4AIM of the TrainingTo increase participants awareness of Child Sexual Exploitation as a form of Sexual Abuse and enable them to identify Vulnerability and Risk Factors
5Learning OutcomesHave an understanding of the definition of Child Sexual ExploitationRecognise typical indicators of sexual exploitation in children and young peopleHave an understanding of the Grooming ProcessUnderstand the vulnerabilities that lead to Child Sexual ExploitationBe able to identify Children and Young People who may be at RiskBe clear on how, when and why to share informationDiscuss ways in which to communicate and engage with vulnerable young people
6Evaluating learningPlease could you answer the five questions on your evaluation form BEFORE THE COURSE only!!
7Guidelines for Safe Learning ConfidentialityListen/One speaker at a timeRespectNo such thing as a “silly” questionResponsible for your own learningOkay to get things “wrong”Okay to have feelingsTime/Mobiles
8What is the definition of CSE? ExerciseGroup Task:What is the definition of CSE?In your groups try to come up with a definitionIn small groups discuss
9DEFINITION OF CHILD SEXUAL EXPLOITATION The definition of Child Sexual Exploitation which will be utilised across Merseyside will be:Sexual exploitation of children and young people under 18 involves exploitative situations, contexts and relationships where young people (or a third person or persons) receive ‘something’ (e.g. food, accommodation, drugs, alcohol, cigarettes, affection, attention, gifts, money) as a result of them performing, or others performing on them, sexual act or activities.Child sexual exploitation grooming can occur through the use of technology without the child’s immediate recognition; for example being persuaded to post sexual images on the Internet/mobile phones without immediate payment or gain. In all cases, those exploiting the child/young person have power over them by virtue of their age, gender, intellect, physical strength and/or economic or other resources.Violence, coercion and intimidation are common, involvement in exploitative relationships being characterized in the main by the child or young person’s limited availability of choice resulting from their social/economic and/or emotional vulnerability”GIVE HANDOUTS OF DEFINITIONSafeguarding Children and Young people from Sexual Exploitation - Supplementary guidance to Working Together 2006
10Signs and Indicators Video Clip Group Task:Signs and IndicatorsVideo ClipIn your groups, try to identify the key signs and indicators of sexual exploitationCan you recognise the signs? 20 MinsTraining film to help front-line practitioners spot the early signs of group-associated grooming, and support vulnerable children being sexually exploited, Video with Shona McGarty from BBC soap Eastenders explaining how to spot the signs of child sexual exploitation.
11The following signs and behaviour are generally seen in children and young people who are already being sexually exploited.Missing from home or care.Physical injuries.Drug or alcohol misuse.Involvement in offending.Repeat sexually-transmitted infections, pregnancy and terminations.Absent from school.Change in physical appearance.
12Also..Evidence of sexual bullying and/or vulnerability through the internet and/or social networking sites.Estranged from their family.Receipt of gifts from unknown sources.Recruiting others into exploitative situations.Poor mental health.Self-harm.Thoughts of or attempts at suicide.
13WARNING SIGNS AND VULNERABILITIES CHECKLIST The following have been identified as typical vulnerabilities:Living in a chaotic or dysfunctional household (including parental substance use, domestic violence, parental mental health issues, parental criminality).History of abuse (including familial child sexual abuse, risk of forced marriage, risk of ‘honour’- based violence, physical and emotional abuse and neglect).Recent bereavement or loss.Gang association either through relatives, peers or intimate relationships (in cases of gang associated CSE only).Attending school with young people who are sexually exploited.Learning disabilities.
14Unsure about their sexual orientation or unable to disclose sexual orientation to their families. Friends with young people who are sexually exploited.Homeless.Lacking friends from the same age group.Living in a gang neighbourhood.Living in residential care, or are looked after.Living in hostel, bed and breakfast accommodation or a foyer.Low self-esteem or self-confidence.Young carer.
15Evidence shows that any child displaying several vulnerabilities from the above lists should be considered to be at high risk of sexual exploitation. Professionals should immediately start an investigation to determine the risk, along with preventative and protective action as required.However, it is important to note that children without pre-existing vulnerabilities can still be sexually exploited. Therefore, any child showing risk indicators in the second list, but none of the vulnerabilities in the first, should also be considered as a potential victim, with appropriate assessment and action put in place as required.
