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Topics for Today’s Class Session Art-historical approaches Optics (if time) Setting up your folder on WebDAV Uploading Lab Assignment 1 Camera Use teams.

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Presentation on theme: "Topics for Today’s Class Session Art-historical approaches Optics (if time) Setting up your folder on WebDAV Uploading Lab Assignment 1 Camera Use teams."— Presentation transcript:

1 Topics for Today’s Class Session Art-historical approaches Optics (if time) Setting up your folder on WebDAV Uploading Lab Assignment 1 Camera Use teams Lab Assignment 2 If time– presentation of First Design Assignment

2 Art Historical Approaches: Theories and Methodologies for Understanding & Analyzing Images Readings: Theory Text Ch. 4 Emperor Qinshihuang's Tomb (r. 221-207 BC), rediscovered c. 1974

3 Xian another view

4 Pompei & Herculaneum- rediscovery c. 1748 Art & Images as a way to understand or know history, life & the world

5 Foundations of Art History as a Discipline (Western Traditions) & It’s Influence on Ways of Thinking about (and analyzing) Visual Images Art History as a Discipline (take notes as this part is not included in detail in this outline) Questions of –Formalism (theories of H. Wöfflin on progression of formal qualities in history of artistic representations Linear vs painterly Plan vs. recession Closed form vs. open form (angles, motion) –iconography, iconology, attributes (symbolism) –genres (examples: history & religious subjects, landscape, portraiture, still life, everyday life) –stylistic movements (many--archaic, classical, neo-classical, byzantine, gothic, impressionist, expressionist etc…..) Changing notions & debates : what visual is representation doing? –Mimesis Art as imitation of absolute ideas (world of forms--Plato) Art does not reproduce visual appearance but essential idea (not just what exists but what could or should exist--Artistotle) –Imitatio (art as representation of nature, reality, the world) Imitation of what (ancients? natural world? Universal truths? Artist’s vision? Reflection of context? Anticipation of viewer?) –Art history in socio-cultural context (the ‘new art history’)

6 Early Western Art Traditions of Portraiture Early Examples of funerary art from Egypt. Death Mask, Tutankhaman c. 1323 BC (BCE), Limestone sculpture (copy) of Queen Nefertiti (fl. 1370-1330 BC—14 th c. BC_

7 Book of the Dead, c. 1375

8 Greek and Roman Art Traditions Black Figure and Red Figure pottery ‘painting’ (c. 550 BC and 430 BC)

9 Large built public spaces Visual display of power Lost engineering skills Insights into culture Framing spectacles Greco-Roman Art & Architecture

10 Formalism: Kouros (singular) male figure Late archaic (transformations-frontal to naturalistic asymmetry)

11 Classical to Hellenistic Periods in Greek Art

12 Poseidon & Porch of the Maidens as examples of stylistic change

13 Venus de Milo

14 Etruscan Sarcophagus. 6 th c. BC

15 Later Roman Art—some intimate-- Portrait of literate woman from Herculaneum c. 50 AD

16 But mostly Political Figures Roman Emperor Augustus

17 Hadrian c. 135 CE

18 Transition from Byzantine to Early Renaissance Cimabue Madonna Enthroned 13th c. Gentile da Fabriano early 14th c.

19 Italian Renaissance (begins in early 1400s—15 th -16th century CE)

20 Intermediality

21 Core early foundations inspired by humanists from the Italian Renaissance: –Leon Battista Alberti (1404 Philosopher: rationalism, moderation, following nature, public good, ancient philosophers Admiration for ancient styles: Major work analyzing architectural styles & role of architecture in civic life, notions of beauty : De Re Aedificatoria, c. 1450-72 – Vasari’s Lives of the Most Excellent Architects, Painters and Sculptors (Lives of Artists in your readings) 1550 –Notion of connecting art to world views, socio-economic & cultural contexts emerges Maison Carré, Nimes, c. 19 AD

22 Classification & Analysis of Architectural Styles-- Relation to General Theories of Life- Nature Illustration from Diderot’s Encyclopédie 17 th c.

