Presentation on theme: "Human Trafficking. The Indiana Human Trafficking Initiative Department of Justice Task Force 2005 to Present Task Force Partnering Agencies & Organizations:"— Presentation transcript:
The Indiana Human Trafficking Initiative Department of Justice Task Force 2005 to Present Task Force Partnering Agencies & Organizations: U.S. Attorney’s Office, Indiana Attorney General’s Office, FBI, Indianapolis Metropolitan Police Department, Marion County Prosecutor's Office, Homeland Security, Indiana State Police, Department of Labor, Department of Child Services, The Julian Center, Neighborhood Christian Legal Clinic
IPATH Indiana Protection for Abused and Trafficked Humans Task Force PREVENTION, PROTECTION, PROSECUTION The Indiana Protection for Abused Trafficked Humans task force (IPATH) is one of 42 task forces nationwide funded by the Department of Justice’s Office of Victims of Crime and the Bureau of Justice Assistance to address the issue of human trafficking. The Goals of IPATH are to: 1)Enhance law enforcement’s ability to identify and rescue victims. 2)Provide resources and training to identify and rescue victims. 3)Ensure comprehensive services are available for victims of trafficking.
A COLLABORATIVE CLIENT CENTERED APPROACH VICTIM SERVICES Works with identified victims Providing legal & social services PROTOCOL Creating and evaluating protocol or the task force & the procedure for handling human trafficking situations LAW ENFORCEMENT Collaborates with agencies on current/future investigations, provides officer trainings, & prevention tactics IPATH AWARENESS Community organizations partnering together to provide outreach and education to the community on human trafficking AWARENESS Community organizations partnering together to provide outreach and education to the community on human trafficking TRAINING Provides trainings to organizations that might come into contact with victims. TRAINING Provides trainings to organizations that might come into contact with victims.
What is Human Trafficking? Sex Trafficking: in which a commercial sex act is induced by force, fraud, or coercion, or in which the person induced to perform such act has not attained 18 years of age; or Labor Trafficking: The recruitment, harboring, transportation, provision, or obtaining of a person for labor or services, through the use of force, fraud, or coercion for the purpose of subjection to involuntary servitude, peonage, debt bondage, or slavery. (1) 1)Victims of Trafficking and Violence Protection Act of 2000, Pub. L. No. 106-386 (2000), available at http://www.state.gov/documents/organization/10492.pdf.
Distinguishing Trafficking from other Crimes Human Trafficking vs. Smuggling – Smuggling is illegal transportation of a person across international borders. – Smuggling is typically voluntary and the person is free to leave afterwards. – A trafficked person may be transported into a country, but the person is then exploited for financial gain through labor services. Human Trafficking vs. Extortion – Extortion is the collection of money through force or coercion (Sometimes from family member after smuggling for a person’s freedom) – Human Trafficking involves using the victim for labor or sexual services that result in financial gain. The victim works to pay off the trafficker.
Distinguishing Trafficking from other Crimes Human Trafficking vs. Sexual Assault – Human Trafficking based on commercial sex requires that the person has been forced to provide sexual services for profit. If other HT factors are present, sexual assault can be a type of forced labor. Human Trafficking vs. Prostitution – Human Trafficking requires that the person has been forced to prostitute through force, fraud or coercion. The profit is often taken by the trafficker. Human Trafficking vs. Labor Violations – Labor Trafficking differs from other labor violations in that the victim is forced to remain in the job and that they were “obtained” for the purpose of economic exploitation.
Sex Trafficking Examples Example # 2: Two sisters from Central America receive help from a family friend to migrate to the United States in order to live with their cousins and go to school. However after crossing the border, the coyotes sell them to traffickers who force them to strip, dance and provide sexual services to pay off the exaggerated debt for their “transportation costs”. They are only allowed to call family under the supervision of the traffickers, are only given $20 a week, and are frequently threatened and abused. Example #1: A 17 year old girl* runs away from her abusive family for the second time. She meets a 20-something man at the mall who befriends her and offers to buy her something pretty. Their romantic relationship grows slowly as she becomes more dependent upon him and believes he loves her. He starts to ask her to do things for him, eventually leading to pimping her out for profit and resorting to violence and psychological trauma to control her. *Stories are fictional and meant to be used for instructional use only. While they include common elements of human trafficking, these narratives are not taken from any one trafficking survivor.
Labor Trafficking Examples Example # 2: A 40-year old woman is told by a family friend that he knows of a business man looking to hire a secretary. There are two housing options, live in the basement apartment and earn more money, or live outside for less money. Once she begins the work, she realizes he has different expectations for his “personal assistant.” He makes her clean cook, working 12 hours a day. He is always telling her how to do things and criticizing her. She sleeps under the stairs rather than in a room. She is never paid, but for a while she is hopeful that he will fulfill his promise. When she says she wants to leave, he resorts to violence and threatens to kill her. Example # 1: After losing his factory job*, a 35-year old man answers a job advertisement in the local newspaper for skilled welders. The ad promises affordable, safe housing and good pay. However, after being coerced into signing a “contract” in English, which he does not speak, he is taken to his home: a 2- bedroom apartment housing 8 other men, costing him $600 per month. The men are transported to a restaurant where they work 15 hours a day and their living costs always outnumber their pay, causing them to become burdened by an ever increasing debt. *Stories are fictional and meant to be used for instructional use only. While they include common elements of human trafficking, these narratives are not taken from any one trafficking survivor.
