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Trafficking in Children: China and Asian Perspective Xin Ren, Ph.D. Criminal Justice Division California State University, Sacramento

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Presentation on theme: "Trafficking in Children: China and Asian Perspective Xin Ren, Ph.D. Criminal Justice Division California State University, Sacramento"— Presentation transcript:

1 Trafficking in Children: China and Asian Perspective Xin Ren, Ph.D. Criminal Justice Division California State University, Sacramento

2 Trafficking in Children International legal instruments International legal instruments –CRC Articles 1, 11, 21, and –UN Protocol to Prevent, Suppress and Punish Trafficking in Persons, Article 3(a) –Hague Conventions on Inter-country adoption Inter-country adoption The civil aspect of children abduction The civil aspect of children abduction Parental responsibilities and protection of children Parental responsibilities and protection of children –ILO Convention No. 182 Eliminating worst forms of child labor Eliminating worst forms of child labor –WTO’s Global Code of Conduct for Tourism 1999

3 Purpose of Trafficking in Children Illegal child adoption Illegal child adoption Illegal border crossing for family reunification Illegal border crossing for family reunification Bridal trade Bridal trade Forced prostitution Forced prostitution Child labor exploitation Child labor exploitation Forcible organ removal Forcible organ removal

4 Trafficking in Children in Asia 800,000 to 900,000 men, women, and children are trafficked across international borders worldwide into forced marriage, prostitution, and slavery labor 800,000 to 900,000 men, women, and children are trafficked across international borders worldwide into forced marriage, prostitution, and slavery labor 225,000 victims or ¼ victims of world wide are trafficked annually from the Southwest and Southeast Asia 225,000 victims or ¼ victims of world wide are trafficked annually from the Southwest and Southeast Asia

5 Trafficking in Children Between 200,000 to 500,000 Chinese girls and children have been trafficked into or through Thailand in the past 10 years Between 200,000 to 500,000 Chinese girls and children have been trafficked into or through Thailand in the past 10 years Thailand alone has some 200,000 sex workers Thailand alone has some 200,000 sex workers Every year an estimated 5,000 to 7,000 Nepali girls are trafficked to the red light districts of Indian cities Every year an estimated 5,000 to 7,000 Nepali girls are trafficked to the red light districts of Indian cities

6 Trafficking in Children One third of 55,000 prostitutes in Cambodia are Vietnamese boys and girls under age of 18 One third of 55,000 prostitutes in Cambodia are Vietnamese boys and girls under age of ,000 Bangladeshi woman were trafficked to Pakistan in the last ten years working as prostitutes 200,000 Bangladeshi woman were trafficked to Pakistan in the last ten years working as prostitutes Some 20,000 to 30,000 Burmese girls are estimated to work in Bangkok as prostitutes Some 20,000 to 30,000 Burmese girls are estimated to work in Bangkok as prostitutes

7 Characteristics of Trafficked Child Victims in China From , a total of 10,768 children were abducted and trafficked domestically in China From , a total of 10,768 children were abducted and trafficked domestically in China Of them, 66.4% are boys and 33.6% are girls Of them, 66.4% are boys and 33.6% are girls Price ranges from 10,000-20,000 yuan ($1,250-$2,500) for a boy to yuan ($60-$100) for a girl Price ranges from 10,000-20,000 yuan ($1,250-$2,500) for a boy to yuan ($60-$100) for a girl Abduction premises Abduction premises –36% abducted from private homes –21% abducted from public place –6% from school premises Recruiting regions and direction of trafficking flow: Recruiting regions and direction of trafficking flow: –42% of children were recruited from three provinces: Sichuan, Guizhou, and Shanxi –Children were trafficked from the southwest inland provinces onward to east and coastal regions

8 Age of Child Victims Age group Total Population BoysGirls 1 day-7 years old 69%78%36% 8-14 years old 31%22%64% Total100%100%100%

9 Means of Recruitment Sold by Parents 50% False Pretense/deception 27% Stealing/abduction11.3% Robbery/Arson/Murder2.3% Unknown9.4%

10 Traffickers 51% under age of 25 51% under age of 25 Women traffickers Women traffickers –1990: 10.3% –1991: 11.8% –1992: 13.9% –2000: 20% 75-89% cases involved more than three traffickers 75-89% cases involved more than three traffickers

11 Causes The stronghold of traditional patriarchal value The stronghold of traditional patriarchal value Poverty in rural and mountainous regions Poverty in rural and mountainous regions Widening gap between the poor and the rich Widening gap between the poor and the rich Lack of economic opportunity for women in rural areas Lack of economic opportunity for women in rural areas Gender discrimination in rural economy Gender discrimination in rural economy Enforcement of birth control policy Enforcement of birth control policy Economic openness and booming tourist industry Economic openness and booming tourist industry

12 Regional Co-operation The Inter-government Summit of Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN- Brunei Darussalam, Cambodia, Indonesia, Laos, Malaysia, Myanmar, Philippines, Singapore, Thailand, and Vietnam) The Inter-government Summit of Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN- Brunei Darussalam, Cambodia, Indonesia, Laos, Malaysia, Myanmar, Philippines, Singapore, Thailand, and Vietnam) ASEAN Tourism Agreement and the ASEAN Plan of Action to Combat Transnational Organized Crime of Kuala Lumpur in 2002 ASEAN Tourism Agreement and the ASEAN Plan of Action to Combat Transnational Organized Crime of Kuala Lumpur in 2002 ASEAN Subcommittee on Women in 1999 and the 6th Meeting of ASEAN Heads of Immigration Departments and Ministries of Foreign Affairs in 2002 ASEAN Subcommittee on Women in 1999 and the 6th Meeting of ASEAN Heads of Immigration Departments and Ministries of Foreign Affairs in 2002 A Joint Declaration of ASEAN and China on Cooperation in the Field of Non-Traditional Security Issues identified combating trafficking in women and children as one of the six prioritized tasks that require inter-regional governmental cooperation. A Joint Declaration of ASEAN and China on Cooperation in the Field of Non-Traditional Security Issues identified combating trafficking in women and children as one of the six prioritized tasks that require inter-regional governmental cooperation.

13 Anti-Trafficking Practice Mekong Subregional Project Mekong Subregional Project –TICW works in education, skill training, employment creation, alternative livelihood and legal literacy China: In collaboration with UNICEF to combat trafficking in women and children. China: In collaboration with UNICEF to combat trafficking in women and children. Cambodia: Anti-Pedophilia Program Cambodia: Anti-Pedophilia Program

14 Legal Obstacles in Assisting Victims of Trafficking Identification of rescued victims and repatriation Identification of rescued victims and repatriation Status offense for victims of trafficking Status offense for victims of trafficking Legality v. humanity in rescuing victims Legality v. humanity in rescuing victims Children without country and citizenship Children without country and citizenship Trafficking in children and immigration policy Trafficking in children and immigration policy Prevention v. intervention Prevention v. intervention

15 Public Education Campaign in Henan

16 Victim Speaks up at Public Rally Against Trafficking

17 Assembled Victims for Repatriation in Henan

18 Rescued Victims in Henan

19 Rescued Victims in Shanxi

20 Victims Repatriation

21 Rescued Children under the Police Care


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