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Conquest & Survival The Trans-Mississippi West 1860-1900 AP U.S. History.

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Presentation on theme: "Conquest & Survival The Trans-Mississippi West 1860-1900 AP U.S. History."— Presentation transcript:

1 Conquest & Survival The Trans-Mississippi West AP U.S. History

2 Statehood

3 Indian Territory Oklahoma is the last stronghold for Five Civilized Tribes. Oklahoma is the last stronghold for Five Civilized Tribes. Tribes had assimilated & prospered in area. Tribes had assimilated & prospered in area. Majority of tribes had sided with Confederacy. Majority of tribes had sided with Confederacy. New treaties demanded that they split the territory with several other tribes. New treaties demanded that they split the territory with several other tribes. No Man’s Land: 2M acres opened to non-Indian homesteading (1889). No Man’s Land: 2M acres opened to non-Indian homesteading (1889). Groups included freedmen, cowboys, and settlers from Kansas. Groups included freedmen, cowboys, and settlers from Kansas. 1898: Curtis Act formally dissolves Indian Territory. 1898: Curtis Act formally dissolves Indian Territory.

4 Oklahoma Territory

5 Indian People 360K Indian people live in the West (1860). 360K Indian people live in the West (1860). Mainly occupying the Great Plains. Mainly occupying the Great Plains. Reliance on buffalo Reliance on buffalo History of people & the land stretched beyond 20,000 years. History of people & the land stretched beyond 20,000 years. Adapted to European invention and customs. Adapted to European invention and customs. U.S. Congress ignores many treaties and open territory to settlers beginning with KS & NB. U.S. Congress ignores many treaties and open territory to settlers beginning with KS & NB.

6 Subduing the Indian 1840’s 1840’s Sign treaties & create reservations. Sign treaties & create reservations. Bureau of Indian Affairs provides guidance Bureau of Indian Affairs provides guidance U.S. military ensures protection. U.S. military ensures protection. Goals: Acquire land, civilize savages, & convert to Christianity. Goals: Acquire land, civilize savages, & convert to Christianity. Problems Problems Government consistently reduces land allotments. Government consistently reduces land allotments. BIA diverts funds, reduces food supply causes starvation. BIA diverts funds, reduces food supply causes starvation. Mass buffalo killing harms vital resource. Mass buffalo killing harms vital resource. Tribes must compete for food and clothing. Tribes must compete for food and clothing.

7 Bison skulls from

8 Indian Wars-1864 Resist government & settlers. Resist government & settlers. Great Sioux War ( ): Red Cloud forces U.S. to give up forts. Great Sioux War ( ): Red Cloud forces U.S. to give up forts. Results in Treaty of Fort Laramie (1868) giving Sioux SD & the Black Hills. Results in Treaty of Fort Laramie (1868) giving Sioux SD & the Black Hills wars come to an end with death of leadership wars come to an end with death of leadership.

9 Major Indian Battles and Indian Reservations, 1860–1900

10 Indian Survival-post 1870’s Treated as savages though assimilation is supposed to be taking place. Treated as savages though assimilation is supposed to be taking place. School & church. School & church. Dawes Severalty Act (1887) undermines tribal sovereignty and promotes the individual. Dawes Severalty Act (1887) undermines tribal sovereignty and promotes the individual. Eventually lose 60% of reservation land and 66% of homestead land. Eventually lose 60% of reservation land and 66% of homestead land the Dawes Act is reversed, establishing cultural institutions and giving back some land the Dawes Act is reversed, establishing cultural institutions and giving back some land.

11 Western Empire? Financial, industrial & political center remains in East. Financial, industrial & political center remains in East. Mines, farms & communities are owned by large corporations. Mines, farms & communities are owned by large corporations. Few individuals “strike it rich.” Few individuals “strike it rich.” Mining Mining Farming Farming Cattle Cattle Land speculation Land speculation

12 Mining Investors needed to finance machinery, engineers. Investors needed to finance machinery, engineers. Anaconda Mining Company becomes largest. Anaconda Mining Company becomes largest. Comstock Lode (1858) sold to corporation for $11K & 2 mules. Comstock Lode (1858) sold to corporation for $11K & 2 mules. Mining leads to rapid growth of cities, increase in shipping and commerce. Mining leads to rapid growth of cities, increase in shipping and commerce. Known as “boomtowns”. Known as “boomtowns”.

