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ADVOKASI KANAK-KANAK DAN PERLINDUNGAN: PELACURAN FEM 4123.

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Presentation on theme: "ADVOKASI KANAK-KANAK DAN PERLINDUNGAN: PELACURAN FEM 4123."— Presentation transcript:

1 ADVOKASI KANAK-KANAK DAN PERLINDUNGAN: PELACURAN FEM 4123

2 DEFINITIONS CRC (Optional Protocol on the Sale of Children, Child Prostitution and Child Pornography): The practice whereby a child is used by others for sexual activities in return for remuneration or other consideration. CRC (Optional Protocol on the Sale of Children, Child Prostitution and Child Pornography): The practice whereby a child is used by others for sexual activities in return for remuneration or other consideration. Remuneration or other consideration: provided to the child or other person. Remuneration or other consideration: provided to the child or other person. As of May 2009: 131 countries undertake to prohibit child prostitution. As of May 2009: 131 countries undertake to prohibit child prostitution.

3 Continue In a nutshell: party other than the child benefits from a commercial transaction in which the child is made available for sexual purposes. In a nutshell: party other than the child benefits from a commercial transaction in which the child is made available for sexual purposes. Who benefits? Either the pimp who controls or oversees the child’s activities for profit or a child abuser who negotiates an exchange directly with a child in order to receive sexual gratification Who benefits? Either the pimp who controls or oversees the child’s activities for profit or a child abuser who negotiates an exchange directly with a child in order to receive sexual gratification The Worst Form of Child Labour Convention 1999 of ILO provides that the use, procuring or offering of a child for prostitution is one of the worst form of child labour. The Worst Form of Child Labour Convention 1999 of ILO provides that the use, procuring or offering of a child for prostitution is one of the worst form of child labour. Child prostitution is the ultimate denial of the rights of the child': Dr Jon E. Rhode, UNICEF. Child prostitution is the ultimate denial of the rights of the child': Dr Jon E. Rhode, UNICEF.

4 CAUSES Forced by social structures and individual agents – adults take advantage of children’s vulnerability and sexually exploit and abuse them. Eg: the prostitution of a child frequently follows from prior sexual abuse, often in the child’s home. Eg: the prostitution of a child frequently follows from prior sexual abuse, often in the child’s home. Traditional practices, beliefs and gender discremination. Eg: Devdasi practice – young girls are given to ‘god’ and they become a religious prostitute. Banned by Prohibition of Dedication Act 1982 (5 yrs jail and Rs5000 fine). Eg: Devdasi practice – young girls are given to ‘god’ and they become a religious prostitute. Banned by Prohibition of Dedication Act 1982 (5 yrs jail and Rs5000 fine).

5 Continue Poverty and basic needs Extra pocket money for desired consumer good otherwise out of their reach. Subculture ‘pocket money prostitution’ in many consumer societies: girls and boys under 18 rent out their sexual services for cash or expensive gifts or to save up for cars, motorcycles even college tuition. Subculture ‘pocket money prostitution’ in many consumer societies: girls and boys under 18 rent out their sexual services for cash or expensive gifts or to save up for cars, motorcycles even college tuition. E.g. in Japan: Enjo kosai – sponsored dating. However, this is voluntary rather than by manipulation. E.g. in Japan: Enjo kosai – sponsored dating. However, this is voluntary rather than by manipulation.Abduction Sex tourism

6 CONTEXT Place: particular environment such as brothels, bars and clubs or homes or particular streets and areas. Place: particular environment such as brothels, bars and clubs or homes or particular streets and areas. Usually in socially run down places. Usually in socially run down places. Sometimes not organized but often it is. Sometimes not organized but often it is. If organized: either on a small scale through individual pimps or on a lager scale through extensive criminal networks. If organized: either on a small scale through individual pimps or on a lager scale through extensive criminal networks.

7 Continue Living and working conditions of prostituted children are frequently substandard: Living and working conditions of prostituted children are frequently substandard: Commonly poor paid or unpaid Kept in unsanitary conditions Denied access to proper medical care Constantly watched Kept subservient through threat of force – maybe physical or psychological in nature.

8 EXTENT: ASIA Cambodia: 1/3 of all prostitutes are under 18 (Loise Brown, 2001). Cambodia: 1/3 of all prostitutes are under 18 (Loise Brown, 2001). Thailand: Child prostitutes make up 40% of prostitutes (Thailand;s Health System Research Institute, 2007). Thailand: Child prostitutes make up 40% of prostitutes (Thailand;s Health System Research Institute, 2007). India: 40% of all India’s prostitutes are children (Ministry of Women and Child Development). Every hour 4 women & girls enter prostitution. 3 by force. India: 40% of all India’s prostitutes are children (Ministry of Women and Child Development). Every hour 4 women & girls enter prostitution. 3 by force. Indonesia: 30% of the female prostitutes are below 18 (UNICEF). Indonesia: 30% of the female prostitutes are below 18 (UNICEF). Philippines: 60, ,000 child prostitutes (UNICEF). Philippines: 60, ,000 child prostitutes (UNICEF). Sri Lanka: 40, 000 child prostitutes (UNICEF & ILO). Sri Lanka: 40, 000 child prostitutes (UNICEF & ILO).

