Presentation on theme: "THE CATILINARIAN CONSPIRACY. Rome was increasingly a city of division between the rich and poor 99% of the Empires wealth was in the hands of 1% of its."— Presentation transcript:
Rome was increasingly a city of division between the rich and poor 99% of the Empires wealth was in the hands of 1% of its population The ambition for control of this wealth was steadily overriding all other political and social concerns.
Lucius Sergius Catilina (Catiline) was an extremist, but probably symptomatic of the age, in which Romans, because of extreme political competition were forced to try alternate means of acquiring power The Catiline Conspiracy, its discovery and treatment in the Senate, exposes the ills of the Republic and the politicians of the day, namely Cicero, Caesar, Crassus and Cato.
In 64 BC, Catiline and Cicero both ran for the consulship The Senate, wary of “novi homines”, supported Cicero’s candidacy. Cicero, with Optimates support, won the election
In 63BC Catiline, again stood for the Consulship,
Catiline secretly began to rally support for his conspiracy: senators who had lost elections for consul in the past or hated Cicero poor people to whom Catiline had promised debt relief
Catiline organized an army and began to raid the countryside.
Catiline’s final plan was to attack the Senate and to murder Cicero.
Warned by his mistress (a prostitute), Cicero placed guards around his home and frightened away the conspirators.
The next morning at the Senate House, with Catiline in the audience, Cicero revealed the conspiracy plot.
This was the first of Cicero’s four speeches against Catiline known as the Catilinarians.
Oratio in Catilinam Prima in Senatu Habita Oratio in Catilinam Secunda in Senatu Habita ad Populum Oratio in Catilinam Tertia in Senatu Habita ad Populum Oratio in Catilinam Quarta in Senatu Habita ad Populum
When Catiline fled Rome, Cicero pointed to this as evidence for the conspiracy.
Cicero was then given senatus consultum ultimum (full authority without having to consult the Senate).
With Catiline organizing his army outside of Rome, Cicero arrested five of the key conspirators.
The Senate debated the punishment of the conspirators, with most arguing (including Cicero) for their immediate death without a trial.
While this was considered Unlawful (because Death without trial violated Roman law, Cicero argued that this was a time of emergency.
The Debate Cicero Speaks for the death Penalty Caesar Speaks Against the Death Penalty on Constitutional grounds Cato speaks For the Death penalty
While most senators agreed with Cicero, Caesar argued for property confiscations and life imprisonment.
When Cicero gave a speech to the people in the forum about the conspirators, the senators were persuaded to side with him.
The five conspirators were executed, and as a result, many deserted from Catiline’s army.
Rome defeated Catiline’s army, and Catiline was killed in the battle.
With Cicero having uncovered the conspiracy and having protected Rome, he was given the title pater patriae (“father of the country”)