Presentation on theme: "The public face of HIV is well-known"— Presentation transcript:
1 The Other Side of the HIV/AIDS Debate: Evaluating Scientific Evidence Hidden in Plain Sight
2 The public face of HIV is well-known Although everybody is at riskHIV is a sexually-transmitted virus that “selectively” preys onGay menAfrican-AmericansDrug usersJust about all of AfricaWe are encouraged to be testedWe have been told that the AIDS drugs are the salvation of the entire African continentHIV is not required to get AIDS
3 The public face of HIV is well-known The journals that review HIV tests, drugs, and patientsAs well as the instructional materials fromMedical schoolsCenters for Disease Control (CDC)HIV-test manufacturersWill all agree with the public’s perception in the large printA different story emerges if you look at the fine printThis talk will focus on an analysis of that fine print
4 Analyze the statistics from the CDC Mark Twain: There are three types of liesLiesDamned liesStatisticsWill this theory prove true when we examine the statistics from the CDC’s website?
5 Analyze the statistics from the CDC From , the CDC “estimated” the number of HIV/AIDS cases (diagnoses, deaths, and persons living with AIDS) to be ~1 million (956,666)This is a 0% increaseAt the end of 2003, the CDC revised their estimates – the number of HIV/AIDS cases (diagnoses, deaths, and persons living with AIDS) is estimated to be between 1,039,000 to 1,185,000On the surface, this is a 23.9% increase in the number of HIV/AIDS casesThe actual estimated increase or decrease rate of HIV infectionThe 1981 US population (229,465,714)The current US population (298,444,215)The actual estimated HIV/AIDS cases decreased by 23.1%
6 Analyze the statistics from the CDC: Where are we today? What made HIV a Black world epidemic and how do we account for the following predicament?HIV has gone from a disease that infects white homosexual males in the U.S.To that of a disease that traveled across the Atlantic Ocean and infected heterosexual AfricansThen, it crossed the Atlantic Ocean again to infect African American males in prisonNow, HIV has somehow evolved with the intelligence that it should skip the majority of the American population and become synonymous with African Americans and women in particular
7 Analyze the statistics from the CDC: HIV/AIDS epidemic? Depending on how you present the statistics, African Americans are facing a serious epidemicIn 2005, the CDC said that African Americans (12–13% of the American population) make up 49% of the estimated number of HIV/AIDS cases diagnosedLet’s analyze the same information a different wayIn 2005, the CDC estimated that 38,096 people were diagnosed with HIV/AIDSThe “estimated” percentage of people diagnosed with HIV/AIDSAfrican Americans (18,667/38,797,748) is 0.048%U.S. population (38,096/298,444,215) is 0.013%
8 Analyze the statistics from the CDC: HIV/AIDS deaths? In 2004, the CDC “estimated” that 17,453 people died from AIDSIf these estimated AIDS deaths are “real”, then these deaths can be verified by looking at the actual number of deaths for that year
9 Leading causes of death in the U.S., 2004 Total DeathsDiseases of the heartMalignant neoplasms (cancer)Cerebrovascular diseases (stroke)Chronic lower respiratory diseases (emphysema, chronic bronchitis)Unintentional injuries (accidents)Diabetes mellitusAlzheimer’s diseaseInfluenza and pneumoniaNephritis and nephrosis (Kidney disease)10 Septicemia (systemic infection)11 Intentional self-harm (suicide)Chronic liver/cirrhosis (liver disease)Essential (primary) hypo and hypertension renal diseaseParkinson’s diseasePneumonitis due to solids and liquidsAll other causes2,398,365654,092550,270150,147123,884108,69472,81565,82961,47242,76233,46431,64726,54922,95318,01816,959418,810This shows the inconsistency in the CDC information
10 High public policy priority: Rethinking/revising Although 62% of all deaths recorded in the U.S. in 2004 are caused by heart disease, cancer, strokes, and lower respiratory diseasesIf you follow the money budgeted per death, it becomes apparent, the amount of NIH funds allocated for HIV/AIDS research (72.6%) are excessive
11 Sexual transmission of HIV The CDC says HIV is sexually transmittedPadian NS et al., Heterosexual transmission of Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) in Northern California: Results from a ten-year studyAmerican Journal of Epidemiology. 1997;146(4):350-7Followed 175 HIV-discordant couplesAlthough 25% of the couples had unprotected sexNo seroconversion after entry into the study was observedNone of the unprotected individuals became HIV+Sex has nothing to do with HIV/AIDSDavid W. Rasnick, PhD, member of the Scientific Group for the Reappraisal of AIDS, wrote a letter to the British Medical Journal entitled ”Sex has nothing to do with AIDS”(http://www.bmj.com/cgi/eletters/326/7381/126/e)
12 Sexual transmission of HIV: The prostitute paradox If HIV is sexually transmitted, it should be found in sex-trade workersSix additional studies published in prestigious scientific journals that demonstrate HIV can not be sexually transmittedPotterat J J et al. Mortality in a Long-term Open Cohort of Prostitute Women. Am J Epidemiol 2004;159:Modan, B et al. Prevalence of HIV antibodies in transsexual and female prostitutes, American Journal of Public Health. 1992;82(4):Hyams KC et al. HIV infection in a non-drug abusing prostitute population. Scandinavian Journal of Infectious Diseases. 1989;21(3):353-4.Seidlin M et al. Prevalence of HIV infection in New York call girls. Journal of acquired immune deficiency syndromes. JAIDS, 1988;1(2):150-4Smith GL, Smith KF. Lack of HIV infection and condom use in licensed prostitutes. Lancet. 1986;1392.Brenky-Faudeux D, Fribourg-Blanc A. HTLV-III antibody in prostitutes. Lancet. 1985;2:1424.