Human Trafficking is tied as the SECOND LARGEST and FASTEST growing criminal industry in the world, just behind the drug trade. (1) A Growing Problem Worldwide Every year 1 million children are exploited by the commercial sex trade. (4) 161 countries identified as being affected by human trafficking. (5) $150.2 billion dollars generated worldwide by the human trafficking industry. (6) According to the U.S. Dept. of State’s 2013 Trafficking in Persons Report(TIP), 27 million people are estimated to be victims of human trafficking worldwide. In 2012, only 40,000 of those were identified. (2) The 2010 TIP Report stated that: (3) – 800,000 people are trafficked across international borders every year. – Prevalence of trafficking victims worldwide: 1.8 per 1,000 inhabitants 1)Administration for Children & Families, U.S. D EPT. OF H EALTH & H UMAN S ERVICES, http://www.acf.hhs.gov/trafficking/about/index.html (last visited Jan. 13, 2012). 2)U.S. Dept. of State Trafficking in Persons Report (2013), available at http://www.state.gov/j/tip/rls/tiprpt/2013/index.htm. 3)U.S. Dept. of State Trafficking in Persons Report (2010), available at http://www.state.gov/g/tip/rls/tiprpt/2010/index.htm. 4)U.S. D EPARTMENT OF S TATE, T HE F ACTS A BOUT C HILD S EX T OURISM (2005) at p.22 (2005), available at http://www.state.gov/documents/organization/47255.pdf. 5)UN O FFICE OF D RUGS AND C RIME, TIP R EPORT : G LOBAL P ATTERNS (2006) at p.58, available at http://www.unodc.org/pdf/traffickinginpersons_report_2006ver2.pdf.http://www.unodc.org/pdf/traffickinginpersons_report_2006ver2.pdf 6)I NTERNATIONAL L ABOUR O FFICE, P ROFITS AND P OVERTY : T HE E CONOMICS OF F ORCED L ABOUR (2014), available at http://www.ilo.org/wcmsp5/groups/public/--- ed_norm/---declaration/documents/publication/wcms_243391.pdf. See also R EMARKS AT THE R ELEASE OF THE 2014 T RAFFICKING IN P ERSONS R EPORT, U.S. D EPT. OF S TATE (June 20, 2014) available at http://www.state.gov/secretary/remarks/2014/06/228083.htm. See also C IVILIAN S ECURITY, D EMOCRACY, AND H UMAN R IGHTS : T HE E CONOMICS OF F ORCED L ABOR, U.S. D EPT. OF S TATE (June 2014), available at http://www.state.gov/secretary/remarks/2014/06/228083.htm.http://www.ilo.org/wcmsp5/groups/public/--- ed_norm/---declaration/documents/publication/wcms_243391.pdfhttp://www.state.gov/secretary/remarks/2014/06/228083.htm
A Growing Problem Here at Home Between 14,500 and 17,500 men, women, and children are trafficked into the United States each year. (1) Nearly 300,000 American youths are at risk of becoming victims of commercial sexual exploitation, according to the FBI. (2) 12-14 is the average age of entry into commercial sex in the U.S. (3) 33% of a sample group of female commercial sex workers in Chicago began in the sex trade between the ages of 12 and 15, with 56% being 16 or younger. (4) 83% of sex trafficking victims found in the U.S. were U.S. citizens, according to one Justice Department study (5) 1)U.S. D EPT. OF S TATE T RAFFICKING IN P ERSONS R EPORT (2010), available at http://www.state.gov/g/tip/rls/tiprpt/2010/index.htm; see also C ONGRESSIONAL R ESEARCH S ERVICE, T RAFFICKING IN P ERSONS : U.S. P OLICY AND I SSUES FOR C ONGRESS (2010) at p.2, available at http://www.unhcr.org/refworld/topic,4565c22535,4565c25f42b,4d2d96e62,0,USCRS,,.html. 2)Amanda Walker-Rodriguez & Rodney Hill, Human Sex Trafficking, FED. BUREAU INVESTIGATION (Mar. 2011), http://www.fbi.gov/statsservices/publications/law- enforcementbulletin/march_2011/human_sex_trafficking 3)Some research indicates that the average age of entry for U.S. girls is 12 to 14, while the average age for U.S. boys and transgender youth is 11 to 13. See Amanda Walker-Rodriguez and Rodney Hill, Human Sex Trafficking, FBI L AW E NFORCEMENT B ULLETIN, (March, 2011), available at http://www.fbi.gov/stats-services/publications/law-enforcement-bulletin/march_2011/human_sex_trafficking. See also P OLARIS P ROJECT, C HILD S EX T RAFFICKING A T -A-G LANCE, (2011), available at http://loveandlighttofreedom.org/uploads/Child_Sex_Trafficking__Polaris_Project-_Jan_2012_.pdf. See also Ernie Allen, President and CEO of the National Center for Missing and Exploited Children, speaking to the House Victims’ Rights Caucus Human Trafficking Caucus, Cong. Rec., 111th Cong., 2nd sess., 2010. See also U.S. Children are Victims of Sex Trafficking (April 2008), HUMANTRAFFICKING. ORG, http://www.humantrafficking.org/updates/801. 4)S CHILLER D U C ANTO & F LECK F AMILY L AW C ENTER, D OMESTIC S EX T RAFFICKING OF C HICAGO W OMEN AND G IRLS (2008), available at http://www.law.depaul.edu/centers_institutes/family_law/pdf/sex_trafficking.pdf. 5)This statistic is based on one study of confirmed sex trafficking incidents opened by federally funded U.S. task forces. Human Trafficking/Trafficking In Persons, Dept. of Justice, Bureau of Justice Statistics, http://bjs.ojp.usdoj.gov/index.cfm?ty=tp&tid=40 (last visited 1/14/2012).
Investigations in US Investigations in Midwest Indiana (2006-2014) BJA Funded Anti- Trafficking Task Forces 5,143 (2007-2012)392 (2007-2012) 134 (law enforcement tips) 123 (victims served) Midwest/Indiana Statistics (1) 1)Information was obtained from the Bureau of Justice Assistance (BJA). The BJA Task Forces in the Midwestern Region were located in the states of: Illinois, Indiana, Missouri, Wisconsin, and Minnesota. 2)U.S. Dept. of State Trafficking in Persons Report (2013), available at http://www.state.gov/j/tip/rls/tiprpt/2013/index.htm. US Statistics- Fiscal Year 2012 (2) Number of Investigations in the US 26 DOJ-led taskforcesover 753 ICE-HSI894 FBI 306 pending (adults and foreign child victims) 440 (sex trafficking of children )
Midwest/Indiana Statistics Gender of Trafficking Victims: 70% Female 30% Male Age of Trafficking Victim: 40% Adults 20% Minors 40% Unknown Types of Reported Trafficking Cases: 60% Sex 40% Labor Nationalities of Trafficking Victims: 40% Domestic 60% Foreign Most Common Countries of Origin for Foreign Victims: 1)Mexico 2)China 3)India 4)Russia *Data was collected from both law enforcement agencies and service providers throughout the Midwest. Individual results were averaged together to project average stats in the area. Data contributed by: ICE, FBI, HTRS, TIMS, & Polaris
Human Trafficking & Sporting Events Studies have shown that there is an increase in the demand for commercial sex services surrounding large sporting events or conventions such as the Super Bowl, World Series, etc. Any increase in the commercial sex industry also increases the potential risk for exploitation and human trafficking. A study conducted by KLAAS KIDS Foundation and F.R.E.E. International, in conjunction with law enforcement, during the 2012 Super Bowl, found that online escort ads were monitored weekly to show increase of activity: – Thursday, January 12 th : 17 (1) – Thursday, January 19 th : 18 (1) – Thursday, January 26 th : 28 (1) – Thursday, February 2 nd : 118 (2) – Friday, February 3 rd : 129 (3) 68 commercial sex arrests were made before and on the 2012 Super Bowl (4) 2 human trafficking victims were identified (4) 2 other potential human trafficking victims were identified (4) 1)K LAAS K IDS F OUNDATION, B ACKPAGE. COM M ULTI -S TATE M ONITORING R EPORT (Dec. 2011 - Jan. 2012). 2)K LAAS K IDS F OUNDATION, T ACKLE THE T RAFFICKER O UTREACH AND M ONITORING I NITIATIVE (Feb. 2, 2011). 3)K LAAS K IDS F OUNDATION, T ACKLE THE T RAFFICKER O UTREACH AND M ONITORING I NITIATIVE (Feb. 3, 2011). 4)E-mail from Jon Daggy, Detective Sgt. Indianapolis Metropolitan Police (on file with author) (Feb. 17, 2012).