16All organisations and agencies need to take account of the vulnerabilities checklist and work together to identify children showing the warning signs of, or who are vulnerable to, child sexual exploitation, and act accordingly:
18Oxford March 2012 Operation Bullfinch "It is clear there was an organised and sophisticated gang of predatory men who set up a criminal business of, corrupting, isolating and abusing the girls and selling them for sexual purposes.The girls have lived through hell and for them to come to court and give evidence has been nothing short of incredible. The strength and fortitude they have shown has been inspirational. I only hope they can draw a line under this traumatic period of their lives and move forward.”String of high profile media casesOperation Bullfinch is a joint investigation launched by Thames Valley Police and Oxfordshire County Council Social Services in May 2011, into suspected serious sexual offences against a number of children and young people in Oxford.In March 2012, warrants were executed across the city leading to the arrest of 18 people.
19Rochdale May 2012Nine men who ran a child sexual exploitation ring in Greater Manchester have been jailed.The men from Rochdale and Oldham, who exploited girls as young as 13 were given sentences ranging from four to 19 years- 77 years in total.They were found guilty of offences including rape, trafficking and conspiracy to engage in sexual activity with a child.Liverpool Crown Court heard the group plied five victims with drink and drugs and "passed them around" for sex.The girls were abused at twotakeaway restaurantsConsider stereo typing!! This case seems to fit what we perceive sexual exploitation to be. Its important to remember that exploitation happens in many ways to many different young people. Perpatrators arent all asian men!!The Rochdale sex trafficking gang was a group of men who preyed on under-age teenage girls in Rochdale, Greater Manchester, England. They were convicted of sex trafficking on 8 May 2012; other offences included rape, trafficking girls for sex and conspiracy to engage in sexual activity with a child. 47 girls were identified as victims of child sexual exploitation during the police investigation. The men were all British Pakistanis (except for one from Afghanistan) and from Muslim backgrounds, and the girls were White; this has led to national discussion of whether the crimes were racially motivated, or, conversely, whether the early failure to investigate them was linked to the authorities' fear of being accused of racism.
20StockportOctober 2013Three men jailed for sexually abusing two vulnerable girls in Stockport.The two victims were aged between 14 and 16 when the abuse took place between 2008 and 2011.The abuse came to light after social workers in Stockport became concerned about young girls who were going missing from home.Shamin Uddin, 26, was sentenced to 19 years after being found guilty of two counts of rape, two counts of attempted rape and one count of sexual activity with a child.His brother, Giash Uddin, 27, received a six-year sentence for sexual activity with a child.Robert Jackson, 24, was sentenced to 12 years for rape.Police said they later found a "complex web of grooming behaviour" involving the two victims.The girls were taken to parties at hotels and private addresses across Greater Manchester where they were given alcohol and drugs.Once they were intoxicated they were raped by one or more of the men.The victims, now 18, testified against the men in court and described them as "disgusting people - horrible, horrible men".Detective Chief Inspector Pete Marsh, who led the investigation, said the girls had been manipulated into believing the sexual abuse was normal.He said: "On numerous occasions, the girls were deliberately plied with alcohol to the point they could barely stand, before being raped by the men when they were not in a fit state to be able to even try and stop them."This group exploited the fact their two young victims were vulnerable and impressionable, bombarding them with a constant stream of attention and gifts of alcohol."Police are still investigating other men they believe were involved in abusing the girls20
21Myths Versus RealityMyth: There are very few ‘models’ of CSE Reality: The grooming and sexual exploitation of young people can take many different forms. Myth: It only happens in certain ethnic/cultural communities Reality: Both perpetrators and victims are known to come from a variety of ethnic and cultural backgrounds. Myth: It only happens to children in care Reality: The majority of victims of CSE are living at home. However, looked after children account for a disproportionate number of victims and can be particularly vulnerable.Myth #1: There are very few ‘models’ of CSEReality: The grooming and sexual exploitation of young people can take many different forms. 1CSE can be carried out by individuals (“lone perpetrators”), by street gangs or by groups. It can be motivated by money, ie commercial sexual exploitation, which involves the exchange of a child (for sexual purposes) for the financial gain of the perpetrator or for non-commercial reasons such as sexual gratification or a belief in entitlement to sex. It can occur in a wide range of settings, but the common theme in all cases is the imbalance of power and the control exerted on young people.Myth #2: It only happens in certain ethnic/cultural communitiesReality: Both perpetrators and victims are known to come from a variety of ethnic and cultural backgrounds. CSE is not a crime restricted to British Pakistani Muslim males or White British girls, despite media coverage of high profile cases. Site visits carried out by the OCC inquiry identified perpetrators and victims of CSE from a wide range of ethnic backgrounds. A thematic assessment by the Child Exploitation and Online Protection Centre identified that ‘Research tells us that the majority of known perpetrators in the UK of this crime are lone white males’.Myth #3: It only happens to children in careReality: The majority of victims of CSE are living at home. However, looked after children account for a disproportionate number of victims and can be particularly vulnerable. An estimated per cent of victims are looked after, compared with 1 per cent of the child population being in care.