23 Notion of New Techniques for Depicting ‘Reality’/Nature as “we” see it or “as it really is” (??) Renaissance rediscovery of linear perspective (Edgerton) Depicting 3 dimensions (3D) on picture plane (2D) Not just about art & science--“art in the service of God” (Edgerton)

24 ‘Rediscovery’ of Linear Perspective -- Art & Science “in the service of God” D. Veneziano, Madonna & Child 1445

25 Edgerton’s analysis of use of symbolic use of perspective Form & composition as key to meaning or content

26 Content/Meaning, Norm & Form Formalism Example: theories of Heinrich Wöfflin Principles of Art History… 1-Linear vs. painterly 2-Plane vs. recession 3-Closed form to open form 4-Multiplicity to unity 5-Absolute clarity to relative clarity –Developed for 16th-17th art but applicable to later art –Examples: Ingres vs. Delacroix in 19th c. French painting

27 Ingres Valpincon Bather

28 Delacroix--Liberty Leading the People

29 Panofsky’s ideas about meaning & iconology (Theory Text Ch. 4:1)

30 Iconology & Search for Methodologie of Interpretation s Beyond Formalism Panofsky is critical of Wolfflin’s Formalist analysis (ex. triangle between legs of Michelangelos’s David)--Analysis of motifs & compositions Seeks ‘intrinsic’ meaning or content

31 “Intrinsic Meaning”=Underlying principles that reveal attitudes (Panofsky) Examples of change in conventions about depictions of “The Adoration of Christ)

32 Madonna Kneeling

33 Abstract Art as a Challenge to “the canon” Picasso Les Demoiselles d’Avignon Prostitute with ‘recognizable’ features Continues 19thc tradition of new art challenging the ‘establishment’

34 MANET Dejeuner sur l’herbe

35 Impressionism (1870s)

36 Renoir

37 Neo-Impressionism

38 Proliferation of stylistic movements Cloisonism -- Pont Aven School

39 Re-evaluation of artists & art in terms of historical significance for subsequent developments Van Gogh self-portrait (fauvism)

40 Relationships between artistic movements Alfred Barr-- Museum of Modern Art exhibition catalogue

41 Gombrich on art & invention or discovery Example: Constable

42 Constable

43 JM Turner: Steam & Fog (before 1844)

44 Svetlana Alpers Meanings & the position of the viewer--when the artist becomes the observer & the gaze is turned on the spectator Analysis of Velazquez’ Las Meninas who is the viewer- subject? What is the painting about? Idea of multiple meanings Modes of picturing relationships between the “viewer-subject”

45 Detail of Velazquez’ Las Meninas Detail

46 Manet’s Olympia

47 Buck-Morris on critical analysis of contemporary images & image- making Aesthetic Experience & the “virtual” Example of Surrealsm--S. Dali The Persistence of Memory

48 The “New Art History” c.1980s Context –“art for art’s sake” –Political and economic contexts –Anti-racist, feminist & post- colonialist influences Not just “great works” (canons) or “great men” (questioning bias in art historical methods) Re-thinking older classifications of art and non-art –Non-representational art –Popular culture Pop Art (Roy Lichtenstein Nude with Beach Ball)

49 Artists had long been challenging definitions of what is art and who can define it Marcel Duchamp. Fountain, original (left) and recreations of lost 1917 “Original”

50 Interest in Visual Culture/Visual Studies Rise of visual forms of communication in the postmodern world Merging of popular & "high" cultural forms

51 Visual Cultures as systems Cross-mediation, inter- mediality –Codes & contents migrate across media, forms, genres –visual/textual opposition or hybrid experience? studying visual cultures as systems –Institutions (macro, micro), networks of communication

52 What is Visual Culture & How do our ideas of it inform Visualizations? Contested field Multidisciplinary approaches (read general intro. to the theory textbook) Robert Doisneau, Sideways Glance (1948)

53 Practices of Looking –Myth of photographic truth –Images & ideology –Meaning-making (producers’ intentions, “reading images”, appropriation & counter bricolage) –Critical approaches to media production

54 Recent Art: Portrait Examples Andy Warhol

55 Chuck Close

56 Cindy Sherman

57 Gilbert & George

58 Dulce Pincon: portraits of Mexican immigrants as superheros link

59 Dash Snow

60 More examples in Resources Folder

61 Topics for Today’s Class Session Discussion of art-historical approaches Optics Setting up your folder on WebDAV Uploading Lab Assignment 1 Camera Use teams Lab Assignment 2 If time– presentation of First Design Assignment

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