Human Trafficking & Super Bowl 2012 A study conducted by KLAAS KIDS Foundation found significant increases in Backpage escort ads leading up to the 2012 Super Bowl. (1) 1)K LA A S K IDS F OUNDATION, T ACKLE THE T RAFFICKER O UTREACH AND M ONITORING I NITIATIVE (Feb. 3, 2011). 2)K LA A S K IDS F OUNDATION, B EHIND CLOSED DOORS. An artist’s interpretation of an advertisement on Indianapolis Backpage February 2 nd. (2)
Human Trafficking & Super Bowl 2012 IPATH anti-trafficking efforts: – 3,397 people received human trafficking training (approximately ). Over 60 different training sessions were offered by IPATH members. Hundreds more learned about trafficking through shorter outreach events. – 2,777 educational materials on trafficking were distributed. – Awareness materials distributed between January 1 st and February 5 th, 2012: (approximate numbers, including those distributed by partnering organizations) 11,000 shoe cards 2,050 “Don’t Buy the Lie” cards 2,100 chap-sticks 300 page size posters and 500 brochures were given to partnering organizations for distribution ( Electronic versions were sent, as well) – 48 community outreach/public awareness activities were held. – 45 activities were held that involved passing out brochures. Other methods of raising awareness included radio broadcasts, TV public service announcements, and billboards. All information gathered from I NDIANA P ROTECTION FOR A BUSED AND T RAFFICKED H UMANS task force partners.
Human Trafficking & Super Bowl 2012 IPATH partners for Super Bowl efforts included: F.R.E.E. International, KLAAS KIDS Foundation, Save Our Adolescents from Prostitution (S.O.A.P.), the Coalition for Corporate Responsibility for Indiana and Michigan (CCRIM), the Indiana Coalition Against Sexual Assault (INCASA), Oregonians Against Trafficking Humans, the Florida Coalition against Human Trafficking, and other organizations. Using over 270 Indiana volunteers, these groups distributed approximately: – 2,000 “Don’t Buy the Lie” cards (included in overall IPATH number distributed) – 7,700 “Don’t Buy the Lie” stickers – 600 chap-sticks with hotline number (included in overall IPATH number distributed) – 960 Missing Children booklets ( 250 digital copies also sent) – 40,000 bars of soap to 200 hotels – 1,250 S.O.A.P. Red Flag brochures (total of English and Spanish) – 200 of each IPATH information sheet – 150 “Be Disturbed” sheets distributed – 600 Hospitality Red Flags sheets distributed – 64 human trafficking fact sheets – 198 brochures to 99 hotels – 99 copies of the ECPAT Code of Conduct to 99 hotels – 99 copies of local anti-trafficking contact information to 99 hotels All information gathered from F.R.E.E. I NTERNATIONAL, T RAFFICKFREE, K LA A S K IDS F OUNDATION, C OALITION FOR C ORPORATE R ESPONSIBILITY FOR I NDIANA AND M ICHIGAN, I NDIANA C OALITION A GAINST S EXUAL A SSAULT, and I NDIANA P ROTECTION FOR A BUSED AND T RAFFICKED H UMANS.
Human Trafficking & Super Bowl 2012 Other efforts of these groups included: – Contacted 220 hotels to offer materials and/or trainings – Gave human trafficking trainings in over 38 hotels – Made 38 phone calls to bars and major parties, challenging them to adopt zero tolerance for trafficking – Over 12 churches and 100 people participated in a day of prayer on January 11 th, the National Day of Human Trafficking Awareness. – 150-200 people and approximately 15 churches participated in a 24-hour prayer vigil, organized by Steps of Justice and Hope61. – 10 colleges held awareness events, and students from nearly every college campus volunteered for events or in other ways.* – At least 12 churches attended IPATH meetings, provided donations, and hosted events; members from many more volunteered in some way.* *Many other groups participated in anti-trafficking efforts separate from IPATH. All information gathered from F.R.E.E. I NTERNATIONAL, T RAFFICKFREE, K LA A S K IDS F OUNDATION, C OALITION FOR C ORPORATE R ESPONSIBILITY FOR I NDIANA AND M ICHIGAN, I NDIANA C OALITION A GAINST S EXUAL A SSAULT, and I NDIANA P ROTECTION FOR A BUSED AND T RAFFICKED H UMANS.
The National Association of Attorneys General announced that the focus of their 2011- 2012 NAAG year would be geared towards ending human trafficking across the country. The initiative is called Pillars of Hope. Indiana AG Greg Zoeller serves on the Leadership Council for the 2011 Pillar 1) Making the Case: Gather stat-specific data on human trafficking and create a database that assists local authorities with identifying human trafficking cases. Pillar 2) Holding Traffickers Accountable: Establish and implement comprehensive anti-human trafficking laws in all 50 states Pillar 3) Mobilizing Communities to Care for Victims: Coordination among service providers, law enforcement, and state agencies to assist in identifying and protecting victims. Pillar 4) Raising Public Awareness & Reducing the Demand: Increase public awareness campaigns regarding human trafficking that will assist the victims and work to reduce the demand for trafficking.
Origin & Destination Countries UN Highlights Human Trafficking, O RIGIN & D ESTINATION C OUNTRIES, BBC N EWS available at http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/in_depth/6497799.stm. The United States is one of the most popular destinations for human trafficking.
Who is Involved in Trafficking? The recruiter gains the victim’s trust and then sells them for labor or to a pimp. Sometimes this is a boyfriend, a neighbor, or even a family member. The trafficker is the one who controls the victims. Making the victim fearful through abuse, threats, and lies the trafficker gains power over his/her victim. The victim could be anyone. The consumer funds the human trafficking industry by purchasing goods and services. Often s/he is unaware that someone is suffering.
The Trafficker Might be someone who knew the victim and victim’s family. Will likely be bilingual. Will likely be an older man with younger women who seems to be controlling, watching their every move, and correcting/instructing them frequently. The trafficker will likely be in a lucrative business enterprise as the heart of human trafficking is exploiting cheap labor. The trafficker may be part of a larger organized crime ring, or may be profiting independently. Most often, he/she is the same race/ethnicity as the victim.
The Trafficked Person Human Trafficking reaches every culture and demographics. Regardless of their demographics, victims are vulnerable in some way, and the traffickers will use their particular vulnerability to exploit the victim. Some risk factors include: – Youth – Poverty – Unemployment – Desperation – Homes in countries torn by armed conflict, civil unrest, political upheaval, corruption, or natural disasters – Family backgrounds strife with violence, abuse, conflict – Homelessness – A need to be loved – Immigration Status
The Trafficked Person Youth are among those most at risk of trafficking, especially those with previous child welfare system involvement. 86 out of 88 child sex trafficking victims in Connecticut had prior involvement in the child welfare system. (1) Nearly 60% of minors in Los Angeles arrested on prostitution-related charges came from the foster care system. (2) Up to 85% of trafficking victims in a New York state study had prior child welfare involvement. (3) 1.Child Sex Trafficking and the Child Welfare System, State Policy Advocacy and Reform Center (July, 2014) available at http://childwelfaresparc.org/sex-trafficking-and-the-child-welfare-system/. 2.U.S. Health and Human Services, Administration on Children, Youth and Families, Children’s Bureau Guidance to States and Services on Addressing Human Trafficking of Children and Youth in the United States, pg.2, 3 (Sept. 13, 2013). [herein in “ACYF guidance”] http://www.acf.hhs.gov/sites/default/files/cb/acyf_human_trafficking_guidance.pdf. 3.House Ways and Means Hearing on “Protecting Vulnerable Children: Preventing & Addressing Sex Trafficking of Youth in Foster Care” Representative Louise M. Slaughter Human Resources Subcommittee Testimony October 23, 2013. http://waysandmeans.house.gov/uploadedfiles/representative_slaughter_testimony_hr102313.pdf.