22Myth : It only happens to girls and young women Reality: Boys and young men are also targeted as victims of CSE by perpetrators. Myth : It is only perpetrated by men Reality: There is evidence that women can be perpetrators of this crime too. They may use different grooming methods but are known to target both boys and girls. Myth : It only happens to young teenagers by men Reality: Peer-on-peer child sexual exploitation happens too and this can also take various different forms.Myth #4: It only happens to girls and young womenReality: Boys and young men are also targeted as victims of CSE by perpetrators. However, they may be less likely to disclose offences or seek support, often due to stigma, prejudice or embarrassment or the fear that they will not be believed. They may see themselves as able to protect themselves but in cases of CSE physical stature is irrelevant due to the coercion and manipulation used.Myth #5: It is only perpetrated by men Reality: There is evidence that women can be perpetrators of this crime too. They may use different grooming methods but are known to target both boys and girls. In relation to group and gang related CSE, the OCC inquiry found that the vast majority involved only men and, where women are involved, they are a small minority. Where women or girls were identified as perpetrators, their role was primarily, though not exclusively, to procure victims. Women and girls who were perpetrating were identified during the inquiry’s site visits tended to be young, had histories of being sexually exploited themselves and of abusing others in tandem with the group or gang that had previously sexually exploited them. Women and girls directly involved in sexually exploiting children were either in relationships with men who were perpetrators or related to, or friends with, men and boys who were abusers.Myth #6: It only happens to young teenagers by menReality: Peer-on-peer child sexual exploitation happens too and this can also take various different forms. For example, young people are sometimes used to ‘recruit’ others, by inviting them to locations for parties where they will then be introduced to adults or forced to perform sexual acts on adults. Technology can also play a significant role, with young people known to use mobile technology as a way of distributing images of abuse.
23Myth : Parents should know what is happening and be able to stop it Reality: Parents may be unlikely to be able to identify what is happening: they may suspect that something is not right but may not be in a position to stop it due to the control, threats or fear of the perpetrators. Myth : Children and young people can consent to their own exploitation Reality: A child cannot consent to their own abuse.Myth #9: Parents should know what is happening and be able to stop itReality: Parents may be unlikely to be able to identify what is happening: they may suspect that something is not right but may not be in a position to stop it due to the control, threats or fear of the perpetrators. There can be risks to parents when seeking to protect their children and they can need support as well as their children. In some cases, there can be an overlap with intra-familial abuse and this could be a reason why parents do not intervene.Myth #10: Children and young people can consent to their own exploitationReality: A child cannot consent to their own abuse. Firstly, the law sets down 16 as the age of consent to any form of sexual activity. Secondly, any child under-18 cannot consent to being trafficked for the purposes of exploitation. Thirdly, regardless of age a person’s ability to give consent may be affected by a range of other issues including the influence of drugs, threats of violence, grooming, a power imbalance between victim and perpetrators. This is why a 16 or 17-year-old can be sexually exploited even though they are old enough to consent to sexual activity
24Identifying Perpetrators Perpetrators come from all ethnicities but each area can have a ‘profile’ – profiles can changeAll communitiesAll agesThey are both male and femaleNo one group dominates CSEInternet/trafficking/personal gratificationThey are visible in every day lifeThey are often articulate/SavvyNot all are involved in commercial exploitation(Not much is known about those who buy young people from exploiters and groomers)
25Identifying Perpetrators ‘Its all about money – money is tight…jobs are hard to come by, stealing…well its got more consequences.’‘Young girls are better…they are more vulnerable, they listen to you and they fall for it. Older girls won’t fall for it.’(Some views expressed during the November 2011 Dispatches programme – Britain's sex gangs.)
27CSE in Liverpool Nikki Owens CSE coordinator CSE in Liverpool – facts and figuresLinks with young people and missing, LACOverview of role.
28How many young people are being/ at risk of sexually exploited in Liverpool? Who is most at risk? (links with Missing)
29Principles of effective practice The child’s best interests must be the top priorityParticipation of children and young peopleEnduring relationships and supportComprehensive problem-profilingEffective information-sharing within and between agenciesSupervision, support and training of staffEvaluation and review“If only someone had listened” | Office of the Children’s Commissioner’s Inquiry into Child Sexual Exploitation in Gangs and Groups – Final Report November 2013
32The Police response to CSE in Merseyside How many convictions?Difficulties with prosecutions?
