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AIDS in Thailand By Nathan Rowlett. History  Like many countries HIV/AIDS was first seen in homosexuals and injecting drug users  But as HIV.

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Presentation on theme: "AIDS in Thailand By Nathan Rowlett. History  Like many countries HIV/AIDS was first seen in homosexuals and injecting drug users  But as HIV."— Presentation transcript:

1 AIDS in Thailand By Nathan Rowlett

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7 History  Like many countries HIV/AIDS was first seen in homosexuals and injecting drug users  But as HIV is a non-discriminatory disease which targets the population most susceptible to infection, it spread to everyone else  In 1987 the government established Thailand's National AIDS Control Program (NACP)  Action taken due to increase of HIV infections in injection drug users (IDUs) from 1% to 30% within six months

8 History  Surveys set up by the Thai Ministry of Public Health revealed in 1989 that HIV was present in all 14 provinces surveyed  In Chiang Mai, 44 percent of the prostitutes were infected  In 1989 to 1991 over half of the 1126 males surveyed in Thiland had never used a condom  A national survey in the early 90s showed that over 1/4th of males were having sex with prostitutes (both in and out of marriage)

9 Government Response  1989-National surveys began  1991- Prime Minister Anand Panyarachun assumed leadership of the National AIDS Committee  Official spending on HIV/AIDS –1990: $2.6 million –1996: $80 million

10 Government Response  Sexual education began in schools in 1990  Sex industry required use of condoms  Clinics gave away 60 million condoms a year  Monasteries provided counseling  100% condom advertising campaign started

11 The Ministry of Public Health’s 7-part policy against AIDS  Coordinating work  Preventing the spread of AIDS  Determining attitudes toward AIDS and HIV- infected patients  Providing health services relating to AIDS  Promoting AIDS research  Ensuring the rights of HIV-infected employees From The World Bank Policy Research Report Confronting AIDS: Public Priorities in a Global Epidemic

12 Major Causes of AIDS  Prostitution  Lack of sexual education  Unsafe sex due to either poor education or lack of money  Power imbalance between men and women  Polygamy

13 Prostitution: Reasons  Get out of debt: make a lot of money fast –A Thai waitress makes $30-60/month –A prostitute makes $400-800 (over 25X as much)  Support family and advance their status

14 Prostitution: Dangers  Poor families enticed by money and then fall into debt with the brothels  Women can be deceived into sex work  Women can not leave--her and her family will be tracked down  Salary drops as they are no longer considered virgins

15 AIDS Education: Thailand VS USA  Thai children have greater access and more exposure to AIDS information  Thai children are more likely to receive this information from TV, teachers, parents and peers  Thai children know more about AIDS at every age level

16 AIDS Education: Why are Thai children better educated?  AIDS is prevalent and thus people discuss it more openly  Thai fathers are more likely to do business with prostitutes--children know and worry about this  The Thai government steadily increased its education efforts. The US offerings are sporadic  “Unless U.S. children live in an economically depressed urban area, have a parent who uses drugs or, more rarely, have a parent involved in the sex industry, they are less likely than Thai children to have been affected by AIDS” From: Understanding AIDS: A Comparison of children in the United States and Thailand

17 Results of efforts  From 1990 to 1993, the percentage of 15-49 year old men reporting sex outside of marriage dropped from 28% to 15%  Condom use during prostitution doubled  Condom use rose, STDs and HIV prevalence declined  Annual testing of both 21 year-old males in the military and pregnant women showed a slight increase in infection rates by 93, but a record low by 97 (.5 to 3.7 to 1.9;.5 to 2.4 to 1.7)

18 Continuing Challenges  Sex education and condom use not as prevalent in rural areas  By 1995 many injecting drug users began sharing needles again  780,000 infected by 1997

19 Continuing Challenges  The prevalence of HIV among intravenous drug users is still as high as 30 to 40% and 20 to 30% in female commercial sex workers  Asian financial crisis forced AIDS budget cuts

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23 Conclusions  HIV prevalence in Thailand is declining  Prevalence is low when compared to African countries  Though prevalence is low, (not greater than 2 per cent) the impact is great because most of the infected population is within reproductive age

24 References The politics of life and death: global responses to HIV and AIDS By Caron, Mary From World Watch v. 12 no3 (May/June 1999) p. 30-8 Breaking the silence: setting realistic priorities for AIDS control in less- developed countries By Martha Ainsworth, Waranya Teokul From The Lancet Vol 356 (July 1 st 2000) p. 55-60 Demographic Impact of AIDS on the Thai Population By Orratai Rhucharoenpornpanich and Aphichat Chamratrithirong From Asia-Pacific Population Journal Vol 16, no 3 (September 2001) p. 71-88

25 References The World Bank Policy Research Report Confronting AIDS: Public Priorities in a Global Epidemic Chapter 8: Socioeconomic determinants of sexual behaviour and condom use By Jean-Claude Deheneffe, Michel Caraël, and Amadou Noumbissi (New York: Oxford University Press, 1997) Understanding AIDS: A Comparison of children in the United States and Thailand By Young, Margaret H; Schvaneveldt, J D Lindauer, Shelley L K Schvaneveldt, Paul L From Family Relations 384-401 50, no. 4 (Oct 2001): p. 384-401 Sexual consumption in the time of AIDS: a study of prostitute patronage in Thailand By Belk, Russell W.; Østergaard, Per. Groves, Ronald. From Journal of Public Policy & Marketing v. 17 no2 (Fall 1998) p. 197-214

26 Images http://www.asianbiketour.com/images/map.18_THAILAND_ COMBO_RS.GIF http://www.map.cl/i/world/map-cl-world-pol-2000.jpg http://www.map.cl/i/asia/map-cl-asia-ref-2000.jpg http://www.map.cl/i/asia/map-cl-south-east-asia-ref-2000.jpg http://library.thinkquest.org/50055/thailand/Thflag.jpg http://www.mg.co.za/mg/art/dotw/97archive/dotw- 971205b.jpg http://www.thaistudents.com/newsphotos/aids2.jpg http://www.thaistudents.com/newsphotos/aids.jpg


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