Child Trafficking Victims Experience High Levels of Adversity and Stress Jim Mercy, Division of Violence Prevention, National Center for Injury Prevention and Control, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, The Public Health Implications of Child Sex Trafficking (PowerPoint presentation).
The Adverse Childhood Experience Studies Jim Mercy, Division of Violence Prevention, National Center for Injury Prevention and Control, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, The Public Health Implications of Child Sex Trafficking (PowerPoint presentation).
The Trafficked Person Likely has been lied to about the work they will be doing in the U.S. Was economically motivated to come the United States or to seek a new job. Believes they have a real debt to pay and takes this very seriously. Has been lied to about their rights in this country and what will happen to them if they seek help. Does not have any meaningful social network. Is extremely embarrassed about what is happening to him/her. May not see themselves as a victim – they may feel blame for their situation. May be holding out hope that if he or she proves their worth, things will get better
Where are Trafficked Persons Found? Trafficking is found in many industries including: The sex industry Forced labor in agricultural or construction industries Factories, restaurants, hotels domestic servitude as servant, housekeeper or nanny Health and beauty industries As a bride As beggars or peddlers Janitorial services Health and elder care
How Are People Recruited? Grooming process Internet and social media Fake employment agencies Acquaintances or family Newspaper ads Front businesses Word of mouth Abduction
Human Trafficking and Technology Social Networking Messages provided by U.S. Department of Justice. Visualization created by CNNMoney. Pimps hit social networks to recruit underage girls to engage in commercial sex If a girl expressed interest, a gang member would arrange to meet up. At that point, participation stopped being voluntary. The pimps "searched Facebook for attractive young girls, and sent them messages telling them that they were pretty and asking if they would like to make some money" http://money.cnn.com/2013/02/27/technology/social/pimps-social-networks/index.html
Messages provided by U.S. Department of Justice. Visualization created by CNNMoney. The pimp may have a collection of fake Facebook accounts. On one of them, for "Rain Smith" investigators found more than 800 messages sent out to potential targets. http://money.cnn.com/2013/02/27/technology/social/pimps-social-networks/index.html Human Trafficking and Technology Social Networking
http://money.cnn.com/2013/02/27/technology/social/pimps-social-networks/index.html This kind of approach works more often than parents would like to believe. Traffickers may pose as any of the following on social media: Escort Service Modeling Agency Dancing Opportunity Boyfriend Friend Human Trafficking and Technology Social Networking
Human Trafficking and Technology Gang members enticed victims on the streets and through social media, including Facebook, Twitter, and Instagram, by advertising photographs of extravagant living. Instead, the gang members trafficked the victims to several states and forced them into commercial sex. 4 Misty VanHorn, Oklahoma Mother, Attempted To Sell Her Kids On Facebook For $4,000 1 14-Year-Old Unwillingly Became an Internet Sex Symbol 2 B.C. teen drugged, forced into sex trade, police say; Calgary woman faces multiple charges, including human trafficking, extortion 3 2 1.Gates, Sara. "Misty VanHorn, Oklahoma Mother, Attempted To Sell Her Kids On Facebook For $4,000: Police." The Huffington Post. TheHuffingtonPost.com, 12 Mar. 2013. Web... 2.McLane, Adam. "Why You Should Delete SnapChat - adammclane.com." adammclane.com. N.p., 22 Aug. 2013. Web... 3.Karar, Hana, and Lauren Effron. "Angie Varona: How a 14-Year-Old Unwillingly Became an Internet Sex Symbol." ABC News. ABC News Network, 9 Nov. 2011. Web.. http://abcnews.go.com/Technology/angie-varona-14-year- unwillingly-internet-sex-symbol/story?id=14882768.http://abcnews.go.com/Technology/angie-varona-14-year- unwillingly-internet-sex-symbol/story?id=14882768 4.Ho, Clara. "B.C. teen drugged, forced into sex trade, police say; Calgary woman faces multiple charges, including human trafficking, extortion.". The Vancouver Province (British Columbia), 13 Apr. 2014. Web. http://www.lexisnexis.com.ezproxy.lib.indiana.edu/. http://www.lexisnexis.com.ezproxy.lib.indiana.edu/ 5.Dixon, Jr, Herbert B. Dixon, Jr. "Human Trafficking and the Internet* (*and Other Technologies, too)." Human Trafficking and the Internet* (*and Other Technologies, too). The Judge's Journal, 1 Jan. 2013. Web...
Human Trafficking and Technology Online Classified Ads – Craigslist.org and Backpage.com
Human Trafficking and Technology 1) Mark Latonero, Human Trafficking Online: The Role of Social Networking Sites and Online Classifieds, 13 (2011) “None of these new technologies are in and of themselves harmful,” but for those criminals searching for means of exploiting their victims, they provide “new, efficient, and often anonymous” methods. (1) Prepaid Credit Cards Prepaid Cell Phones No Age verification No identify verification Consider anonymity provided for: 1.The person posting ads online 2.The persons depicted in those ads 3.The persons viewing those ads.
Department of Labor Referrals: Our job is to recognize the signs. – Bureau of Child Labor: School corporation called about teen falling asleep in school who explained he was working late to pay off family debt – Customer Service Rep: Employment agency charging $800 to place employees in work assignments, charged for training, paid with limited access debit cards, traded sexual favors for wages. – Bureau of Child Labor: Complaint about young boys selling door to door candy late at night, who reported they lived out of state. – IOSHA: Complaint about asbestos exposure, employees were bussed in from out of state. – Wage Claim Filed: Claimant reported she was not paid, and witnessed employer loading up kids who were there for financial literacy classes to sell coffee door to door.
Why don’t Trafficked Persons Escape? Therefore, it is our responsibility to protect and assist people being exploited. They are afraid of being deported. They may be in danger if they try to leave. The traffickers have such a strong psychological and physiological hold on them. They fear for the safety of their families in their home countries or in the U.S. They may fear the U.S. legal system because they may not understand the laws that protect them. They may not be able to support themselves on their own. Due to all these factors, they may not complain about their situation.
On average, they first bought sex at 21 years old (1) Age of first purchased sex ranged from ages 11 to 49 (1) Peer Pressure was a primary reason they first bought sex (1) Significantly more sex buyers than non-sex buyers had visited a strip club (2) Frequent “Johns” are more likely to be married/older (2) The Consumer 1)Melissa Farley, Emily Schuckman, Jacqueline M. Golding, Kristen Houser, Laura Jarrett, Peter Qualliotine, Michele Decker, C OMPARING S EX B UYERS WITH M EN W HO D ON ’ T B UY S EX : “Y OU CAN HAVE A GOOD TIME WITH THE SERVITUDE ” VS. “Y OU ’ RE SUPPORTING A SYSTEM OF DEGRADATION ” (2011) at p. 14 P ROSTITUTION R ESEARCH & E DUCATION, available at http://www.prostitutionresearch.com/pdfs/Farleyetal2011ComparingSexBuyers.pdf. 2)B UYING S EX : A S URVEY OF M EN IN C HICAGO (2004) at 1, C HICAGO C OAL. FOR THE H OMELESS, available at http://www.enddemandillinois.org/research.