13 Prominent scientists on the HIV=AIDS hypothesis David Rasnick, PhDEarned his living as a designer of protease inhibitors (more on this later)It has taken me 15 years of curiosity, acceptance, doubt, study, understanding, new doubt, followed by new understanding, to come to terms with HIV/AIDS--and I'm a scientist, I’m able to plow through the intimidating technical literatureNo wonder the public has bought the contagious AIDS theoryThe truth is guarded by experts and hidden by a thick forest of jargon, credentials, and all those papersThe fraud, incompetence, and outright lies produced by the cult of HIV have already been documentedBut holding the perpetrators accountable will not be easy
14 Prominent scientists on the HIV=AIDS hypothesis Eleni Papadopulos-Eleopulos, PhD and her group in Perth, Australia published articles concluding that there is no evidence for the existence of HI virusesPapadopulos-Eleopulos E, Turner VF, Papadimitriou JM. IS a positive western blot proof of HIV infection? Biotechnology NY 1 993;1 1:Papadopulos-Eleopulos E: Is HIV the cause of AlDS? Continuum 1997;5:8-19.Stefan Lanka, PhD – has experience in molecular biology, molecular genetics, marine biology, and virology says all retroviruses, including HIV, are biologically inexistent and their phenomenology is based on laboratory artifactsLanka S. Fehldiagnose AIDS. Wechselwirkung l994;16:48-53.Lanka S. HIV-Realität oder Artefakt? Raum und Zeit 1 995;77:Lanka S. HIV - reality or artifact? Continuum 1995;3/1 :4-9
15 Prominent scientists on the HIV=AIDS hypothesis Roberto A. Giraldo, MDMost serologic tests that look for the presence of antibodies against germs use neat serum [undiluted]Tests that look for antibodies to hepatitis A and B viruses, rubella virus, syphilis, hystoplasma and cryptococus, etc are just a few examplesTo prevent false positive reactions, some serologic tests use diluted serumMeasles, varicelia, and mumps viruses use a dilution of 1:16Cytomegalovirus uses a dilution of 1:20Epstein-Barr Virus uses a dilution of 1:10ELISA test for HIV uses a dilution of 1:400If undiluted or neat serum is used, every human being on planet earth will react positive to the ELISA test for HIVTested his own serum (HIV+ at less dilute concentrations)(http://www.virusmyth.net/aids/data/rgelisa.htm)
16 Prominent scientists on the HIV=AIDS hypothesis Rebecca Culshaw, PhDAssistant Professor of Mathematics, Univ Texas at Tyler, BS, MS, PhD Research Interests: Mathematical Biology Five peer reviewed publications and seven conference papers in ten yearsCreated quite a stir by announcing “Why I quit HIV” in March 2006, after having devoted ten years to mathematical modeling of how HIV causes AIDSThe entire basis for this theory is wrongAIDS is not a disease so much as it is a sociopolitical construct that few people understand and even fewer question
17 Understand the HIV/AID debate: Decouple HIV from AIDS HIV: Human immunodeficiency virusRetrovirusesContain the genetic material RNA rather than DNAContain genes that encode the proteinsgag, pol, env, and (often) proAIDS: Acquired immune deficiency syndromeAs an illness, AIDS originated in the search by the CDC for sick homosexual men, also suffering from Kaposi's Sarcoma (KS) and/or Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia (PCP)KS was named for Dr. Moritz Kaposi who first described it in 1872Sarcoma is a cancerPneumocystis carinii is a common microorganism (fungus) that exists in mammals (rats, guinea pigs, monkeys, dogs, sheep, humans, etc.)First described around World War II in severely malnourished and premature infants
18 Clinical conditions redefined as HIV/AIDS Candidiasis of bronchi, trachea, or lungs (fungal infection)Candidiasis esophagealCervical cancer (invasive)Coccidioidomycosis, disseminated or extrapulmonary (fungal disease)Cryptococcosis, extrapulmonary (fungal infection)Cryptosporidiosis, chronic intestinal for longer than 1 month (protozoan parasite)Cytomegalovirus disease (other than liver, spleen or lymph nodes (Herpes)EncephalopathyHerpes simplex: chronic ulcer(s) (for more than 1 month); or bronchitis, pneumonitis, or esophagitisHistoplasmosis, disseminated or extrapulmonary (fungal infection)Isosporiasis, chronic intestinal (for more than 1 month) (parasitic infection)Kaposi's sarcoma (human herpesvirus 8 )Lymphoma Burkitt's, immunoblastic or primary brain (variety of cancers)
19 Clinical conditions redefined as HIV/AIDS Mycobacterium avium complexMycobacterium, other species, disseminated or extrapulmonaryPneumocystis jiroveci pneumonia (formerly Pneumocystis carinii) (fungal infection)Pneumonia (recurrent)Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathySalmonella septicemia (bacterial infection)Toxoplasmosis of the brain (protozoan Toxoplasma gondii)Tuberculosis (Mycobacterium tuberculosis)Wasting syndromeMalariaDysenteryLeprosyVaccine and antibiotic damageAmyl nitrate damage (poppers, used by homosexual males)Malnutrition
20 HIV antibody tests: Housekeeping items Can not detect the actual virusThere is no such thing as an AIDS testThey test for non-specific antibodies in the bodyAntibodies are proteins, so please keep this in mind throughout the rest of the presentation because this designation will be usedThree types of molecules in the body (DNA is transcribed into RNA and RNA is translated into Proteins)There are inherent problems using antibody tests to diagnose any diseasePeople do not necessarily have the virus that their antibodies may appear to suggest they have
21 HIV antibody tests: Housekeeping items Examples of how misleading antibody tests arePeople can have positive antibody responses to certain laboratory chemicals, but this does not mean they are infected with laboratory chemicalsPeople vaccinated for polio will test positive for antibodies to polio even though they don’t have polioPeople exposed to TB will test antibody positive for TB but this does not necessarily mean they are currently infected with TBThe test for glandular fever measures antibody response to red blood cells of sheep and horses, but a positive test does not mean that someone is infected with sheep or horse blood, or that animal blood causes glandular feverThese examples are shown to demonstrate why antibody responses alone cannot determine if someone is infected with a particular virus
