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Thesis Practice Create a fact list for the following question: Historians have traditionally labeled the period after the War of 1812 the “Era of Good.

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Presentation on theme: "Thesis Practice Create a fact list for the following question: Historians have traditionally labeled the period after the War of 1812 the “Era of Good."— Presentation transcript:

1 Thesis Practice Create a fact list for the following question: Historians have traditionally labeled the period after the War of 1812 the “Era of Good Feelings.” Evaluate the accuracy of this label, considering the emergence of nationalism and sectionalism. Use the documents and your knowledge of the period to construct your answer.

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3 Rise of Democratic Politics Democrats 1830s People Andrew Jackson Martin Van Buren Beliefs Suspicious of Fed government States’ rights Whigs 1830s People John Q. Adams Henry Clay Beliefs National government should actively encourage economic development Pressures: Industrialization in New England Spread of cotton cultivation in South Westward Expansion

4 Democratic Ferment Most important changes Universal male suffrage Party nominating conventions Popular election of President Two party system Rise of 3 rd parties More elected offices Popular campaigning Spoils system Developed at uneven pace No democracy for ALL Other changes Substitution of poll taxes instead of property ownership Written ballots instead of voting aloud Appointive offices became increasingly elected “grass-roots” organization of political campaigns

5 Election of 1824 End of Era of Good Feelings Caucasus system splintered 5 Republican candidates for President John Q. Adams Sec. of State under Monroe John C. Calhoun SC favored son William Crawford Caucasus choice Suffered stroke Henry Clay Dropped out to run unchallenged for VP Andrew Jackson Dark horse War hero Wives played important part Particularly Mrs. Adams 1 st election in which popular vote was counted Outcome Jackson won popular and electoral votes, but not majority Election went to House of Representatives Top three run-off Adams, Crawford, Jackson Clay supported Adams Alliance b/w NE and West Jackson called it the “corrupt bargain”

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7 John Q. Adams as President Made several mistakes 1825 proposed program of federal aid for internal improvements Opposed by Martin Van Buren Erie canal proved states could handle infrastructure Called for national university in Washington, D.C. Called for government sponsored scientific research Wanted to send delegates to conference of newly independent Latin American nations Infuriated South Did not want to support Haiti which had slave revolt

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9 Rise of Andrew Jackson J.Q. Adams popularity declined Jackson’s rose War hero Hot temper Supporters organized communities throughout country two years before 1828 election Martin Van Buren “new” politician Built his way up County politics Governor of NY Election 1824 convinced him of need of two-party system Buren wanted “Old Hickory” to lead new party Democrats

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11 Election of 1828 Andrew Jackson Drunken gambler Adulterer and seducer (wife not divorced when they started dating) Murderer (duels and military execution) Illiterate backwoodsman Bastard son of a prostitute 1 st president to have affectionate and widely used nickname “Old Hickory” John Q. Adams Elitist Wore silk underwear Rich In debt Provided Russian tsar a prostitute 1 st time popular vote determined outcome of election New campaign styles: state candidates gave speeches at rallies, picnic Increase of Partisan newspapers Vicious, mudslinging affair “Democracy vs. Aristocracy”

12 Jackson as President Outcome of Election Jackson wins both electoral and popular vote Highlighted sectional interests Jackson in Office Supported “rotation in office” Removed office holders in rival party Called spoils system Not first to use, but employed most harshly Defended it on democratic grounds More offices for “plain people” Took a stand on internal improvements Thought public officials would use to “woo” voters 1830 veto for Kentucky roads Indian Removal Act 1830 Increased Southern loyalty Tariff of 1828 Under Adams Called Tariff of Abominations Favored NE and West Leads to BIG problems