33Current Legislation Child Abduction Act 1984 Children Act 1989/2004 Children Leaving Care Act 2000Adoption & Children Act 2002Education Act 2002Homeless Act 2002Sexual Offences Act 2003Asylum & Immigration Act 2004Domestic Violence Crime & Victims Act 2004UN Convention on the Rights of the ChildWhich key pieces of legislation support the police in relation to CSE?Where are most arrests made?Useful pieces of legislation eg Harbourers notices, Sexual Offences ActIntelligence and Disruption
34Sexual Offences Act 2003A major piece of law reform creating many offences concerning:Rape, sexual assault, child sexual offences, abuse of a position of trust, familial child sexual offences, offences concerning persons with mental disorders, child prostitution and pornography, exposure and voyeurism, offences in a public lavatory, offences outside of the UK.Experiences of using this??Any personal examples?
35Some of the Other New Offences Meeting a child following sexual grooming etc, (section 17)Sexual activity with a child family memberIndecent photographs of children 16 & 17 years of ageAbuse of a position of trustAdministering a substance with intentTrafficking into, within and out of the UKTALKING TWICE ONLINE THEN ARRANGING A MEET, DOES NOT HAVE TO MEET JUST MAKING THE ARRANGEMENT, THIS INCLUDES TWO TEXT MESSAGES. FACILITATING THE OFFENCE ARRANGEMENT FOR OTHERS TO BE USED, THIS COULD WELL BE ANOTHER Y/P WHO HAS BEEN SEdHow this links with online exploitation and grooming – implications for young people sending and sharing these images
36GroomingOffences in relation to grooming will be committed by an adult where all the following elements are presentAn adult who is 18 or over, travels to meet or actually meets with a child who is 16 or youngerThe adult intends to commit a sexual offence against the child – evidence may be condoms bought, text messages sent etcThe adult has communicated with the child on at least two occasions beforehandThe adult does not reasonably believe that the child is 16 or overOffences in relation to grooming can carry a maximum sentence of 10 years.
39“SEXTING”When a young person takes an indecent image of them self and sends this to their friends or boy / girlfriends via mobile phones.By having in their possession, or distributing, indecent images of a person under 18 on to someone else – young people are not even aware that they could be breaking the law as these are offences under the Sexual Offences Act 2003.The problem is that once taken and sent, the sender has lost control of these images and these images could end up anywhere. They could be seen by the CYP future employers, their friends or even by paedophiles.As mobile phones with cameras and internet access are readily available these days – and indeed, the increased use of Bluetooth technology - images can be shared easily and at a reduced cost between friends at school. As well as this, young people often look to push the boundaries at an age when they are more sexually and socially aware.
40Exposed./Consequences Child Exploitation and Online Protection Centre (CEOP), 2011 A short film (10 mins) about a girl who sends her boyfriend naked images of herself on her mobile phone. The images are uploaded onto a social networking website and then spread around the internet resulting in comments and reactions from her peers at school and from strangers and people stalking her online. Shows the conversation the girl has with herself while sitting in a cafe having run away from home on whether to return and face the consequences.
41What are our young people telling us? Key findings for secondary school age children:Among year 9 pupils sexting awareness, rather than practice, was prevalentSexting usually took place at the formation of, or during, a relationship.Girls are far more likely than boys to be asked for a picture, boys are far more likely to volunteer oneFurther distribution of an image beyond the intended recipient occurs frequentlyGirls “sext” to gain attention, or to please boys. Boys ask for images “because they can” and will ask girls until one sends a picture.Aim of research was to explore issues around Internet access and behaviours, particularly sexting, to compare conduct in the Liverpool area with the national picture.Research undertaken by Professor Andy Phippen Plymouth University - Visit to Liverpool Schools 4th-6th June 2013
42Differences between Liverpool young people and others spoken to in other parts of the country: A slightly younger starting point for sexting incidents to start occurring. In both secondary schools pupils spoke about this sort of thing beginning in year 7 when they move from primaryThere was a higher level of maturity and resilience from some girls in dealing with issue around sextingThere was a greater awareness of the reasons for sextingThere was a larger gender imbalance in terms of a willingness to talk about these issues.(where they are “big fish in a small pond”) to a secondary school where they wish to make an impact. Many felt that the reason for this, particularly for girls, was they wished to appear popular to older children and felt this was the way to do it– they viewed it as girls who wanted attention would do, rather than something you “had” to do when a boy asked. They were also not accepting of boys’ use of pornographywe had a number of discussions around self esteem issues and gender imbalance, including the very mature observation from one boy that “popular girls don’t sext”in one of the secondary schools, with the girls very uncomfortable talking about it and reluctant to talk about frequency and prevalence. However, the boys at the same school were very open and talked about sexting incidents “once or twice a week”.Research undertaken by Professor Andy Phippen Plymouth University - Visit to Liverpool Schools 4th-6th June 2013
43Bullying often results from the generation and distribution of an image. The duration of the bullying depends on the popularity of the victim (i.e. the more popular the victim, the less likely it is that bullying will last for long)Turning to a teacher or parent for help is unlikely due to a fear of being told off or judgedAttitudes toward sexting are somewhat mundane, it happens and will continue to happenFor boys of this age, pornography consumption is widespread and they are very open in talking about itResearch undertaken by Professor Andy Phippen Plymouth University–Visit to Liverpool Schools 4th-6th June 2013
