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Classical Civilizations

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Presentation on theme: "Classical Civilizations"— Presentation transcript:

1 Classical Civilizations
Ancient Greek and Roman Literature

2 Poets Sappho: Female poet Wrote nearly 500 poems
Object of many rumors (prostitute, ugly, committed suicide) that were later discredited Constantine ordered all of her work burned and forbidden

3 Poets Continued…. Pindar
Commissioned by an aristocratic family to write an ode in honor of their son Began career with this first ode

4 Lyric Poetry Expresses the observations and feelings of a single speaker Originally sung to the accompaniment of music – often the lyre Emphasizes a single thought Ode – form of lyric poetry honoring a person/place

5 You Know the Place: Then
Invocation to Aphrodite (goddess of love) Heavily relies on sensory images: incense, murmuring, rose thicket, quivering leaves Mood: peaceful, sensuous, lush

6 He Is More Than a Hero The speaker feels very powerful emotions for her love. The speaker uses death as a metaphor for what happens to her when the object of her love is close: inability to move, speak, think, etc.

7 Olympia 11 Ode to a victorious young boxer named Agesidamos.
Appropriately gives gods the credit: For his ability to write For the athlete’s ability to perform

8 Thucydides Greatest historian of antiquity
Failed as a military commander during the Peloponnesian War and was exiled for 20 years Wrote The History of the Peloponnesian War while in exile – including many speeches, historical documents, etc.

9 Speech Oral presentation on an important issue
Purpose: goal of content Occasion: event for presentation Audience: to whom the content is presented Rhetorical Techniques Restatement: repeating idea in different words Parallelism: repeating grammatical structures

10 Oration Formal address (speech) designed to inspire listeners and incite action Components: Opening – capture audience’s attention Narration – recital of facts Exposition – definition of issue being addressed Proposition – clarify issues and state speaker’s purpose Confirmation – address arguments for/against proposition Confutation – disprove opposing arguments Conclusion - summarize arguments and incite action

11 Pericles’ Funeral Oration
The main lesson of Pericles' oration concerns the honor of dying in battle. Pericles disputes the notion that his oration is “a mark of honor to our soldiers who have fallen in war” to excuse his shortcomings as an orator. Pericles' primary reason for discussing the virtues of Athens in his funeral oration is to justify the deaths of the Athenian soldiers.

12 Pericles Continued… Pericles makes the assumption in his oration that Athens is worthy of the many advantages it enjoys. Pericles uses the example of Sparta to refute the ideas that the best soldiers are those who have had extensive training. According to Pericles, the citizens of Athens must possess courage in order to sustain their democracy and freedom.

13 Pericles Concluded Cultural attitudes of ancient Athenians include pride in imperial conquests, reverence for war dead, and esteem for democratic decision making. Pericles argues for the superiority of the Athenian way of life on all of the following grounds including democracy, openness, and a sense of beauty. The language and style of Pericles' speech are best described as bitter and ironic.

14 Plato Considered most influential thinker in history of Western culture Born into aristocracy and groomed to be a political leader, but decided against it because the corruption in politics sickened him Fell in love with philosophy after meeting Socrates

15 Socrates Philosopher who wandered the streets questioning people about their ideas and values Believed the unexamined life is not living Questioned virtues Questioned value of knowledge Questioned importance of truth

16 Sophists From “sophia” meaning “wisdom” Self-proclaimed thinkers
Taught art of rhetoric – ability to use language effectively and persuasively Followed Socrates and recorded his teachings and musings

17 Literary Terms Monologue: long, revealing speech by one character
Explains and defends his philosophy and life’s mission (pursuit of knowledge) Analogy: extended comparison of relationships

18 The Apology Socrates delivered this speech in court in 399 B.C.
Socrates served as his own counsel in defense of his life Accused of Atheism Calls on “God” in monologue…pay close attention to that!

19 The Apology continued…
The Apology an example of the calling that Socrates urges upon his audience because it is a self-examination. As elements of a monologue, the questions Socrates asks himself serve the primary function of revealing his thought processes. Socrates' reputation as the wisest man in Athens arose chiefly from the pronouncement of the god of Delphi.

20 The Apology still…. According to Socrates, Athenian society is most in need of a “gadfly” because their complacency. In the context of this work, the word apology in the title is best defined as a justification or defense, not an explanation. Socrates' monologue reveals all of the following details of his personal life: his financial circumstances, his wartime service, and the number of children he has.

21 More of The Apology In the Apology, Socrates promotes all of the following ideas: the duty to obey one's conscience when it conflicts with unjust laws, the superiority of inner virtue to external wealth and the need to examine traditional ideas critically.

22 The end of The Apology Socrates' manner of speaking to the listeners he describes as his “friends” is bitter and ironic.

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