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15 The Southwest Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo (1848) creates new borders and confusion with citizenship. Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo (1848) creates new borders and confusion with citizenship. Mexican elites fit in well with new society. Mexican elites fit in well with new society. Farmers become seasonal laborers on commercial farms. Farmers become seasonal laborers on commercial farms. Mexicanos manage to hold on to culture and celebrate holidays, preserve language and history despite white influence. Mexicanos manage to hold on to culture and celebrate holidays, preserve language and history despite white influence. South westerners remain frustrated by the powerful controlling from the Northeast. South westerners remain frustrated by the powerful controlling from the Northeast.

16 The Cattle Industry Elimination of bison makes room for roaming cattle. Elimination of bison makes room for roaming cattle. RR transportation makes commercialization profitable. RR transportation makes commercialization profitable. TX longhorn worth $9 sells for $30 in Chicago. TX longhorn worth $9 sells for $30 in Chicago. Drives depend upon cowboy. Drives depend upon cowboy. One for every 500 head of cattle. One for every 500 head of cattle. Go from TX north to grazing land (1500 mi.). Go from TX north to grazing land (1500 mi.). Paid $30 month and encouraged to spend in boom towns. Paid $30 month and encouraged to spend in boom towns. Eventually will unionize when wages drop with the price of meat. Eventually will unionize when wages drop with the price of meat. 1/3 were African Americans or Indians. 1/3 were African Americans or Indians.

17 Cattle Trails, Gold and Silver Rushes, 1860–1900

18 Cowgirls & Prostitutes Most women stay with domestic duties. Most women stay with domestic duties. Those raised on ranches may become cowgirls. Those raised on ranches may become cowgirls. Single women became prostitutes in boom towns. Single women became prostitutes in boom towns. Boom times brought $30/week. Boom times brought $30/week. Drunk, drugged and infectious clients were deterrent to becoming a prostitute. Drunk, drugged and infectious clients were deterrent to becoming a prostitute.

19 Homesteaders Homestead Act (1862) opens 605M acres of public domain. Homestead Act (1862) opens 605M acres of public domain. 160 acres of land 160 acres of land Work land for 5 years Work land for 5 years Sooners: Claiming land before “gun fire” Sooners: Claiming land before “gun fire” Land companies & the government hold the best pieces of land near large cities. Land companies & the government hold the best pieces of land near large cities. The Midwest is the most fertile. The Midwest is the most fertile. Great Plains has harsh climate and arid soil. Great Plains has harsh climate and arid soil. Hard to produce crops Hard to produce crops

20 Railroad RR hold key to settlement. RR hold key to settlement. Massive political & economic power. Massive political & economic power. Create town with one stop. Create town with one stop. Encouraged settlement by running advertisements. Encouraged settlement by running advertisements. 2M Europeans between follow call. 2M Europeans between follow call.

21 Railroad Routes, 1860–1900

22 Farming Technology Inventions make farming more productive. Inventions make farming more productive. Aide farmers to produce large crops for market. Aide farmers to produce large crops for market. John Deere (1837) Singing plow to bust sod and bring fertile soil to the top. John Deere (1837) Singing plow to bust sod and bring fertile soil to the top. Cyrus McCormick (1834) Mechanical reaper used for cutting grain. Cyrus McCormick (1834) Mechanical reaper used for cutting grain. Harvester (1870’s) drew cut stalks upward for binding. Harvester (1870’s) drew cut stalks upward for binding.

23 Preserving the Land Yosemite Act (1864) protect landscape. Yosemite Act (1864) protect landscape the government has the west surveyed. Photos and commentary prove the wonderments (Grand Canyon) the government has the west surveyed. Photos and commentary prove the wonderments (Grand Canyon) Yellowstone becomes first national park Yellowstone becomes first national park Crater Lake, OR, Yosemite & Sequoia, CA, Mt. Ranier, WA & Glacier, MT follow Crater Lake, OR, Yosemite & Sequoia, CA, Mt. Ranier, WA & Glacier, MT follow. Photographers & artists help popularize areas. Photographers & artists help popularize areas.

24 The Establishment of National Parks and Forests

25 Legendary Wild West Dime novels glamorize west. Dime novels glamorize west. T. Roosevelt (1880’s) calls it a place for “vigorous manhood.” T. Roosevelt (1880’s) calls it a place for “vigorous manhood.” Wild Bill Hickcock & Calamity Jane take on mythical standing. Wild Bill Hickcock & Calamity Jane take on mythical standing. “Buffalo Bill” Cody and Annie Oakley perform in circus like shows. “Buffalo Bill” Cody and Annie Oakley perform in circus like shows. Bring the west to those who would never reach it in the Wild West show tour. Bring the west to those who would never reach it in the Wild West show tour.


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