44Social Media – Current Top 3 Hot or NotGuess the Body PartFlash for Cash
45What are your experiences of young people and social media? How can we best engage with and support children and young people?Group discussion
49Grooming Process Targeting Stage Friendship Forming Stage Observing the young personSelection of young personBefriending – being nice, giving, caring, taking an interest, giving compliments etc.Gaining and developing trustSharing information about young people between other abusive adultsFriendship Forming StageMaking young people feel special and spending time with themGiving gifts and rewardsListening and rememberingKeeping secrets‘No-one understands you like I do’; being their best friendTesting out physical contact – accidental touchingOffering protection and being there for themLoving Relationship StageBeing their boyfriend / girlfriendEstablishing a sexual relationshipLowering their inhibitions – eg showing them pornographyEngaging them in forbidden activities – eg going to clubs, drinking, taking drugsBeing inconsistent – building up hope and then punishing themAbusive Relationship StageBecomes an ‘unloving’ sexual relationshipWithdrawal of love and friendshipReinforcing dependency on them – stating young person is ‘damaged goods’Isolation from family and friendsTrickery and manipulation – ‘you owe me’Threatening behaviourPhysical violence and sexual assaultMaking them have sex with other peopleGiving them drugsPlaying on the young person’s feeling of guilt, shame and fear
50Multi Agency Response to Child Sexual Exploitation
51Siobhan Sullivan/Ian Bowden Liverpool Safeguarding Unit
52Children’s Services Flowchart 1 Agency representative becomes concerned that a child may be at risk of CSEAgency representative urgently discusses the concern with safeguarding leadAgency representative and Safeguarding lead ensure that CSE 1 Referral Form and CSE 2 Assessment Form are completedAgency representative and Safeguarding lead ensure that CSE 1 and CSE 2 forms are forwarded to child’s allocated SW if known or to Careline if not aware of allocation
53Children’s Services Flowchart 2 Agency representative completes CSE 1 and CSE 2. Forwards to both child’s SW if known or to Careline if not aware of allocationAllocated SW identifies concernsSW is informed of CSE concernsCareline is informed of CSE concernsSW is aware of CSE concerns in respect of an open caseWhere identified child is open to CSC information is recorded on Capita and SW informedWhere identified child is not open case to CSC, Careline team leader makes decision within 24 hrs whether to undertake strategy discussion with police and generate referral for assessmentDiscuss with Team Leader. Decision made as to whether to undertake Strategy Discussion with policeSW ensures that completed CSE 1 and CSE 2 are sent to DO at Safeguarding UnitCareline ensures completed CSE 1 and CSE 2 forms sent to Duty Safeguarding Officer at Safeguarding OfficerMailbox monitored and referral forms sent to Duty Safeguarding Officer each dayChildren’s Services Flowchart 2
54Information referred indicates risk of SE Mailbox monitored and referral forms sent to Duty Safeguarding Officer each day.Duty SO assesses information referred and liaises with SW and/or Team LeaderInformation indicates that person with PR is contributing to the risk or is negligent in not acting to safeguard the childInformation presented does not indicate immediate risk of CSE or risks associated with parentingInformation referred indicates risk of SEDuty SO applies threshold for strategy meetingDuty SO and team leader agree the need to convene CP conferenceCP conference takes place as soon as practicableCSE strategy meeting takes place as soon as practicableDUTY SAFEGUARDING OFFICER REFERS CHILD TO MACSE
56Multi Agency Information sharing Where the risk is not immediate, referrals should be made to the multi agency CSE meeting using the CSE1 formThe referrer should also completed the initial risk assessment, in accordance with the Risk Assessment CSE 2 to prioritise the level of risk for each child or young person referred.Any actions allocated and information received at the meeting will be documented clearly using the CSE 3.Include in packs
57Multi Agency Child Sexual Exploitation Meeting (MACSE) Purpose:To establish the exact nature of the concerns (and to agree what information to give to parents) and to plan enquiries (and decide who should handle them.)To gather and share information (including assisting the police in any criminal investigation) and identify gaps in information.To agree on action to determine how the case should be managedAppropriate support in place for the C/YPTo assign tasks to address the concerns (which must be completed before first/next review.Elaborate on section 47 or section 17Organisations should work together to keep children and young people safe from sexual exploitation.The Multi-Agency CSE Meetings will be chaired by Merseyside Police (usually a Detective Chief Inspector from the BCU) in accordance with the child sexual exploitation policy and procedure and will be used to co-ordinate the partnership’s tactical responses. This will provide a problem solving approach to support those at risk and to disrupt and take action against known and suspected perpetrators. It will also address any ongoing/identified health needs for victims.A monthly multi-agency Child Sexual Exploitation meeting, will take place to discuss where there are cases and concerns about exploitation.There should be representatives from a range of relevant agencies who will consider each referral against intelligence held by their own agency.Information will be used to confirm/re-assess the level of risk to victims and potential victims of Child Sexual Exploitation.The information will also be used to further inform investigations and tactical options for existing agencies involved with the child.
