Presentation on theme: "Sex Work, Prostitution, and Preventing HIV"— Presentation transcript:
1 Sex Work, Prostitution, and Preventing HIV Kirsten Stoebenau, Ph.D.
2 sex work and prostitution? What is the difference betweensex work and prostitution?
3 Feminist and Political Debates on Prostitution and Sex Work AbolitionistDiscourse
4 Feminist and Political Debates on Prostitution and Sex Work RadicalFeminismChristianFundamentalismAbolitionistParadigmProstitution = SlaveryPolicy Response: Rescue and “rehabilitate” victims; e.g. The Anti-Prostitution Pledge
5 Examples of the Radical Feminist - Abolitionist “All male customers and managers are motivated by animus: “When men use women in prostitution, they are expressing a pure hatred for the female body” (Dworkin 1997, p. 145).“…if rape is defined as any unwanted sex act, then prostitution has an extremely high rate of rape because many survivors view prostitution as almost entirely consisting of unwanted sex acts or even, in one person’s words, paid rape.” (Farley, VAW 2004)
6 Feminist and Political Debates on Prostitution and Sex Work AbolitionistDiscourseSex WorkRightsDiscourse
7 Feminist and Political Debates on Prostitution and Sex Work Sex workers andtheir advocatesSex Work RightsParadigmSex Work=Legitimate form of income generationPolicy Response: Demand human and workers’ rights; e.g. International Mandate for Prostitutes’ Rights (check wording)
8 The pro-rights sex work paradigm “We demand our voices are heard, listened to and respected. Our experiences are diverse, but all are valid, and we condemn those who steal our voice and say that we do not have the capacity to make decisions or articulate our needs.”Sex workers should be able to determine, without interference or pressure from others, the nature and conditions of the sexual services provided by them.”from:http://www.sexworkeurope.org/icrse/index.php?option=com_content&view=frontpage&Itemid=186&lang=en-GB, accessed February 19, 2010
9 The pro-rights sex work paradigm The lack of acknowledgement of sex work as labour or a profession has adverse consequences on the working conditions of sex workers and denies them access to protection provided by national and European labour legislation.
10 Abolitionism vs. Pro-Rights Who’s Winning? (And why does it matter?)
11 The Global AIDS ActThe Global AIDS Act (HR-1298), passed into law in 2003 allocated 15 billion dollars over 5 years to the President’s Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief (PEPFAR)Re-authorized in 2008 for another 5 yearsLobbying success of Christian Right and the Pharmaceutical Industry (50% of funds in the bill allocated for treatment)
12 The Anti-Prostitution Pledge (e) LIMITATION- No funds made available to carry out this Act… may be used to promote or advocate the legalization or practice of prostitution or sex trafficking.(f) LIMITATION- No funds made available to carry out this Act… may be used to provide assistance to any group or organization that does not have a policy explicitly opposing prostitution and sex trafficking.
13 …The Anti-Prostitution Pledge Pledge is applied to USAID-funded foreign NGOs through the Global AIDS Act in 2003USAID-directive extends Pledge to US-based organizations in 2005
15 Local constructions of women’s “sex work” in Antananarivo Mivarotena = to sell one’s own bodyThree forms of mivarotena uncovered by the research:Ambany (low)Antonony (in between)Ambony (high)
16 ...Local Constructions of women’s “sex work” in Antananarivo Women identified in the ambany (low) or antonony (in between) form are “Looking for money”Women identified in the ambony (high) form are “Looking for foreign husbands”
26 Ambany (low): practice informal exchanges of sex for basic needs Antonony (in between): practice formal exchanges to support their familiesAmbony (high): practice informal exchanges to marry a foreign man
27 Approaches by paradigm Abolitionists’ Prostitutes: Helpless, victims- Rescue, rehabilitate, save from their circumstances.Pro-Rights Sex Workers’: Openly demand their rights to practice their profession free from criminalization and harm
28 ...Programmatic Effects of “The Pledge” SANGRAM (Sangli, Maharastra India) a UNAIDS “best-practices” sex worker peer-educator organization2005: SANGRAM refused to sign The Pledge and therefore denied funding from USAID2005: Rescue International, US State Dept. funded organization, “rescues” minors from SANGRAM-affiliated brothelsUS Congressman argues SANGRAM “re-trafficked” “rescued minors,” accuses USAID of negligence for funding SANGRAM
29 Sonagachi Project: Pro-rights Sex worker paradigm Occupational therapy approachHow to improve sex workers working conditions and their health?Peer-education between sex workers