Profile of a Consumer All ethnicities, races, socio-economic & educational backgrounds (1) State/county employees, police, doctors, professors, soldiers, lawyers, pastors, students, etc. (2) 53% purchase sex
"name": "Profile of a Consumer All ethnicities, races, socio-economic & educational backgrounds (1) State/county employees, police, doctors, professors, soldiers, lawyers, pastors, students, etc.",
"description": "(2) 53% purchase sex
Profile of a Consumer Shared Hope International, Demanding Justice Project Benchmark Assessment, (2013) available at http://sharedhope.org/wp-content/uploads/2013/11/Demanding- Justice-Project-Benchmark-Assessment-Report-2013.pdf. See also Elizabeth Scaife, The Sex Buyer: A Trafficker’s Accomplice, S HARED H OPE I NTERNATIONAL (Aug. 14-15, 2014) PowerPoint Presentation, Cook Co. Human Trafficking Task Force Conference.http://sharedhope.org/wp-content/uploads/2013/11/Demanding- Justice-Project-Benchmark-Assessment-Report-2013.pdf
Types of Consumers Preferential - seek “young” girls Situational – females are available and vulnerable Opportunistic – purchase sex indiscriminately Shared Hope International, Demand: A Comparative Examination of Sex Tourism and Trafficking in Jamaica, Japan, the Netherlands, and the United States, (2005-2007), available at http://sharedhope.org/wp-content/uploads/2012/09/DEMAND.pdf. See also Elizabeth Scaife, The Sex Buyer: A Trafficker’s Accomplice, S HARED H OPE I NTERNATIONAL (Aug. 14-15, 2014) PowerPoint Presentation, Cook Co. Human Trafficking Task Force Conference.http://sharedhope.org/wp-content/uploads/2012/09/DEMAND.pdf
The Consumer 1.Pornography, fantasy, and violence (1) 2.Internet – availability and justification (2) 3.Violence and control in commercial sex (2) 1.Melissa Farley, Emily Schuckman, Jacqueline M. Golding, Kristen Houser, Laura Jarrett, Peter Qualliotine, Michele Decker, C OMPARING S EX B UYERS WITH M EN W HO D ON ’ T B UY S EX : “Y OU CAN HAVE A GOOD TIME WITH THE SERVITUDE ” VS. “Y OU ’ RE SUPPORTING A SYSTEM OF DEGRADATION ” (2011) at p. 14 P ROSTITUTION R ESEARCH & E DUCATION, available at http://www.prostitutionresearch.com/pdfs/Farleyetal2011ComparingSexBuyers.pdf. 2.Chicago Alliance Against Sexual Exploitation Research—”Our Great Hobby” An Analysis of Online Networks for Buyers of Sex in Illinois (2013), available at http://g.virbcdn.com/_f2/files/22/FileItem-276524-FinalWeb_OurGreatHobby.pdf.
Male Entitlement “She has no rights because you are paying for a sex act – she gives up the right to say no.” “Wouldn’t have to rape somebody if there are prostitutes. You don’t have to beat up your wife if prostitutes are available.” Rachel Durchslag & Samir Goswami, Deconstructing the Demand for Prostitution: Preliminary Insights From Interviews with Chicago Men Who Purchase Sex, C HICAGO A LLIANCE A GAINST S EXUAL E XPLOITATION, (May, 2008), available at http://media.virbcdn.com/files/40/FileItem-149406- DeconstructingtheDemandForProstitution.pdf.http://media.virbcdn.com/files/40/FileItem-149406- DeconstructingtheDemandForProstitution.pdf
Permission-Giving Beliefs “My behavior is normal, acceptable, common, and doesn’t hurt anyone.” Sex is a commodity Sex is recreation Sex is a male entitlement All men use prostitutes All people want sex with all people all the time Women really enjoy violent & degrading sex Minors enjoy sex with adults It’s a victimless crime It’s between consenting adults It’s a job They love sex & make money doing it Dr. Mary Anne Layden, University of Pennsylvania, presentation at Convergence Conference, Apr. 13-14, 2011, Linthicum Heights, MD Rachel Durchslag & Samir Goswami, Deconstructing the Demand for Prostitution: Preliminary Insights From Interviews with Chicago Men Who Purchase Sex, C HICAGO A LLIANCE A GAINST S EXUAL E XPLOITATION, (May, 2008), available at http://media.virbcdn.com/files/40/FileItem-149406- DeconstructingtheDemandForProstitution.pdf.http://media.virbcdn.com/files/40/FileItem-149406- DeconstructingtheDemandForProstitution.pdf
The number of pornographic websites grew by 1,800 between 1998 and 2007 (1). – A 2004 study of Internet traffic reported that porn sites were visited three times more often than Google, Yahoo!, and MSN Search combined (2). There is a strong association between pornography use and soliciting a prostituted person (3). Men who solicit prostituted persons are twice as likely to have watched a porn film in the last year compared to the general population (4). Pornography Fuels Prostitution 1.Websense Research Shows Online Pornography Sites Continue Strong Growth. (2004). PRNewswire.com. 2.Porn More Popular than Search. (2004). InternetWeek.com. 3.Arevalo, E. and Regnerus, M. (2011). Commercialized Sex and Human Bondage. Public Discourse. Princeton, N.J.: Witherspoon Institute. February 11; Malarek, V. (2009). Johns: Sex for Sale and the Men Who Buy It. New York: Arcade, 193–96; 202–4; Monto, M. A. (1999). Focusing on the Clients of Street Prostitutes: A Creative Approach to Reducing Violence Against Women. Paper submitted to the U.S. Department of Justice. 4.Monto, M. A. (1999). Focusing on the Clients of Street Prostitutes: A Creative Approach to Reducing Violence Against Women. Paper submitted to the U.S. Department of Justice.
Men solicit commercial sex looking for a chance to live out what they’ve seen in pornography (1). In one survey of former prostituted persons: – 80% said that customers had shown them images of porn to illustrate what they wanted to do (2). In a study of 854 women in prostitution across nine countries (3) : – 47% said they had been harmed by men who had either forced, or tried to force their victims to do things men had seen in porn In a study about the effects of pornography usage, the results showed that the more porn a man was exposed to, the more likely he was to prefer that women be submissive and subordinate to men (4). Male porn users’ ideas of what sex should be is often warped and their partners often report that they are asked to act out porn scripts or do things they’re not comfortable with or find demeaning (5). 1.Malarek, V. (2009). Johns: Sex for Sale and the Men Who Buy It. New York: Arcade, 193–96; MacKinnon, C. A. (2005). Pornography as Trafficking. Michigan Journal of International Law 26, 4: 999–1000; Raymond, J. (2004). Public Hearing on the Impact of the Sex Industry in the EU, Committee on Women’s Rights and Equal Opportunities Public Hearing at the European Parliament. New York: Coalition Against Trafficking in Women. 2.Globbe, E., Harrigan, M., and Ryan, J. (1990). A Facilitator’s Guide to Prostitution: A Matter of Violence against Women. Minneapolis, Minn.: WHISPER. 3.Farley, M. (2007). Renting an Organ for Ten Minutes: What Tricks Tell Us about Prostitution, Pornography, and Trafficking. In D. E. Guinn and J. DiCaro (Eds.) Pornography: Driving the Demand in International Sex Trafficking (p. 145). Bloomington, Ind.: Xlibris. 4.Layden, M. A. (2010). Pornography and Violence: A New look at the Research. In J. Stoner and D. Hughes (Eds.) The Social Costs of Pornography: A Collection of Papers (pp. 57–68). Princeton, NJ: Witherspoon Institute. 5.Layden, M. A. (2010). Pornography and Violence: A New look at the Research. In J. Stoner and D. Hughes (Eds.) The Social Costs of Pornography: A Collection of Papers (pp. 57–68). Princeton, NJ: Witherspoon Institute; Ryu, E. (2004). Spousal Use of Pornography and Its Clinical Significance for Asian-American Women: Korean Women as an Illustration. Journal of Feminist Family Therapy 16, 4: 75; Shope, J. H. (2004). When Words Are Not Enough: The Search for the Effect of Pornography on Abused Women. Violence Against Women 10, 1: 56–72.