58Strategy Discussion and Strategy Meetings A Strategy Discussion must take place in every situation where there is reasonable cause to suspect that a child is suffering or is likely to suffer Significant Harm, either following a referral or where concerns about Significant Harm emerge in respect of a child receiving support under Section 17 of the Children Act 1989 as a Child in Need.Children’s Social Care may also convene a Strategy Meeting.Liverpool Procedures online October 2013
59Risk FactorsMost common issues are vulnerability, low self esteem and poor self image.Vulnerability is identified and targeted by offenders, whether the young people live at home with their family, looked after (in care) or whether they have run away.Looked After Children (LAC) or those running away from home are recognised as being much more at risk of being targeted due to isolation.
60As an individual what do I need to do? Recognise there is an issueTake responsibility – ACT NOW – CSE referralLine management – referral feedbackPro active approach - preventative workEnsuring appropriate training/disseminationSupport for parents/carers in place?Above all ensure a young person centred approach and that the young person is fully informed at all times.
64Task 1In your groups please discuss and answer the question that is on the piece of paper in front of you.The are 3 questions for part 1 of Carla’s story. Each group has all 3 questions.Could one person scribe and one person feed back to the larger group after please.You have 10 minutes to discuss the statement and write down your answers.
66Task 2Now you have heard the end of Carla’s story please answer the next question you have in your group.The are 3 questions for part 2 of Carla’s story each group has 1 each.Could one person scribe and one person feed back to the larger group after please.You have 10 minutes to discuss the statement and write down your answers.
67ConsentC & YP may claim to be acting voluntarily and may not see themselves as a victim – In reality this is not voluntary or consenting behaviourWhat is your understanding of consent?
68“There was great confusion among young people about the meaning of consent. Analysis of case files provided illustrations of children struggling to communicate or there was great confusion among young people about the meaning of consent.Analysis of case files provided illustrations of children struggling to communicate or comprehend whether they were consenting to the activity in which they had been involved:”The report from ‘Office of the Children’s Commissioner, Inquiry into Child Sexual Exploitation In Gangs and Groups’ 2013
69Consent & CoercionThroughout Inquiry, the panel was presented with confused and inconsistent understanding on the part of both professionals and young people of the concept of consent to sexual activity:Children and young people who were being sexually exploited were frequently described by professionals in many localities as being “promiscuous”, “liking the glamour”, engaging in “risky behaviour” and being generally badly behaved.
70Some of the most common phrases used in the call for evidence submissions to describe the young persons behaviour were:• The young person is “prostituting herself”. • She/he “places her/himself in vulnerable situations”. • She/he is “drawn to it”. • She/he is “risk-fuelled”. • They are a “danger to themselves”. • She/he “refuses to acknowledge risks”. • She/he is “sexually available”. • She/he is “asking for it”.
71Labelling reflects a worrying perspective held by a number of professionals, namely that children are complicit in, and hence responsible for, their own abuse.Professionals often demonstrated a lack of awareness of the impact on children of living in dangerous environments and of the consequences for the child or young person of saying “no”.Numerous testimonies from young people provided evidence that failure to comply with demands for sex, were likely to result in serious harm to them and/or to their family.
72It was clear that, even when young people were saying that they were agreeing to sex, this was happening under manipulative and coercive circumstances.However, coercion was not always identified, or even considered, by professionals.Professionals need to be clear – that sexually-exploited children are children first and foremost, and that their experience in these circumstances is not consensual, but abusive.
