cities as Crucibles of Reform B.Campaigns Against Urban Prostitution 2. Vice Commissions early 1900s effort to close down brothels and red-light districts Mann Act (1910) prohibited the transport of a prostitute across state lines commissions closed brothels but worsened conditions for women who continued to work in the sex industry.

26 III. Cities as Crucibles of Reform C.The Movement for Social Settlements 1. Hull House settlement houses viewed as one of the most successful reforms of the Progressive Era most famous was in Chicago, started by Jane Addams and Ellen Gates Starr (1889), modeled after London settlement “Toynbee Hall” community center to aid immigrants in gaining the resources they needed to survive in the city helped give the community a voice offered a bathhouse, playground, kindergarten, daycare; in some cities settlements were linked to or worked with colleges/universities to offer education. 2. Resources and Influence D.City and National Politics 1. Triangle Shirtwaist Fire 2. Resulting Reforms

27 III. Cities as Crucibles of Reform C.The Movement for Social Settlements 2. Resources and Influence opened libraries, gymnasiums, employment assistance, savings banks, cooperative kitchens, assisted in investigations of problems in local communities (ex: helped establish juvenile court in Chicago) foundation of social work in urban areas. D.City and National Politics 1. Triangle Shirtwaist Fire March 25, 1911, New York City; fire spread quickly through textile factory where employers had locked doors to prevent theft (in violation of city fire laws) 146 deaths, average victim only 19 years old. 2. Resulting Reforms New York State Factory Commission created 56 laws for fire hazards, machinery, industrial homework, wages for women and children creation of an advanced labor code.

28 1. Describe the events depicted in this illustration.

29 2. What did artist John Sloan seek to teach Americans about the Triangle Fire from his depiction of the aftermath?


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