22 HIV antibody tests: Arbitrarily interpreted 1988, the Mayo Clinic reported that “the Western Blot (WB) method lacks standardization, is cumbersome, and is subjective in interpretation of banding patterns”1988, the Journal of the American Medical Association published an article stating that 19 different labs, testing ONE blood sample got 19 different WB results (JAMA, 260, 1988)1993, a review in Bio/Technology reported that the FDA, the CDC, the Department of Defense, and the Red CrossAll interpret “WB” differentlyAll the other major US labs for HIV testing also have their own criteria for interpreting WB
23 HIV antibody tests: Arbitrarily interpreted HIV status depends on where you live11 interpretations of what constitute HIV+Africa is the easiest place to be deemed HIV+Australia is the hardest6 different U.S. interpretationsPeople can literally move to a different location and they will no longer be HIV+What other contagious disease do you know of that behave in this manner?AFR = Africa; AUS = Australia; FDA = US Food and Drug Administration; RCX = US Red Cross;CDC = US Center for Disease Control; CON = US Consortium for Retrovirus Serology Standardization;GER = Germany; UK = United Kingdom; FRA = France; MACS = US Multicenter AIDS Cohort Study
24 HIV antibody tests: No virologic gold standard The medical literature adds something truly astounding!1987, the New England Journal of Medicine reported that the meaning of positive tests will depend on the joint (ELISA/WB) false positive rateThe real rate is unknown because there is no recognized gold standard1996, Journal of American Medical Association reported: The diagnosis of HIV infection in infants is particularly difficultBecause there is no reference or “gold standard”1997, Abbott laboratories, the world leader in HIV-test production statedAt present, there is no recognized standard for establishing the “presence or absence” of HIV antibody in human blood2000, the Journal AIDS reported that "2.9% %" of women in a study tested positive, depending on the test usedSince there is no established gold standard test, it is unclear which of these two proportions is the “best estimate” of the real prevalence rate
25 No virologic gold standard: Insert from Abbott Laboratory
26 High false positive rate with HIV tests 1985, at the beginning of HIV testing, it was reported in the New England Journal of Medicine"68% to 89%” of all repeatedly reactive ELISA (HIV antibody) tests were likely to represent false positive results1992, the Lancet reported ("HIV Screening in Russia")For 66 true positives, there were 30,000 false positivesIn pregnant women, "there were 8,000 false positives for 6 confirmations"2000, the Archives of Family Medicine reportedThe more women we test, the greater "the proportion of false positive and ambiguous (indeterminate) test results"The tests described above are standard HIV tests, the kind promoted in the adsELISA or EIA (Enzyme-linked immuno-sorbant assay)
27 HIV tests are non-specific: ELISA & WB The ELISA is the first test that is used for HIV detectionIf you test HIV+, a second ELISA is recommended, if you test HIV+ again, then a Western Blot (WB) is performedELISA - a mixture of proteins, which are said to come only from HIV, is exposed to a blood sample and any antibodies in the blood that can bind to these proteins are allowed to do soIf all of the proteins in the mixture come from HIV, “and” if all of the antibodies recognize only HIV proteins, a positive reading means that a person has been exposed to HIV1993, Eleni Papadopulos-Eleopulos, PhDThe proteins in the mixture are not unique to HIV for the ELISA or WBThe antibodies in the blood samples are not specific only to HIV proteinsPapadopulos-Eleopulos, E., Turner, V.F., Papadimitriou, J.M"Is a positive Western Blot proof of HIV infection?" Bio/Technology. 11:
28 HIV tests are non-specific: Example of a Western Blot All retrovirusesContain genes that encode for the proteins (gag, pol, env)In the U.S., there are 5 major proteins used to determine a person’s HIV statusenv gp160gp120gp 41gag p55p18p24pol p65p51p31Image reproduced from Commercial Methods in Clinical Microbiology, ASM Press.
29 HIV tests are non-specific: Analyzing the important protein bands in the WB Analysis of the five proteins that determines a person’s HIV statusp24: Found in all endogenous retroviruses (HTLV-1, HTLV-II, HIV-2)p31: The amino-acid sequences of the "purified HIV (p30-p32)” are identical to that of a normal protein found in the human immune system called "Class II histocompatibility DR proteins"Henderson, L.E., Sowder, R., Copeland, T.D., et. al "Direct identification of Class II histocompatibility DR proteins in preparations of human T-cell lymphotrophic virus type III." J. Virol. 61:p41: Protein called actin - the most abundant protein in human cellsIn some cells, actin accounts for 15% of the total cellular contentActin filaments drives shape changes, cell locomotion, chemotactic migration and participate in muscle contractionp120, p160 - oligomers of p41, for instance (p 120 = p40 *3 and p160 = p40*4)
30 66 factors known to generate a false positive on HIV tests 1. Anti-carbohydrate antibodies2. Naturally-occurring antibodies3. Passive immunization: receipt of gamma or immune globulin4. Leprosy5. Tuberculosis6. Mycobacterium avium7. Systemic lupus erythematosus8. Renal (kidney) failure9. Hemodialysis/renal failure10. Alpha interferon therapy in hemodialysis patients11. Flu12. Flu vaccination13. Herpes simplex I14. Herpes simplex II15. Upper respiratory tract infection (cold or flu)16. Recent viral infection or exposure to viral vaccines17. Pregnancy in multiparous women18. Malaria19. High levels of circulating immune complexes
31 66 factors known to generate a false positive on HIV tests 20. Hypergammaglobulinemia (high levels of antibodies)21. False positives on other tests, including RPR (rapid plasmareagent) test for syphilis22. Rheumatoid arthritis23. Hepatitis B vaccination24. Tetanus vaccination25. Organ transplantation26. Renal transplantation27. Anti-lymphocyte antibodies28. Anti-collagen antibodies (found in gay men, haemophiliacs,Africans of both sexes and people with leprosy)29. Serum-positive for rheumatoid factor, antinuclear antibody(both found in rheumatoid arthritis and other autoantibodies)30. Autoimmune diseases: Systemic lupus erythematosus,scleroderma, connective tissue disease, dermatomyositis31. Acute viral infections, DNA viral infections32. Malignant neoplasms (cancers)33. Alcoholic hepatitis/alcoholic liver disease34. Primary sclerosing cholangitis