73England and WalesThe age of consent to any form of sexual activity is 16 for both men and women.The Sexual Offences Act 2003 introduced a new series of laws to protect children under 16 from sexual abuse. However, the law is not intended to prosecute mutually agreed teenage sexual activity between two young people of a similar age, unless it involves abuse or exploitation.Specific laws protect children under 13, who cannot legally give their consent to any form of sexual activity. There is a maximum sentence of life imprisonment for rape, assault by penetration, and causing or inciting a child to engage in sexual activity. There is no defence of mistaken belief about the age of the child, as there is in cases involving 13–15 year olds.Read more at
74Statutory definition of consent from CPS; Section 74 defines consent as 'if he agrees by choice, and has the freedom and capacity to make that choice'.Prosecutors should consider this in two stages. They are:Whether a complainant had the capacity (i.e. the age and understanding) to make a choice about whether or not to take part in the sexual activity at the time in question.Whether he or she was in a position to make that choice freely, and was not constrained in any way. Assuming that the complainant had both the freedom and capacity to consent, the crucial question is whether the complainant agrees to the activity by choice.The question of capacity to consent is particularly relevant when a complainant is intoxicated by alcohol or affected by drugs.
75Mia’s story‘Mia’, a young woman of ‘Mixed’ ethnic heritage, disclosed to professionals that she had been sexually exploited for two years by a local street gang, from the age of 11 to 13.When Mia made her disclosure she named a number of other girls from a mixture of ethnic backgrounds, who were either present at instances of abuse or who were also abused by members of the gang.Some of the girls named were interviewed by the police. The girls, who had witnessed the abuse, or previously been friends with Mia, stated that Mia had consented on all occasions that they had witnessed. They stated she was a ‘slag’.One of the other girls, who had also been abused by the street gang, was shown phone footage of her assault. She informed the police that she did not want it to happen, but that she had consented and therefore did not want to proceed with a complaint.
76Children’s Understanding of Consent The report by the Office of Children said children were confused for many reasons. For example, given their previous experiences of child sexual abuse.Influenced by where they lived and with whom they mixed.Influenced by the fact that they had previously committed offences. They assumed they had to comply with the abuse or might turn them in to the police.Others understanding was informed by wider social messages, stereotypes and structures.Grooming process distorted some children’s understanding of consentFeelings of powerlessness and resignation were commonFor all of these reasons, some children simply did not feel that there was a choice
77Rochelle’s StoryOver the two years that ‘Rochelle’ was sexually exploited by a street gang, several forms of technology were used to abuse and control her. Members of the street gang would routinely steal her phone and then tell her that if she wanted it back she would have to come and meet them.When Rochelle went to locations to collect her phone she would be told that she must perform oral sex on one or multiple members of the gang or they would anally rape her, in order to get her phone back.Members of the gang, and their sisters, would send Rochelle abusive and threatening text messages throughout the abusive process. These on-going threats scared Rochelle, meaning she was always afraid of what might happen to her. Instances of abuse were filmed by members of the gang, and Rochelle would be told that if she did not comply with the demands of gang members, footage would be circulated around her school.When Rochelle disclosed the abuse she was threatened over Facebook. The young men who were abusing Rochelle would communicate frequently using an instant messaging service, and individual members of the street gang would also use it when they were with her to invite others to meet up and take part in the abuse.
78A person consents if they agree by CHOICE and have the FREEDOM and the CAPACITY to make that choice……
79The young person’s perspective Young person’s view:GirlBoyfriendHis friendReality:Abused childAbusing adultChild sex offenderSociety sees:ProstitutePimpPaedophile
80Boys & young menSE services report that a third of the referrals relate to boys and young men.It can be more difficult to detect cases of SE with males as they are generally harder to work with and less likely to disclose.It is problematic as issues of sexuality may well come to the fore.Society’s perceptions of how boys & young men should behave is a barrier i.e. boys don't cryPossible indicators for young men are – substance misuse, truanting, secrecy, Youth offending or anti social behaviour, aggression, sexually offending behaviour,CEOP report a rise in SGII amongst boys, particularly moving images.There were 34 offences of rape of a male under 16There were 32 offences of indecent assault against boys under 13 so far this year 2013
81‘What Information do children and young people need about CSE?’ How to recognise if it is happening to youHow serious it isWhat it is / Different ways in which is can be happeningHow to get help / Lots of different optionsInformation about the risks around alcohol and drugsReassurance that if it is, or has, happened to you that you can get help and supportA really strong message to just say ‘NO’ if something doesn’t feel right to you
82Parents and Carers Perspective They see a change in behaviourCould see it as teenage behaviour/a rebel/hanging with the wrong group?Experimenting with drugs and alcoholIsolated, angry, emotionalStressedBad parent – inadequacy?At breaking point – Breakdown in adult relationships – rippling effects throughout the familyBad behaviour – Had enough, someone else deal with this?Not my faultWhere’s my loving child gone?Loss of control
84Lorraine Wood Centre Manager/Independent Sexual Violence Advisor RASA (Rape and Sexual Abuse) Sefton Phone:
85ExerciseCase Study: In 4 Groups Consider the impact of CSE on a Child (this also applies to Adult Survivors of CSE)
86Marina’s Story‘Marina’, a 16-year-old White British young woman, was sexually exploited along with her 14-year-old sister, in public and in private homes and buildings.Professionals reported that local White British shop owners would sexually exploit Marina in exchange for alcohol and cigarettes.Both would also be ‘picked up’ by men on the streets and sexually assaulted in local alleyways.Marina had been met by a range of men and driven to parties in other local areas where she would be raped by multiple ‘party-goers’ before being dropped off at home.Marina also reported going to parties at her ‘boyfriend’s’ house and being passed around his other friends. Her boyfriend, of North African origin, was in his late thirties.
