Drinking “We like to drink and have a good time, a hangover is the worst we expect to happen” “ By binge drinking, they are putting themselves at risk of rape, they need to accept some blame for their behaviour”
Drinking Amnesty Research 2005 – research conducted by Amnesty found that 28% of people believe that a woman is totally or partially responsible for being raped if she is drunk 26% of a cross section of the Scottish population (700 interviewees) who took part in research carried out by progressive on behalf of rape crisis Scotland in August 2007 believed that women contribute to rape if they are drunk. Research with mock juries has demonstrated that people are more likely to blame women for rape if they have been drinking (Wenger % Bornstein, 2006.)
“let’s be realistic in no way should a woman be raped whether she may be covered head to toe or naked BUT a woman who shows her body in a sexual way will attract a specific sort of attention. That si why most women who are raped are wearing revealing clothes!! They don’t deserve it but they DO play a part in it”. Hamid, male “What is women’s goal with showing a lot of skin, other than sending a signal of being fertile and attracting other people in a sexual context – if none other; then it is matter of taking a risk”. Bob, male “What is the point in showing your cleavage if you don't want male attention? I've seen women with their breasts basically hanging out and then get offended when people look at them. So ridiculous.” Lisa, female
Dress A fifth of the broad cross-section of the Scottish population (700 interviewees) who took part in research carried out by Progressive on behalf of Rape Crisis Scotland in August 2007 believed that women contribute to rape if they wear revealing clothing. Research conducted by Amnesty International in 2005 found that 27% of people believe that a woman is totally or partially responsible if she is wearing ‘sexy or revealing’ clothing. A survey of 986 Scots carried out by TNS System Three in February 2008 for the Scottish Government found that 27% thought that a woman bore some responsibility if she wore revealing clothing.
Intimacy “i totally agree with this campaign but the "intimacy" picture is a little bit off in my opinion, i mean she has unbuckled his belt which is a pretty strong suggestion that something will happen, no? im not saying that she has signed a contract or anything but the ad could have been a little subtler.” gary, male “The frustrating point about rape and sexual assault is that it makes you question yourself rather than the attacker question himself. We need men to become more introspective and empathetic with respect to this issue. Unfortunately I think that the anti-rape cause is not a priority for many men.” S, female
Intimacy Almost a quarter (23%) of the broad cross-section of the Scottish population (700 interviewees) who took part in research carried out by Progressive on behalf of Rape Crisis Scotland in August 2007 believed that women contribute to rape if they have engaged in some form of sexual activity. Research conducted by Amnesty International in 2005 found that over a third of people believe that a woman is totally or partially responsible if she has behaved in a flirtatious manner. Zero Tolerance research carried out in 1998 found that 1 in 2 boys and 1 in 3 girls believed that it was acceptable for a man to force a woman to have sex in certain circumstances.
Relationships “After having a disagreement with someone recently, who believed it was impossible for a husband to rape his wife, I was really pleased to notice your campaign. I strongly disagreed with him and I am pleased you are challenging opinions like this. I hope it will give females (and males) the confidence to take their assault further.”Jennifer, female “Marriage and marital sex are mutually contradictory. Partner rape is perhaps, a more appropriate term. The notion of marital rape is an idea invented by women libbers and has no place in a proper marital home. If you do not want your spouse to have free access to your body why do you marry him or her? You can stay spinster or bachelor and seek out sex from outside when you want it.” Christian, male “Thank you so much for bringing this into th open. And please ignore calls from people that images of marriage shouldn't be associated with rape - the fact that the majority of rapes are carried out by partners or former partners means that it is already associated, whether we like it or not! It's infinitely more important that people are made more aware of this than that children are shielded from this knowledge, and encouraged to believe in fairytales.”Gareth Simpson, male
Relationships A significant minority (13%) of the broad cross-section of the Scottish population (700 interviewees) who took part in research carried out by Progressive on behalf of Rape Crisis Scotland in August 2007 believed that most women who are raped are raped by strangers. In 2002 the UK Home Office published the findings of a British Crime Survey to which 6,944 women had responded. Nearly half (45%) of rapes reported to the survey were committed by perpetrators who were victims’ partners at the time of the attack. Strangers were responsible for only 8% of rapes reported to the survey The survey also found that partner rape entails the highest occurrence of multiple rape (62%) and attacks by partners and ex- partners are more than twice as likely to result in some injury to the victim (39%) as attacks by strangers (19%)
What women tell EWRASAC Support Workers ~ Their fears : Not being believed Being asked questions about past sexual history Procedures : medical / legal He will not be charged & he will come & get me / my family No conviction will mean that people will think I made it up He is charged but it goes no further The whole court thing
What women tell EWRASAC Support Workers ~ Judged : –Was drunk at time –Take drugs / known to take drugs –Have a record –Flirted with him –Had sex with him before –He was an ex –Let him in / went home with him –I’m a prostitute / was a prostitute –We watched porn together –Kissed him
What women tell EWRASAC Support Workers ~ will not be taken seriously because : Knew him / was a friend / were at Uni. together / work / worked with him It was at a family party / he is family He said he would say that I said ‘yes’ and then changed my mind – that no-one would believe me Because of how I was dressed
Challenging Societal Attitudes In Scotland, only 2.9% of rapes recorded by the police currently lead to a conviction, and the humiliation experienced by female complainers in court is well documented. Despite recent efforts to help women who have been raped to receive justice, societal attitudes continue to play a significant role in limiting justice for women who have experienced this crime.