32 66 factors known to generate a false positive on HIV tests 35. Hepatitis36. "Sticky" blood (in Africans)37. Antibodies with a high affinity for polystyrene (used inthe test kits)38. Blood transfusions, multiple blood transfusions39. Multiple myeloma40. HLA antibodies (to Class I and II leukocyte antigens)41. Anti-smooth muscle antibody42. Anti-parietal cell antibody43. Anti-hepatitis A IgM (antibody)44. Anti-Hbc IgM45. Administration of human immunoglobulin preparationspooled before 198546. Hemophilia47. Hematologic malignant disorders/lymphoma48. Primary biliary cirrhosis49. Stevens-Johnson syndrome50. Q-fever with associated hepatitis51. Heat-treated specimens
33 66 factors known to generate a false positive on HIV tests 52. Lipemic serum (blood with high levels of fat or lipids)53. Hemolyzed serum (blood where haemoglobin isseparated from the red cells)54. Hyperbilirubinemia55. Globulins produced during polyclonal gammopathies(which are seen in AIDS risk groups)56. Healthy individuals as a result of poorly-understoodcross-reactions57. Normal human ribonucleoproteins58. Other retroviruses59. Anti-mitochondrial antibodies60. Anti-nuclear antibodies61. Anti-microsomal antibodies62. T-cell leukocyte antigen antibodies63. Proteins on the filter paper64. Epstein-Barr virus65. Visceral leishmaniasis66. Receptive anal sex
34 References - factors known to cause a false positive on HIV tests 1. Agbalika F, Ferchal F, Garnier J-P, et al False-positive antigens related to emergence of a kD protein detected in organ recipients. AIDS. 6:2. Andrade V, Avelleira JC, Marques A, et al Leprosy as a cause of false-positive results in serological assays for the detection of antibodies to HIV-1. Intl. J. Leprosy. 9:125.3. Arnold NL, Slade RA, Jones MM, et al Donor follow up of influenza vaccine-related multiple viral enzyme immunoassay reactivity. Vox Sanguinis. 67:191.4. Ascher D, Roberts C Determination of the etiology of seroreversals in HIV testing by antibody fingerprinting. AIDS. 6:241.5. Barbacid M, Bolgnesi D, Aaronson S Humans have antibodies capable of recognizing oncoviral glycoproteins: Demonstration that these antibodies are formed in response to cellular modification of glycoproteins rather than as consequence of exposure to virus. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. 77:6. Biggar R, Melbye M, Sarin P, et al ELISA HTLV retrovirus antibody reactivity associated with malaria and immune complexes in healthy Africans. Lancet. ii:7. Blanton M, Balakrishnan K, Dumaswala U, et al HLA antibodies in blood donors with reactive screening tests for antibody to the immunodeficiency virus. Transfusion. 27(1):118.8. Blomberg J, Vincic E, Jonsson C, et al Identification of regions of HIV-1 p24 reactive with sera which give "indeterminate" results in electrophoretic immunoblots with the help of long synthetic peptides. AIDS Res. Hum. Retro. 6:1363.9. Burkhardt U, Mertens T, Eggers H Comparison of two commercially available anti-HIV ELISA's: Abbott HTLV-III ELA and DuPont HTLV-III ELISA. J. Med. Vir. 23:217.10. Bylund D, Ziegner U, Hooper D Review of testing for human immunodeficiency virus. Clin. Lab. Med. 12:
35 References - factors known to cause a false positive on HIV tests 11. Challakere K, Rapaport M False-positive human immunodeficiency virus type 1 ELISA results in low-risk subjects. West. J. Med. 159(2):12. Charmot G, Simon F HIV infection and malaria. Revue du practicien. 40:2141.13. Cordes R, Ryan M Pitfalls in HIV testing. Postgraduate Medicine. 98:177.14. Dock N, Lamberson H, O'Brien T, et al Evaluation of atypical human immunodeficiency virus immunoblot reactivity in blood donors. Transfusion. 28:142.15. Esteva M, Blasini A, Ogly D, et al False positive results for antibody to HIV in two men with systemic lupus erythematosus. Ann. Rheum. Dis. 51:16. Fassbinder W, Kuhni P, Neumayer H. et al Prevalence of antibodies against LAV/HTLV-III [HIV] in patients with terminal renal insufficiency treated with hemodialysis and following renal transplantation. Deutsche Medizinische Wochenschrift. 111:1087.17. Fleming D, Cochi S, Steece R. et al Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome in low-incidence areas. JAMA. 258(6):785.18. Gill MJ, Rachlis A, Anand C Five cases of erroneously diagnosed HIV infection. Can. Med. Asso. J. 145(12):1593.19. Healey D, Bolton W Apparent HIV-1 glycoprotein reactivity on Western blot in uninfected blood donors. AIDS. 7:20. Hisa J False-positive ELISA for human immunodeficiency virus after influenza vaccination. JID. 167:989.21. Isaacman S Positive HIV antibody test results after treatment with hepatitis B immune globulin. JAMA. 262:209.
36 References - factors known to cause a false positive on HIV tests 22. Jackson G, Rubenis M, Knigge M, et al Passive immunoneutralisation of human immunodeficiency virus in patients with advanced AIDS. Lancet, Sept. 17:647.23. Jindal R, Solomon M, Burrows L False positive tests for HIV in a woman with lupus and renal failure. NEJM. 328:24. Jungkind D, DiRenzo S, Young S Effect of using heat-inactivated serum with the Abbott human T-cell lymphotropic virus type III [HIV] antibody test. J. Clin. Micro. 23:381.25. Kashala O, Marlink R, Ilunga M. et al Infection with human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) and human T-cell lymphotropic viruses among leprosy patients and contacts: correlation between HIV-1 cross-reactivity and antibodies to lipoarabionomanna. J. Infect. Dis. 169:26. Lai-Goldman M, McBride J, Howanitz P, et al Presence of HTLV-III [HIV] antibodies in immune serum globulin preparations. Am. J. Clin. Path. 87:635.27. Langedijk J, Vos W, Doornum G, et al Identification of cross-reactive epitopes recognized by HIV-1 false-positive sera. AIDS. 6:28. Lee D, Eby W, Molinaro G HIV false positivity after hepatitis B vaccination. Lancet. 339:1060.29. Leo-Amador G, Ramirez-Rodriguez J, Galvan-Villegas F, et al Antibodies against human immunodeficiency virus in generalized lupus erythematosus. Salud Publica de Mexico. 32:15.30. Mackenzie W, Davis J, Peterson D. et al Multiple false-positive serologic tests for HIV, HTLV-1 and hepatitis C following influenza vaccination, JAMA. 268:31. Mathe G Is the AIDS virus responsible for the disease? Biomed & Pharmacother. 46:1-2.32. Mendenhall C, Roselle G, Grossman C, et al False-positive tests for HTLV-III [HIV] antibodies in alcoholic patients with hepatitis. NEJM. 314:921.