13 Nullification Jackson vs. Calhoun Calhoun’s History Early career Ardent nationalist War hawk Supported tariff of s Shifted to states’ rights Wanted to be president Need to support south Anti-tariff Rift Peggy Eaton scandal Calhoun will resign VP in 1832 Back-stabbing 1818 Tariff of 1828 Problems Drove up sales of manufactured goods, threatened export of cotton Calhoun Thought it unconstitutional Didn’t raise $ for common purpose Set too high Federal laws should favor equally Jackson Devised two policies to keep peace Distribute federal revenue to states Ease tariffs down

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15 Crisis SC Convention Nullified Tariff of 1828 and 1832 Forbade collection of custom duties in SC Jackson’s reaction Sends arms to loyalists Issues proclamation Nullification is unconstitutional “single nation” vs. “league of states” The Olive Branch and the Sword Olive Branch: Tariff of 1833 (Compromise Tariff) Gradual, but significant lowering of duties between The Sword: Force Bill Authorized President to use arms in SC to collect customs SC rescinded nullification The Hero Henry Clay

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17 Bank Veto and Election of 1832 Problems: Gap between rich and poor widening Panic of 1819 Bank favored wealthy Political Move: Daniel Webster and Henry Clay pushed Pres. of Bank of US to recharter bank Congress passed Jackson’s Response: Vetoed bill Why? Private and privileged monopoly Drained west of specie Immune to taxation Clay’s Miscalculation: Thinks it will sink Jackson in election Backfires Jackson runs with Martin Van Buren as VP States’ rights and unionist Clay runs on “American System” National bank Federal support for internal improvements Jackson wins People approved of Jackson’s attack on bank “hydra of corruption”

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19 Bank Controversy and 2 nd Party System War on the Bank Charter out in 1836 Biddle began to call in bank loans and credit, Jackson devised new policy State banks Influenced economy J hated “pet banks” Economy expanded- forced to sign Deposit Act of 1836 Deepened split within party Soft money vs. hard money NY locofocos Economic problems Inflation, silver from Mexico Rise of Whig Opposition Arose during J’s second term Broad base in South Opposed Jackson Reformers In North Abolitionists, temperance Supported “active” government Protestants supported Anti-Masonry Movement Against Masonic lodges Abduction of William Morgan Officially National party Called Whigs to associate with Patriots vs King “Andrew” I

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21 Democrats vs. Whigs Favored Local rule Limited government Free trade Equal economic opportunity Opposed Monopolies National bank High tariffs High land prices Supporters Southerners Westerners Urban workers Small farmers Favored Clay’s “American System” National Bank Internal improvements Protective tariffs Opposed Immorality Crime Blamed on immigrants Supporters NE Mid-Atlantic Upper mid-west Old protestants Middle class professionals

22 Election of 1836 Democrats Martin Van Buren Whigs William Henry Harrison Daniel Webster W.P. Mangum Problems for Van Buren Jackson leaves bad economy Specie Circular 1836 All future land purchases had to be purchased in gold or silver Britain restricts flow of specie to US Panic of 1837 Economic boom led to commodity and land prices soaring 1837 states made commitments to build canals Domino Effect: Bad harvest in Europe Imbalance of trade Prices tumble Banks suspend payments 1839 Economy crumbled again Wages dropped 1/ Millerites

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25 “Martin Van Ruin” Search for Solutions 1836 Whigs won governorship of NY and legislative seats Called for independent treasury Instead of deposits, government hold revenues and keep from corporations Called Independent Treasury Bill Failed to address banks at state level By 1837 Democrats: Anti-bank and hard $ 1840 Democrats Van Buren Whigs William Henry Harrison Log Cabin and Hard Cider Tippecanoe and Tyler too Outcome 78% voter turnout Harrison dominates Only serves one month in office, dies of pneumonia 2 nd party system matures Huge jump in eligible voters Plateau in 1840, lasts a decade

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27 Reform Movements MovementsLeadersLocation, Time Period Description Second Great Awakening Eastern Revivals Unitarians Mormonism Shakers Temperance Public-School Abolition Women’s Rights Utopian Communities

28 Extra Credit Question: What did Jackson call the deal between Henry Clay and John Q. Adams in the election of 1824?


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