Porn Addictions and Prostitution Demand The more porn a person looks at, the more severe the damage to their brain becomes and the more difficult it is to break free (1). “Reward Pathway” of a brain rewards users with chemicals like dopamine and oxytocin (2) ; however, when the reward pathway is abused, the chemicals released only make the craving connection stronger (3). Porn hijacks the reward pathway in the brain, just like drugs, and with a tolerance built up; the craving for porn can have the same effects as drugs (4). A study of the most popular porn videos found that nine scenes out of 10 showed women being verbally or physically abused (5). 1)Angres, D. H. and Bettinardi-Angres, K. (2008). The Disease of Addiction: Origins, Treatment, and Recovery. Disease-a-Month 54: 696–721. 2) Hilton, D. L., and Watts, C. (2011). Pornography Addiction: A Neuroscience Perspective. Surgical Neurology International, 2: 19; (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3050060/) Bostwick, J. M. and Bucci, J. E. (2008). Internet Sex Addiction Treated with Naltrexone. Mayo Clinic Proceedings 83, 2: 226–230; Nestler, E. J. (2005). Is There a Common Molecular Pathway for Addiction? Nature Neuroscience 9, 11: 1445–1449; Leshner, A. (1997). Addiction Is a Brain Disease and It Matters. Science 278: 45–7. 3) Bostwick, J. M. and Bucci, J. E. (2008). Internet Sex Addiction Treated with Naltrexone. Mayo Clinic Proceedings 83, 2: 226–230; Balfour, M. E., Yu, L., and Coolen, L. M. (2004). Sexual Behavior and Sex-Associated Environmental Cues Activate the Mesolimbic System in Male Rats. Neuropsychopharmacology 29, 4:718–730; Leshner, A. (1997). Addiction Is a Brain Disease and It Matters. Science 278: 45–7. 4) Doidge, N. (2007). The Brain That Changes Itself. New York: Penguin Books, 106; 5) Bridges, A. J., Wosnitzer, R., Scharrer, E., Chyng, S., and Liberman, R. (2010). Aggression and Sexual Behavior in Best Selling Pornography Videos: A Content Analysis Update. Violence Against Women 16, 10: 1065–1085.
Disturbances to the peace Screaming, fighting, loud cursing at night Increased danger Buyers propositioning residents or passersby Pimps recruiting local females “Drunks” and “addicts” sleeping in doorways Increased health risks Condoms, syringes, broken bottles on sidewalks, in yards and local parks Impact on Communities Michael Shively, Ph.D., Kristina Kliorys, & Dana Hunt, Ph.D. A National Overview of Prostitution and Sex Trafficking Demand Reduction Efforts, U.S. D EPT. OF J USTICE (June, 2012), available at https://www.ncjrs.gov/pdffiles1/nij/grants/238796.pdf.https://www.ncjrs.gov/pdffiles1/nij/grants/238796.pdf Rachel Durchslag & Samir Goswami, Deconstructing the Demand for Prostitution: Preliminary Insights From Interviews with Chicago Men Who Purchase Sex, C HICAGO A LLIANCE A GAINST S EXUAL E XPLOITATION, (May, 2008), available at http://media.virbcdn.com/files/40/FileItem-149406- DeconstructingtheDemandForProstitution.pdf.http://media.virbcdn.com/files/40/FileItem-149406- DeconstructingtheDemandForProstitution.pdf
Illicit activity People engaged in sex acts in cars, alleys, doorways, etc. Increased crime Drug abuse and related violence Pimps assaulting victims Assaults or robberies on buyers 80% of sex buyers stated prostitution had an overall negative impact on communities, increasing crime and devaluing neighborhoods. Impact on Communities Michael Shively, Ph.D., Kristina Kliorys, & Dana Hunt, Ph.D. A National Overview of Prostitution and Sex Trafficking Demand Reduction Efforts, U.S. D EPT. OF J USTICE (June, 2012), available at https://www.ncjrs.gov/pdffiles1/nij/grants/238796.pdf.https://www.ncjrs.gov/pdffiles1/nij/grants/238796.pdf Rachel Durchslag & Samir Goswami, Deconstructing the Demand for Prostitution: Preliminary Insights From Interviews with Chicago Men Who Purchase Sex, C HICAGO A LLIANCE A GAINST S EXUAL E XPLOITATION, (May, 2008), available at http://media.virbcdn.com/files/40/FileItem-149406- DeconstructingtheDemandForProstitution.pdf.http://media.virbcdn.com/files/40/FileItem-149406- DeconstructingtheDemandForProstitution.pdf
Over 80% say… – Jail time – Photo and/or name in the paper, on a billboard or posted online Over 75% say… – A letter sent to your family – Suspending Driver’s License – General increase in penalties 70% said… – Having their car impounded The Consumer – What Will Make Them Stop? Rachel Durchslag & Samir Goswami, Deconstructing the Demand for Prostitution: Preliminary Insights From Interviews with Chicago Men Who Purchase Sex, C HICAGO A LLIANCE A GAINST S EXUAL E XPLOITATION, (May, 2008), available at http://media.virbcdn.com/files/40/FileItem-149406- DeconstructingtheDemandForProstitution.pdf.http://media.virbcdn.com/files/40/FileItem-149406- DeconstructingtheDemandForProstitution.pdf
Labor Trafficking Common types of labor trafficking: Domestic servitude Farmworkers coerced through violence as they harvest crops Factory workers held in inhumane conditions with little to no pay Labor trafficking in the US, P OLARIS P ROJECT, http://www.polarisproject.org/human-trafficking/labor-trafficking-in- the-us, last visited May 16, 2014.http://www.polarisproject.org/human-trafficking/labor-trafficking-in- the-us
Labor Trafficking in Agriculture Who are the victims? Men, women, and children as young as 5 US citizens Legal permanent residents Undocumented immigrants Foreign nationals with temporary H-2A work visas What is the work? Harvesting crops Raising animals in fields Working in packing plants, orchards, and nurseries Labor trafficking in agriculture, P OLARIS P ROJECT, http://www.polarisproject.org/human-trafficking/labor-trafficking- in-the-us/agriculture-a-farms, last visited May 16, 2014.http://www.polarisproject.org/human-trafficking/labor-trafficking- in-the-us/agriculture-a-farms
Labor Trafficking in Agriculture What are the risk factors? Isolated and transient work Living in housing provided by employer Confinement, sometimes through locks, armed guards, dogs Irregular income Peeks and lulls in employment due to changing harvest seasons Travel around the country to find work Constant unfamiliarity to surroundings Immigration status Exclusion from some labor protections, such as laws governing overtime pay, the right to organize and bargain collectively, minimum wage, workers’ compensation Labor trafficking in agriculture, P OLARIS P ROJECT, http://www.polarisproject.org/human-trafficking/labor-trafficking- in-the-us/agriculture-a-farms, last visited May 16, 2014.http://www.polarisproject.org/human-trafficking/labor-trafficking- in-the-us/agriculture-a-farms
Labor Trafficking in Agriculture Common means of control include: Force – Isolation in migrant camps and rural areas; control over transportation and communication with outsiders; physical or sexual abuse. Fraud – False promises about the job; altered contracts and pay-statements; exorbitant recruitment fees for jobs that have low wages in actuality. Coercion – Exploitation of lack of familiarity with the language, laws and customs of the U.S.; verbal and psychological abuse; threats of deportation or other harm to the victim or the victim’s family; confiscation of passports and visas; manipulation of debt workers took on to obtain the job; debt bondage through high fees for rent, food, tools, transportation and other expenses. Labor trafficking in agriculture, P OLARIS P ROJECT, http://www.polarisproject.org/human-trafficking/labor-trafficking- in-the-us/agriculture-a-farms, last visited May 16, 2014.http://www.polarisproject.org/human-trafficking/labor-trafficking- in-the-us/agriculture-a-farms
State and Federal Laws State: IC 35-42-3.5: Human and Sexual Trafficking (1) Federal: Victims of Trafficking and Violence Prevention Act—2000; (2) William Wilberforce Trafficking Victims Protection Reauthorization Act of 2008. (3) 1)Human and Sexual Trafficking, Ind. Code § 35-42-3.5, available at http://www.in.gov/legislative/ic/code/title35/ar42/ch3.5.pdf. 2)Victims of Trafficking and Violence Protection Act of 2000, Pub. L. No. 106-386 (2000), available at http://www.state.gov/documents/organization/10492.pdf. 3)William Wilberforce Trafficking Victims Protection Reauthorization Act of 2008, Public Law No: 110-457 (2008), available at http://www.govtrack.us/congress/bill.xpd?bill=h110-7311.