37 References - factors known to cause a false positive on HIV tests 33. Moore J, Cone E, Alexander S HTLV-III [HIV] seropositivity in parenteral drug abusers - a case of false-positives or evidence of viral exposure? NEJM. 314:34. Mortimer P, Mortimer J, Parry J Which anti-HTLV-III/LAV [HIV] assays for screening and comfirmatory testing? Lancet. Oct. 19, p873.35. Neale T, Dagger J, Fong R, et al False-positive anti-HTLV-III [HIV] serology. New Zealand Med. J. October 23.36. Ng V Serological diagnosis with recombinant peptides/proteins. Clin. Chem. 37:37. Ozanne G, Fauvel M Perfomance and reliability of five commercial enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay kits in screening for anti-human immunodeficiency virus antibody in high-risk subjects. J. Clin. Micro. 26:1496.38. Papadopulos-Eleopulos E Reappraisal of AIDS - Is the oxidation induced by the risk factors the primary cause? Med. Hypo. 25:151.39. Papadopulos-Eleopulos E, Turner V, and Papadimitriou J Is a positive Western blot proof of HIV infection? Bio/Technology. June 11:40. Pearlman ES, Ballas SK False-positive human immunodeficiency virus screening test related to rabies vaccination. Arch. Pathol. Lab. Med41. Peternan T, Lang G, Mikos N, et al. Hemodialysis/renal failure JAMA. 255:2324.42. Piszkewicz D HTLV-III [HIV] antibodies after immune globulin. JAMA. 257:316.43. Profitt MR, Yen-Lieberman B Laboratory diagnosis of human immunodeficiency virus infection. Inf. Dis. Clin. North Am. 7:203.44. Ranki A, Kurki P, Reipponen S, et al Antibodies to retroviral proteins in autoimmune connective tissue disease. Arthritis and Rheumatism. 35:1483.
38 References - factors known to cause a false positive on HIV tests 45. Ribeiro T, Brites C, Moreira E, et al Serologic validation of HIV infection in a tropical area. JAIDS. 6:319.46. Sayers M, Beatty P, Hansen J HLA antibodies as a cause of false-positive reactions in screening enzyme immunoassays for antibodies to human T-lymphotropic virus type III [HIV]. Transfusion. 26(1):114.47. Sayre KR, Dodd RY, Tegtmeier G, et al False-positive human immunodeficiency virus type 1 Western blot tests in non-infected blood donors. Transfusion. 36:45.48. Schleupner CJ. Detection of HIV-1 infection. In: (Mandell GI, Douglas RG, Bennett JE, eds.) Principles and Practice of Infectious Diseases, 3rd ed. New York: Churchill Livingstone, 1990:1092.49. Schochetman G, George J Serologic tests for the detection of human immunodeficiency virus infection. In AIDS Testing Methodology and Management Issues, Springer-Verlag, New York.50. Simonsen L, Buffington J, Shapiro C, et al Multiple false reactions in viral antibody screening assays after influenza vaccination. Am. J. Epidem51. Smith D, Dewhurst S, Shepherd S, et al False-positive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay reactions for antibody to human immunodeficiency virus in a population of midwestern patients with congenital bleeding disorders. Transfusion. 127:112.52. Snyder H, Fleissner E Specificity of human antibodies to oncovirus glycoproteins; Recognition of antigen by natural antibodies directed against carbohydrate structures. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. 77:53. Steckelberg JM, Cockerill F Serologic testing for human immunodeficiency virus antibodies. Mayo Clin. Proc. 63:373.54. Sungar C, Akpolat T, Ozkuyumcu C, et al. Alpha interferon therapy in hemodialysis patients. Nephron. 67:251.
39 References - factors known to cause a false positive on HIV tests 55. Tribe D, Reed D, Lindell P, et al Antibodies reactive with human immunodeficiency virus gag-coated antigens (gag reactive only) are a major cause of enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay reactivity in a bood donor population. J. Clin. Micro. April:641.56. Ujhelyi E, Fust G, Illei G, et al Different types of false positive anti-HIV reactions in patients on hemodialysis. Immun. Let. 22:35-40.57. Van Beers D, Duys M, Maes M, et al. Heat inactivation of serum may interfere with tests for antibodies to LAV/HTLV-III [HIV]. J. Vir. Meth. 12:329.58. Voevodin A HIV screening in Russia. Lancet. 339:1548.59. Weber B, Moshtaghi-Borojeni M, Brunner M, et al Evaluation of the reliability of six current anti-HIV-1/HIV-2 enzyme immunoassays. J. Vir. Meth. 55:97.60. Wood C, Williams A, McNamara J, et al Antibody against the human immunodeficiency virus in commercial intravenous gammaglobulin preparations. Ann. Int. Med. 105:536.61. Yale S, Degroen P, Tooson J, et al Unusual aspects of acute Q fever-associated hepatitis. Mayo Clin. Proc. 69:769.62. Yoshida T, Matsui T, Kobayashi M, et al Evaluation of passive particle agglutination test for antibody to human immunodeficiency virus. J. Clin. Micro. Aug:1433.63. Yu S, Fong C, Landry M, et al A false positive HIV antibody reaction due to transfusion-induced HLA-DR4 sensitization. NEJM.320:1495.64. National Institue of Justice, AIDS Bulletin. Oct
40 Low CD4 T-cell count: Non-HIV/AIDS diagnosis Prior to 1993, the definition of AIDS required clinical symptoms of serious diseaseAccording to the 1993 redefinition of AIDS, clinically healthy but HIV+ people in the US have "AIDS" when their CD4 cell count drops below 200.This redefinition is absurd - a variety of physical and even psychological conditions have been shown to cause very low CD4 cell counts in "HIV negative" individualsLiterally overnight, this change of definition caused the number of people with "AIDS" in the United States to doubleFrom 1993 to 1997, the CDC disclosed the percentage of AIDS patients that had AIDS'93, but not AIDS'87Starting in 1998, the CDC would no longer disclose which percentage of AIDS cases was "AIDS'93" but not "AIDS'87", and stonewalled all attempts of AIDS rethinkers to acquire it