87Indicators of possible SE HealthPhysical symptomsChronic fatigueRecurring or multiple STI’SPregnancy and/or TerminationSubstance misuseSexually risky behaviour
88Indicators of possible SE Educationtruancy or disengagementconsiderable change in performance at schoolEmotional & behavioural difficultiesvolatile behaviourextreme array of mood swingsabusive languageinvolvement in petty crime e.g. shoplifting, secretive behaviourGetting into cars driven by unknown adults
89Indicators of possible SE Identitylow self imagelow self esteemself harming behaviourFamily and social relationshipshostility with parents/ carersphysical aggression towards parents/teacher/petplacement breakdownreports from reliable sourcesdetachment from age appropriate activitiesassociating with other C &YP who are known to be SEunexplained relationship with older adultsadults & older youths outside residencesMissing from homeExpand on relationship with older adult, second part of the session CEOP etc
90Indicators of possible SE Social presentationchanging appearanceleaving home setting in unusual clothingreturning after missing incidents looking well cared for in spite of having no known home basenew clothes, possessions & money etc
92Professional Perspective It can be hard to persuade C & YP that they are victims of abuse or in need of protection.Make it clear to C & YP that if they are considered to be at risk, concerns have to be referred to the appropriate agencies.
93As a professional working with young people, you may have opportunities to identify issues early so it is important to familiarise yourself with the signs that a young person is being exploited and to share this information with your colleagues or professionals in other agencies.How do we engage?
94“I was threatened, I was left places. I was left on motorways “I was threatened, I was left places. I was left on motorways. I was left in houses. I had my clothes taken from me, I had my phone taken. I didn’t tell mum anything.She asked for help and it was disregarded. The local authorities just thought I was being a teenager and a nuisance and just misbehaving.Nobody took notice and it wasn’t until it I had got so badly involved that I was coming home intoxicated by drugs and being sick and really poorly that the authorities took me seriously. “On one occasion, one of the victims, who was so drunk she could hardly stand, was taken to a ‘scruffy hotel’ in Longsight where a group of up to eight men tried to rape her.One of the victims has told how she was introduced to smooth-talking Shamin Uddin by older girls at school when she was just 13.He was 23, driving a flashy car and appearing sophisticated and kind.She came from a respectable home, but soon started telling lies to her mum, telling her she was with friends when she was really with Uddin.Within weeks of meeting him, she was being plied with alcohol and the spiral of decline began.She said:?“My grades started to drop and I wasn’t really going home. At the time I didn’t realise what was happening to me. I thought it was normal. I thought this was what young girls did and this was what boyfriends did to their girlfriends. My relationship with my family had broken down but I was made to feel that Sham was my boyfriend.“I had never been to parties before. In school I had good grades, I come from a good family. At the very beginning, I did feel safe around the men. They worked to gain my trust and recognise where I was vulnerable and to recognise my immaturity. The sexual abuse started within a few months. I was confused about what had happened when the abuse first took place. After a while I didn’t belong to Sham any more. It was all just a lie. Nothing took place when I was sober. I used to think that if I drank more I would be able to block it out and it would be over faster. It was horrible.“I was threatened, I was left places. I was left on motorways. I was left in houses. I had my clothes taken from me, I had my phone taken. I didn’t tell mum anything. She asked for help and it was disregarded. The local authorities just thought I was being a teenager and a nuisance and just misbehaving. Nobody took notice and it wasn’t until it I had got so badly involved that I was coming home intoxicated by drugs and being sick and really poorly that the authorities took me seriously. By this point it was too late I was brainwashed completely. I kind of thought the relationship I was having was normal.“I’m still scared. I don’t trust anybody any more. It will affect my life forever. It has ruined my life.”Victim of child sexual exploitation October 201394
95Summary of the day….Understand the definition of Child Sexual ExploitationRecognise typical indicators of sexual exploitation in children and young peopleHave an understanding of the grooming processUnderstand the vulnerabilities that lead to Child Sexual ExploitationBe able to identify Children and Young People who may be at RiskBe clear on how, when and why to share informationUnderstand the importance of communicating engaging with vulnerable young people