What are the Options for Relief and Recovery? Criminal Prosecution Civil Law Remedies Repatriation Immigration
PROCESS MEANS END Recruiting Harboring, Moving, or Obtaining A person By Force, Fraud or Coercion For the purpose of Involuntary servitude, Debt bondage, Slavery or Sex Trade Three Elements of Trafficking In order to be considered trafficking on both federal and state levels, all three of these elements must be identified:
What is Force, Fraud, & Coercion? Coercion Debt Bondage Threats of Harm to Victim or Family Control of Children Controlled Communication Photographing in Illegal Situations Holding ID/Travel Documents Verbal or Psychological Abuse Control of Victims Money Punishments for Misbehavior Force Kidnapping Torture Battering Threats with Weapons Sexual Abuse Confinement Forced use of Drugs Forced Abortions Denial of Medical Care Fraud Promises of Valid Immigration Documents Victim told to use false travel papers Contract signed for Legitimate Work Promised Job differs from actuality Promises of Money or Salary Misrepresentation of Work Conditions Wooing into Romantic Relationship
Indiana Law IC 35-42-3.5 Human and Sexual Trafficking – Definition – Restitution – Civil Action
Indiana Law: IC 35-42-3.5-1 Human and Sexual Trafficking 1)Human and Sexual Trafficking, Ind. Code § 35-42-3.5, available at http://www.in.gov/legislative/ic/code/title35/ar42/ch3.5.pdf. Criminal Code Felony reclassification effective July 1, 2014. Section 1(a): A person who, by force, threat of force, or fraud, knowingly or intentionally recruits, harbors or transports another person: (1) to engage the other person in: (A) forced labor; or (B) involuntary servitude; or (2) to force the other person into: (A) marriage; (B) prostitution; or (C) participating in sexual conduct commits promotion of human trafficking, a Class B (Level 4) felony. (1)
Indiana Law: IC 35-42-3.5-1 1)Human and Sexual Trafficking, Ind. Code § 35-42-3.5, available at http://www.in.gov/legislative/ic/code/title35/ar42/ch3.5.pdf. Criminal Code Felony reclassification effective July 1, 2014. Section 1(b): A person who knowingly or intentionally recruits, harbors, or transports a child less than eighteen (18) years of age with the intent of: (2) (1)engaging the child in: (A) forced labor; or (B) involuntary servitude; or (2) inducing or causing the child to: (A) engage in prostitution; or (B) participate in sexual conduct (as defined by 11 IC 35-42-4-4); Commits promotion of human trafficking of a minor, a Class B (Level 3) felony. It is not a defense to a prosecution under this subsection that the child consented to engage in prostitution or to participate in sexual conduct. (1)
Indiana Law: IC 35-42-3.5-1 Human and Sexual Trafficking Section 1(c): A person who is at least eighteen (18) years of age who knowingly or intentionally sells or transfers custody of a child less than eighteen (18) years of age for the purpose of prostitution or participating in sexual conduct commits sexual trafficking of a minor, a Class A (Level 2) felony. (1) 1)Human and Sexual Trafficking, Ind. Code § 35-42-3.5, available at http://www.in.gov/legislative/ic/code/title35/ar42/ch3.5.pdf. Criminal Code Felony reclassification effective July 1, 2014.
Indiana Law: IC 35-42-3.5-1 Human and Sexual Trafficking Section 1(d): A person who knowingly or intentionally pays, offers to pay, or agrees to pay money or other property to another person for an individual who the person knows has been forced into: (1) forced labor; (2) involuntary servitude; or (3) prostitution; commits human trafficking, a Class C (Level 5) felony. (1) 1)Human and Sexual Trafficking, Ind. Code § 35-42-3.5, available at http://www.in.gov/legislative/ic/code/title35/ar42/ch3.5.pdf. Criminal Code Felony reclassification effective July 1, 2014.
Indiana Law: IC 35-42-3.5 Human and Sexual Trafficking Section 2: Restitution Orders – In addition to any sentence or fine imposed for a conviction of an offense under section 1, the court shall order the person convicted to make restitution to the victim of the crime under IC 35-50-5-3. (1) 1)Human and Sexual Trafficking, Ind. Code § 35-42-3.5, available at http://www.in.gov/legislative/ic/code/title35/ar42/ch3.5.pdf. Criminal Code Felony reclassification effective July 1, 2014.
Indiana Law: IC 35-42-3.5 Human and Sexual Trafficking Section 3: Civil Cause of Action (1) – If a person is convicted of an offense under section 1 of this chapter, the victim of the offense: Has a civil cause of action against the person convicted of the offense; and May recover the following from the person in the civil action: – Actual Damages – Court Costs – Punitive Damages – Attorney’s Fees. 1)Human and Sexual Trafficking, Ind. Code § 35-42-3.5, available at http://www.in.gov/legislative/ic/code/title35/ar42/ch3.5.pdf. Criminal Code Felony reclassification effective July 1, 2014.