41 Low CD4 T-cell count: A Variety of causes account for this phenomenon Many viral infectionsBacterial infectionsParasitic infectionsSepsisTuberculosisCoccidioidomycosis (acquired from inhalation of spores)BurnsTraumaIntravenous injections of foreign proteinsMalnutritionOver-exercisingIntravenous drug usersPregnancyNormal daily variationPsychological stress and social isolationMalaria
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43 Low CD4 T-cell count: References Cassone (1999). In vitro and in vivo anticandidal activity of HIV protease inhibitors. J Infect Dis; 180;Castilla JA, Rueda R, Vargas L, et al. (1989). Decreased levels of circulating CD4+ T lymphocytes during normal human pregnancy. J Reprod Immunol; 15;Castle S, Wilkins S, Heck E, Tanzy K, Fahey J (1995, September). Depression in caregivers of demented patients is associated with altered immunity: impaired proliferative capacity, increased CD8+, and a decline in lymphocytes with surface signal transduction molecules (CD38+) and a cytotoxicity marker (CD56+ CD8+). Clin Exp Immunol;101(3):487-93CDC (1999). HIV/AIDS Surveillance Report. Centers for Disease Control, Atlanta, GA.Chandra RK (1997, August). Nutrition and the immune system: an introduction. Am J Clin Nutr; 66(2) :460S-463SChirenda J (1999). Low CD4 count in HIV-negative malaria cases, and normal CD4 count in HIV-positive and malaria negative patients. Cent Afr J Med; Volume 45(9): page 248.Christeff N, Gharakhanian S, Thobie N et al. (1992). Evidence for changes in adrenal and testicular steroids during HIV infection. J Acquired Imm Def Syn; 5:Coodley GO, Loveless MO, Nelson HD et al. (1994). Endocrine function in the HIV wasting syndrome. J Acquired Imm Def Syn; 7:Culver KW, Ammann AJ, Partridge JC, Wong DF, Wara DW, Cowan MJ (1987, August). Lymphocyte abnormalities in infants born to drug-abusing mothers. J Pediatr;111(2):230-5.Des Jarlais DC, Friedman SR, Marmor M et al. (1987, July). Development of AIDS, HIV seroconversion, and potential cofactors for CD4 cell loss in a cohort of intravenous drug users. AIDS 1(2):Feeney C, Bryzman S, Kong L, Brazil H, Deutsch R, Fritz LC (1995, Oct). T-lymphocyte subsets in acute illness. Crit Care Med; 23(10):Fox CH (1996). The pathogenesis of HIV-disease. J Nutr; 126(10 Suppl): 2608S.Gallo RC, Salahuddin SZ, Popovic M, et al (1984). Frequent Detection and Isolation of Cytopathic Retro-viruses (HTLV-III) from Patients with AIDS and at Risk for AIDS. Science ; 224:Garrett L (2001). Change in Guidelines for HIV; U.S. officials to tout new treatment policy. Newsday (New York, NY), January 17, 2001, Wednesday, page A22.Goldman (2000). Cecil Textbook of Medicine, 21st edition, W.B. Saunders, Inc.Goodkin K, Feaster DJ, Asthana D, et al. (1998, May). A bereavement support group intervention is longitudinally associated with salutory effects on the CD4 cell count and number of physician visits. Clin Diagn Lab Immunol: 5(3);Guyton AC & Hall JE (1996). Textbook of Medical Physiology. Saunders; New YorkHarbige LS (1996). Nutrition and immunity with emphasis on infection and autoimmune disease. Nutrition and Health: 10;
44 Low CD4 T-cell count: References Hegde HR, Woodman RC, Sankaran K (1999, March). Nutrients as modulators of anergy in acquired immune deficiency syndrome. J Assoc Physicians India; 47(3):Herbert TB & Cohen S (1993). Stress and immunity in humans: A meta-analytic review. Psychosomatic Medicine; 55;House et al. (1988). Social relationships and health. Science ;241:Junker AK, Ochs HD, Clark EA et al. (1986, Sep). Transient immune deficiency in patients with acute Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection. Clin Immunol Immunopathol 40(3);Kennedy S, Kiecolt-Glaser JK, Glaser R (1988 Mar). Immunological consequences of acute and chronic stressors: mediating role of interpersonal relationships. Br J Med Psychol; 61(Pt 1):77-85.Keusch GT & Thea DM (1993). Malnutrition in AIDS. Med Clin North America: 77(4);Kiecolt-Glaser JK, Ricker D, George J (1984). Urinary cortisol levels, cellular immuno-competency, and loneliness in psychiatric inpatients. Psychosomatic Medicine; 46(1):Kiecolt-Glaser JK, Dura JR, Speicher CE et al. (1991). Spousal caregivers of dementia victims: Longitudinal changes in immunity and health. Psychosomatic Medicine; 53;Kiecolt-Glaser JK, Glaser R (1992). Acute, psychological stressors and short-term immunological changes. Psychosomatic Medicine; 54;Kotze M (1998). Ability of the total lymphocyte count to accurately predict the CD4+ T-cell count in a group of HIV1-infected South African patients. Int Conf AIDS ; 12: 810 (abstract no )Laudenslager M, Ryan SM, Drugan RC, et al. (1983). Coping and immunosuppression: Inescapable but not escapable shock suppresses lymphocyte proliferation. Science, 221;Learmont J, Tindall B, Evans L, et al (1992). Long-term symptomless HIV-1 infection in recipients of blood products from a single donor. Lancet ;340:Leserman J, Jackson ED, Petitto JM, et al. (1999) Progression to AIDS: the effects of stress, depressive symptoms, and social support. Psychosomatic Medicine; 61;Lewi DS, Kater CE, Moreira AC (1995 Mar-Apr). Stimulus of the hypophyseal-adrenocortical axis with corticotropin releasing hormone (CRH) in acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. Evidence for activation of the immune-neuroendocrine system (article in Portuguese). Rev Assoc Med Bras;41(2):Lortholary O, Christeff N, Casassus P, Thobie N, Veyssier P, Trogoff B, Torri O, Brauner M, Nunez EA, Guillevin L (1996 Feb). Hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal function in human immunodeficiency virus-infected men. J Clin Endocrinol Metab ;81(2):791-6Madhok R, Gracie A, Lowe GD, Burnett A, Froebel K, Follett E, Forbes CD (1986, Oct 18). Impaired cell mediated immunity in haemophilia in the absence of infection with human immunodeficiency virus. Br Med J (Clin Res Ed);293(6553):978-80
