Presentation on theme: "Classical Civilizations"— Presentation transcript:
1Classical Civilizations Ancient Greek and Roman Literature
2Poets Sappho: Female poet Wrote nearly 500 poems Object of many rumors (prostitute, ugly, committed suicide) that were later discreditedConstantine ordered all of her work burned and forbidden
3Poets Continued…. Pindar Commissioned by an aristocratic family to write an ode in honor of their sonBegan career with this first ode
4Lyric PoetryExpresses the observations and feelings of a single speakerOriginally sung to the accompaniment of music – often the lyreEmphasizes a single thoughtOde – form of lyric poetry honoring a person/place
5You Know the Place: Then Invocation to Aphrodite (goddess of love)Heavily relies on sensory images: incense, murmuring, rose thicket, quivering leavesMood: peaceful, sensuous, lush
6He Is More Than a HeroThe speaker feels very powerful emotions for her love.The speaker uses death as a metaphor for what happens to her when the object of her love is close: inability to move, speak, think, etc.
7Olympia 11 Ode to a victorious young boxer named Agesidamos. Appropriately gives gods the credit:For his ability to writeFor the athlete’s ability to perform
8Thucydides Greatest historian of antiquity Failed as a military commander during the Peloponnesian War and was exiled for 20 yearsWrote The History of the Peloponnesian War while in exile – including many speeches, historical documents, etc.
9Speech Oral presentation on an important issue Purpose: goal of contentOccasion: event for presentationAudience: to whom the content is presentedRhetorical TechniquesRestatement: repeating idea in different wordsParallelism: repeating grammatical structures
10OrationFormal address (speech) designed to inspire listeners and incite actionComponents:Opening – capture audience’s attentionNarration – recital of factsExposition – definition of issue being addressedProposition – clarify issues and state speaker’s purposeConfirmation – address arguments for/against propositionConfutation – disprove opposing argumentsConclusion - summarize arguments and incite action
11Pericles’ Funeral Oration The main lesson of Pericles' oration concerns the honor of dying in battle.Pericles disputes the notion that his oration is “a mark of honor to our soldiers who have fallen in war” to excuse his shortcomings as an orator.Pericles' primary reason for discussing the virtues of Athens in his funeral oration is to justify the deaths of the Athenian soldiers.
12Pericles Continued…Pericles makes the assumption in his oration that Athens is worthy of the many advantages it enjoys.Pericles uses the example of Sparta to refute the ideas that the best soldiers are those who have had extensive training.According to Pericles, the citizens of Athens must possess courage in order to sustain their democracy and freedom.
13Pericles ConcludedCultural attitudes of ancient Athenians include pride in imperial conquests, reverence for war dead, and esteem for democratic decision making.Pericles argues for the superiority of the Athenian way of life on all of the following grounds including democracy, openness, and a sense of beauty.The language and style of Pericles' speech are best described as bitter and ironic.
14PlatoConsidered most influential thinker in history of Western cultureBorn into aristocracy and groomed to be a political leader, but decided against it because the corruption in politics sickened himFell in love with philosophy after meeting Socrates
15SocratesPhilosopher who wandered the streets questioning people about their ideas and valuesBelieved the unexamined life is not livingQuestioned virtuesQuestioned value of knowledgeQuestioned importance of truth
16Sophists From “sophia” meaning “wisdom” Self-proclaimed thinkers Taught art of rhetoric – ability to use language effectively and persuasivelyFollowed Socrates and recorded his teachings and musings
17Literary Terms Monologue: long, revealing speech by one character Explains and defends his philosophy and life’s mission (pursuit of knowledge)Analogy: extended comparison of relationships
18The Apology Socrates delivered this speech in court in 399 B.C. Socrates served as his own counsel in defense of his lifeAccused of AtheismCalls on “God” in monologue…pay close attention to that!
19The Apology continued… The Apology an example of the calling that Socrates urges upon his audience because it is a self-examination.As elements of a monologue, the questions Socrates asks himself serve the primary function of revealing his thought processes.Socrates' reputation as the wisest man in Athens arose chiefly from the pronouncement of the god of Delphi.
20The Apology still….According to Socrates, Athenian society is most in need of a “gadfly” because their complacency.In the context of this work, the word apology in the title is best defined as a justification or defense, not an explanation.Socrates' monologue reveals all of the following details of his personal life: his financial circumstances, his wartime service, and the number of children he has.
21More of The ApologyIn the Apology, Socrates promotes all of the following ideas: the duty to obey one's conscience when it conflicts with unjust laws, the superiority of inner virtue to external wealth and the need to examine traditional ideas critically.
22The end of The ApologySocrates' manner of speaking to the listeners he describes as his “friends” is bitter and ironic.