Federal Law: Trafficking Victims Protection Act of 2000 A Comprehensive Law: Areas of Focus: – Prevention Public Awareness, Outreach and Education – Protection T-Visa, Certification, Benefits and Services to Victims – Prosecution Created Federal Crime of Trafficking, New Law Enforcement Tools and Efforts
Highlights of TVPA: Protection provided to trafficked persons through legal assistance and other benefits New crimes of trafficking and forced labor defined State Department reports annually on how countries are doing in combating trafficking – Lowest ranked countries are subject to sanctions
Federal Crimes and Penalties Forced LaborUp to 20 years Trafficking into ServitudeUp to 20 years Sex TraffickingUp to life Involuntary ServitudeUp to 20 years Peonage (Debt Bondage)Up to 20 years Document ServitudeUp to 5 years Conspiracy Against RightsUp to life if kidnapping, sexual abuse or death
What is a T-Visa? Enables certain victims of human trafficking to live and work in the US for four years. – May be eligible to apply for adjustment of status to lawful permanent resident after three years. Can petition to have certain family members accompany them. Allows access to public benefits. Cap of 5,000 visas annually. – From 2002 through October, 2012, only 6,482 visas were issued. – The reason the number of issued visas is so low is believed to be because human trafficking victims are not coming forward.
Who is Eligible for a T Visa? Has been a victim of a severe form of human trafficking; Is present in the US, American Samoa, Northern Marianas on account of trafficking; Would suffer extreme hardship involving unusual and severe harm upon removal; and Has complied with reasonable requests for assistance in investigation or prosecution of acts of trafficking. Children under 18 do not have to meet this criterion; Law enforcement certification is not required, but is primary evidence of assisting law enforcement. If inadmissible, a waiver must be sought and approved. Beneficiary changes under TVPA reauthorization in 2013 – Added certain family members
Law Enforcement Certification If law enforcement certification accompanies a T Visa application, Law Enforcement must certify that: The individual is a victim of a severe form of trafficking; The individual has complied with requests (may be ongoing) to assist in the investigation and/or prosecution of a trafficking case; Children need only meet the first criterion. Law enforcement certification is not an absolute requirement.
Continued Presence Immediate relief that must be requested by Immigration and Customs Enforcement (possibly law enforcement generally). Only applicable to T-Visas. One year of work authorization plus access to benefits granted under the TVPA Must be for an Open/Pending case but doesn’t have to be prosecuted Applicable for a “most likely” victim of human trafficking and a potential witness Children do not have to agree to assist prosecution This exists to HELP law enforcement. It is POLICY to grant continued presence.
Social Service Provision Adult victims of a severe form of trafficking may be eligible for valuable legal & social service benefits: Mental health care Legal and immigration services ESL training Independent living skills Clothing Interpretation Safety planning Housing Food Job placement and employment education Medical care and health education
Other Forms of Immigration Relief U Visa – Person is a crime victim and are willing to assist in the investigation S Visa – Person is in possession of information concerning criminal organization or enterprise Asylum – Person has suffered or fears persecution based on race, religion, nationality, political opinion or membership in a particular social group in country of origin Special Immigrant Juvenile Status – Children who are wards of the state due to their abuse, neglect or abandonment and return to home country not a viable option
Who Might Identify Trafficked Persons? Referrals about human trafficking cases can come through a variety of means: – Other Social Service Agencies – Local Law Enforcement – Labor Issue Complaints – Federal Investigations – Local/National Hotlines – Other Government Agencies – Churches – Concerned Community Members – Immigrant Officers
Identification: Social Indicators Potential victim is accompanied by another person who seems controlling and/or insists on speaking for the victim Frequent relocation Numerous inconsistencies in his or her story Neglected healthcare needs Are not in control of their own money Lack of control of identification documents Individual is using false identification papers Restricted or scripted communication Rescue and Restore Campaign The National Symposium on the Health Needs of Human Trafficking Victims Shared Hope International
Identification: Social Indicators Excess amount of cash Hotel room keys Chronic runaway/homeless youth Signs of branding (tattoo, jewelry) Lying about age Lack of knowledge of a given community or whereabouts Exhibits behaviors including hyper-vigilance or paranoia, nervousness, tension, submission, etc. Rescue and Restore Campaign The National Symposium on the Health Needs of Human Trafficking Victims Shared Hope International
Identification: Health Indicators Signs of physical abuse – Bruises – Black Eyes – Burns – Cuts – Broken teeth – Multiple scars Malnourishment Evidence of trauma Poor Dental Hygiene Psychological Problems – Depression – Anxiety – PTSD – Suicidal Ideation – Panic Attacks – Stockholm Syndrome – Fear/Distrust P OLARIS P ROJECT A T A G LANCE F OR M EDICAL P ROFESSIONALS (2010), available at http://www.cicatelli.org/titlex/downloadable/Polaris%20Project%20At-A- Glance%20for%20Medical%20Professionals%20Final.pdf.
Key Questions to Keep in Mind 8.What are/were the living conditions? 9.How did the person find out about the job? 10.Who organized the person’s migration? 11.Do they have to ask permission to eat, sleep, or go to the bathroom? 12.Do they believe they owe money for their travel or other expenses? 13.Has anyone threatened their family? 14.Where do they sleep and eat? 15.Is there a lock on their door or windows so they cannot get out? 1.Are they being forced to do something they don’t want to do? 2.Is the person allowed to leave their place of work? 3.Has the person been physically and/or sexually abused? 4.Has the person been threatened? 5.Does the person have a passport and other documents, or are they taken away? 6.Has the person been paid for his/her work or services? 7.How many hours does the person work a day?
What Can You Do? Talk about it. –Talk to your friends about the fact that there is a direct connection between prostitution, lap dancing and strip clubs and missing and exploited children. –In interviews, Johns admit that they would be deterred from buying sex if they were held criminally and socially accountable. Speak out. –Don’t tolerate or use the lingo. When prostitution is portrayed as a choice or “funny” in movies, talk about the reality. Don’t glorify the “pimp” culture. –Share these facts with others. Commit to not participating in the commercial sex industry… – To not purchase or participate in prostitution or the commercial sex industry – To hold friends accountable and demand their respect for women and children – To take action on behalf of those vulnerable to sex trafficking Take part in creating cultural change. – Encourage education for youth on topics such as healthy relationships, self-identity, life skills… – Support local organizations that serve victims of human trafficking To access “Don’t Buy the Lie” human trafficking materials, please visit the Human Trafficking webpage under Office Initiatives on the Indiana Attorney General’s website: http://www.in.gov/attorneygeneral/humantrafficking/
If you believe someone is a victim of Human Trafficking: Contact your local police department and be transferred to the human trafficking detective on duty. Indianapolis Trafficked Persons Assistance Program 24-hour hotline: 1-800-928-6403 National Human Trafficking Resource Center Hotline Number 1-888-3737-888 or send a text to BeFree (233733)
Other Contacts: Office of the Indiana Attorney General Human Trafficking Prevention Program firstname.lastname@example.org http://www.in.gov/attorneygeneral/2963.htm The Julian Center 2011 North Meridian St Indianapolis, IN 46202 (317) 941-2200 www.juliancenter.org Neighborhood Christian Legal Clinic 3333 North Meridian St. Suite 201 Indianapolis, IN 46208 (317) 415-5337 www.nclegalclinic.org
We would like to thank IPATH, US Department of Justice, Polaris Project, Shared Hope International, Lexis Nexis, Neighborhood Christian Legal Clinic, Exodus Refugee Immigration Inc, Freedom Network USA, the National Immigrant Justice Center, and the Human Rights Center for providing information for this presentation.