45 Low CD4 T-cell count: References McChesney MB & Oldstone A (1987). Viruses perturb lymphocyte functions. Ann Rev Immunol, Volume 5:McDonough RJ, Madden JJ, Falek A, et al. (1980). Alteration of T and null lymphocyte frequencies in the peripheral blood of human opiate addicts: In Vivo evidence for opiate receptor sites on T lymphocytes. J Immunol: 125(6);Membreno L, Irony I, Dere W, Klein R, Biglieri EG, Cobb E (1987 Sep). Adrenocortical function in acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. J Clin Endocrinol Metab;65(3):482-7.Mientjes GH, Miedema F, van Ameijden EJ, Hoek AA, et al. (1991). Frequent injecting impairs lymphocyte reactivity in HIV-positive and HIV-negative drug users. AIDS: 5;Momose JJ, Kjellberg RN, Kliman B (1971). High incidence of cortical atrophy of the cerebral and cerebellar hemispheres in Cushing's disease. Radiology 99;Nishijima MK, Takezawa J, Hosotsubo KK et al. (1986). Serial changes in cellular immunity of septic patients with multiple organ-system failure. Critical Care Medicine, Volume 14(2);Norbiato G, Bevilacqua M, Vago T, Clerici M (1996, July). Glucocorticoids and interferon-alpha in the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. J Clin Endocrinol Metab;81(7):2601-6Norbiato G, Bevilacqua M, Vago T, Taddei A, Clerici (1997, Oct). Glucocorticoids and the immune function in the human immunodeficiency virus infection: a study in hypercortisolemic and cortisol-resistant patients. J Clin Endocrinol Metab; 82(10):O'Mahoney JB, Palder SB, Wood JJ, et al. (1984). Depression of cellular immunity after multiple trauma in the absence of sepsis. J Trauma: 24(10);Ornish D (1997). Love and Survival: the Scientific Basis for the Healing Power of Intimacy; Harper Collins; New York.Pariante CM, Carpiniello B, Orru MG, Sitzia R, Piras A, Farci AM, Del Giacco GS, Piludu G, Miller AH (1997). Chronic caregiving stress alters peripheral blood immune parameters: the role of age and severity of stress. Psychother Psychosom;66(4):Polk HC, George CD, Cost K, et al. (1986). A systematic study of host defense processes in badly injured patients. Ann Surg; 204;Sapolsky RM, Uno H, Rebert CS, Finch CE (1990 Sep). Hippocampal damage associated with prolonged glucocorticoid exposure in primates. J Neurosci ; 10(9):Sapolsky RM (1996, August 9). Why stress is bad for your brain. Science 273;Shallenberger F (1998). Selective compartmental dominance: an explanation for a non-infectious, multifactorial etiology for AIDS. Medical Hypotheses: 50;Sridama V, Pacini F, Yang S, et al. (1982). Decreased levels of helper cells: A possible cause of immunodeficiency in pregnancy. New Eng J Med: 307(6);Starkman MN, Gebarski SS, Berent S et al. (1992). Hippocampal formation volume, memory dysfunction, and cortisol levels in patients with Cushing's syndrome. Biological Psychiatry; 32:Stefanski V, Engler H (1998 Jul). Effects of acute and chronic social stress on blood cellular immunity in rats. Physiol Behav;64(5):733-41
46 The viral load test: Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) PCR is method of rapidly synthesizing many copies of a specific segment of DNAPCR is the biotechnology version of the Xerox machineThe amount of DNA you have to study increases exponentiallyViral load tests suppose to measure the amount of HIV RNA present in the blood stream, but, instead they measure genetic fragments, not levels of active virus in the bodyThe viral load hypothesis fails to answer two important questionsIf billions of HIV are present, why is PCR necessary to find them?If PCR is the only way HIV can be detected, how is it possible for scientists to verify the results of PCR?
47 The viral load test: Invalid and not reproducible Nobel Laureate Kary Mullis, the inventor of the PCR method has stated publicly that "viral load" tests are invalidThe “so-called viral load numbers” are not reproducible, not even when the same technology is usedA nationwide team of orthodox AIDS researchers led by doctors Benigno Rodriguez and Michael Lederman of Case Western Reserve University in ClevelandDisputed the value of viral load tests standard used since 1996 to assess health, predict progression to disease, and grant approval to new AIDS drugs after their study of 2,800 HIV positives concluded viral load measures failed in more than 90% of cases to predict or explain immune statusPublished in the September 27, 2006 issue of the Journal of the American Medical Association
48 The viral load test: Invalid and not reproducible In a study by French researchers15 HIV-1 strains using 3 viral load tests were analyzedThe samples contained the same load of this alleged “HIV” as quantified by p24 measurementsp24: Found in all endogenous retroviruses (HTLV-1, HTLV-II, HIV-2)If the tests were true measurement of HIV RNA the results should have been the same for all strains in a given test and all tests for a specific strainEvery number to the right of the first column should be identicalJournal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes and Human Retrovirology 15:174.
49 Another analysis of the HIV/AIDS statistics from the CDC’s website In 2005, the CDC estimated that 38,096 people were diagnosed with HIV/AIDSAfrican Americans (12–13% of the American population) make up 49% of the estimated number of HIV/AIDS cases diagnosed(38,096 *0.49) 18,667If HIV exits, the actual HIV diagnoses that should have occurred can be calculated by subtractingThe diagnoses that are a direct result of a low CD4 cell countThe false positives generated from the joint ELISA/WB test
50 Another analysis of the HIV/AIDS statistics from the CDC’s website 1/2 (38,096) of those diagnosed with HIV/AIDS are from a low CD4 count (19,048)Assuming a 90% false positive rate based upon the joint WB and ELISA antibody tests 19,048 *0.90 (17,143)The HIV/AIDS cases should have been 38,096 – 19, ,143 (1,905 people in the entire U.S.)Since 49% of those estimated to be infected with HIV are African AmericansThis means that 933 out of ~39 million African Americans may have this thing that is called “HIV”Since antibodies are really not a good measure to detect any disease, then this number should be reduced to “Zero”
51 If commerce laws were applied equally HIV tests would have to bear a disclaimer just like cigarettes“WARNING"This test will not tell you if you are infected with a virusIt may confirm that you are pregnantIt may confirm that you have used drugs or alcoholIt may confirm that you have been vaccinatedIt may confirm that you have a cold, liver disease, arthritisIt may confirm that you are stressed, poor, hungry, or tiredIt may confirm that you are an AfricanIt will not tell you if you are going to live or dieIn fact, we really do not know what testing “positive or negative” means at allLiam Scheff is an investigative journalist whose research was the basis for the 2004 BBC documentary,"Guinea Pig Kids," about the forced use of experimental AIDS drugs.
52 The fine print: Summary of scientific evidence They tell you, unabashedlyHIV tests are arbitrarily interpretedHIV tests are not standardized (no gold standard)The term HIV does not describe a single entityHIV describes a collection of non-specific, cross-reactive cellular material HIV can not be sexually transmittedHIV is not required for AIDSWhat is causing people to become sick?
53 The Drugs: HIV therapy - AZT Liquid PlummerDeveloped in the 1960s as a chemotherapy for leukemiaA "nucleoside analog" drug, or DNA chain terminatorStops the DNA molecule from duplicatingKills cells that try to reproduceChemotherapies are notoriously immunosuppressiveThe idea for cancer treatment is that a short shock program of maybe two or three weeks will kill the tumor while only half-killing the patientThen you get the person off the therapy as quickly as possibleThen build up the person’s immune systemOfficially acknowledged side effectsDiarrhea, dementia, lymphoma (cancer), muscle wasting, and T-cell depletion, which are also AIDS-defining conditions
54 The Drugs: HIV therapy – protease inhibitors ProteasesAre some of the most important enzymes (proteins) that we haveThey aid in the breakdown of proteins in the body (digestion of protein)Protease inhibitorsThrow your body out of homeostasisInhibit the body's natural proteasesPrevent the digestion of proteinsIf the digestive process is incomplete, undigested proteins can wind up in a person’s circulatory system, as well as in other parts of the bodyWill cause an autoimmune response
59 Side effects – AIDS drugs Photos of an infant with Stevens-Johnson Syndrome, a blistering, peeling, potentially fatal skin rash. It is one of the known side-effects of the AIDS drug Nevirapine (Viramune). Viramune is one of the primary drugs being readied for distribution in Africa.“Viramune is not a cure for HIV-1 infection.”
60 Side effects – Protease inhibitor effects BUFFALO HUMPS" between the shoulders and protruding abdomen
61 Confidential name-based HIV infection reporting There are 33 States and 4 Dependent Areas that will not release your name if you test HIV +Alabama, Alaska, Arizona, Arkansas, Colorado, Florida, Idaho, Indiana, Iowa, Kansas, Louisiana, Michigan, Minnesota, Mississippi, Missouri, Nebraska, Nevada, New Jersey, New Mexico, New York, North Carolina, North Dakota, Ohio, Oklahoma, South Carolina, South Dakota, Tennessee, Texas, Utah, Virginia, West Virginia, Wisconsin, WyomingAmerican Samoa, Guam, the Northern Mariana Islands, and the U.S. Virgin IslandsIllinois is not on that list
62 AIDS in Africa: The Bangui definition In 1985, the WHO called a meeting in Bangui, the capital of the Central African Republic, to define African AIDSThe meeting was presided over by CDC official Joseph McCormickMcCormick wrote about it in his book "Level 4 Virus hunters of the CDC," saying…If I could get everyone at the WHO meeting in Bangui to agree on a single, simple definition of what an AIDS case was in Africa, then, imperfect as the definition might be, we could actually start counting the casesThe result was - African AIDS would be defined by physical symptoms: fever, diarrhea, weight loss, and coughing or itchingAIDS in Africa: an epidemiological paradigm, Science, 1986
63 In Africa, HIV status is irrelevant Even if you test negative, you can be called an AIDS patientIn 1992, a study in Ghana: 59% of the seronegative (HIV-negative) group were clinically diagnosed as having AIDSAll the patients had three major signs: weight loss, prolonged diarrhea, and chronic feverLancet, October, 1992Across Africa: 50% (2215 out of 4383) African AIDS patients from Abidjan, Ivory Coast, Lusaka, Zambia, and Kinshasa, Zaire, were HIV-antibody negativeBritish Medical Journal, 1991
64 In Sub-Saharan Africa~60% of the population lives and dies without safe drinking water, adequate food, or basic sanitationSep, 2003 report in the Ugandan Daily "New Vision" outlined the situation in Kampala, a city of ~ 1.3 million inhabitants, which, like most tropical countries, experience seasonal floodingIn the flood zoneHeaps of unclaimed garbage among the crowded housesCountless pools of water that provide a breeding ground for mosquitoes and create a dirty environment that favors choleraLatrines are built above water streamsDuring rain - residents open a hole to release the feces from the latrinesThe rain then washes away the feces to the streamsThe residents fetch water from the streamsSome defecate in polythene bags, which they throw into the stream (flying toilets)
65 False positive rate in South Africa Dec 2002 – an article published by a fifth-year medical student at Bristol University in BritainMukai Chimuterngwende-Gordon83% chance that the HIV test mechanism in Africa - called Enzyme-Linked Immuno-Sorbent Assay (Elisa) would produce false results
66 Epidemics facing the African American community Diabetes13.3% aged 20 years or older have diabetesHypertension~34% have hypertensionObesity~79% are obeseKidney disease28.4% of kidney failureVascular DiseaseHeartStrokes