9 EXTENT: NORTH AMERICA USA: Estes and Weiner (2001) USA: Estes and Weiner (2001) 162,000 homeless youth are victims of commercial sexual exploitation (CVE). 57,800 children in homes are estimated to be victims of CVE. 1/3 of street-level prostitutes are under % of off-street (message services, strip clubs and escort services) prostitutes are less than is the average age of entry into prostitution for girls under 17; boys and transgender /5 involved in organized crime network and are trafficked nationally.

10 EXTENT: SOUTH AMERICA Peru: 500,000 Peru: 500,000 Columbia: 35,000 Columbia: 35,000 Chile: 10,000 child prostitutes between the ages of 6 and 18 (UNICEF) Chile: 10,000 child prostitutes between the ages of 6 and 18 (UNICEF) Ecuador: 5200 (ILO) Ecuador: 5200 (ILO) Bolivia: entry age 16. Bolivia: entry age 16. Brazil: 250,000 to 500,000 (Protection Project), 2,000,000 other sources. Brazil: 250,000 to 500,000 (Protection Project), 2,000,000 other sources.

11 EXTENT: EUROPE & OCEANIA Ukraine: 30% - 40% of prostitute are between 11 and 18. Ukraine: 30% - 40% of prostitute are between 11 and 18. Russia: new destination for sex tourism (World Vision Middle East/Eastern Europe, 2006). Russia: new destination for sex tourism (World Vision Middle East/Eastern Europe, 2006). Australia: 4000 (Child Wise). Australia: 4000 (Child Wise). New Zealand: 210 children under 18 were identified as selling sex (ECPAT New Zealand and Stop Demand Foundation) New Zealand: 210 children under 18 were identified as selling sex (ECPAT New Zealand and Stop Demand Foundation)

12 PROSTITUTION ILO: ‘The Sex Sector: The Economic and Social Bases of Prostitution in Southeast Asia’ (covers Indonesia, Malaysia, the Philippine and Thailand): ILO: ‘The Sex Sector: The Economic and Social Bases of Prostitution in Southeast Asia’ (covers Indonesia, Malaysia, the Philippine and Thailand): Prostitution has developed into a lucrative business that influences employment and national income – contributes significantly to the region’s economic growth. Integrated into the economic, social and political life. The economic and social forces driving the sex industry show no signs of slowing down – due to the rising rate of unemployment.

13 PROHIBITION Illegal in most countries. Illegal in most countries. Article 34 and 35 CRC. Optional Protocol on the sale of children, child prostitution and child pornography – detail requirements to end sexual exploitation and abuse of children. Article 34 and 35 CRC. Optional Protocol on the sale of children, child prostitution and child pornography – detail requirements to end sexual exploitation and abuse of children. Many countries enforce worldwide jurisdiction on their nationals traveling abroad. Eg: USA, Australia and European countries. Many countries enforce worldwide jurisdiction on their nationals traveling abroad. Eg: USA, Australia and European countries. The law of some countries distinguish between teen prostitute and younger children prostitutes. The law of some countries distinguish between teen prostitute and younger children prostitutes. In Thai: teenage prostitute In Japan: In Thai: teenage prostitute In Japan: Teenage prostitution is legal: capable of giving consent. Younger children prostitution is illegal – rape. Teenage prostitution is legal: capable of giving consent. Younger children prostitution is illegal – rape.

14 CONTINUE In China: all forms of prostitutions are illegal. Sexual contact with anyone under 14 regardless of consent – charged with more serious crime than rape an adult. In China: all forms of prostitutions are illegal. Sexual contact with anyone under 14 regardless of consent – charged with more serious crime than rape an adult. Malaysia: S 38 Akta Kanak-Kanak Malaysia: S 38 Akta Kanak-Kanak Malaysia, India and Singapore: S. 375 Penal Code - Sexual contact with anyone under 14 regardless of consent amounted to rape. Malaysia, India and Singapore: S. 375 Penal Code - Sexual contact with anyone under 14 regardless of consent amounted to rape. Malaysia, India and Singapore: S. 372 and 373 Penal Code – whoever buys, hires or sells any person under 18 with intention to use as prostitute – liable for criminal punishment. Malaysia, India and Singapore: S. 372 and 373 Penal Code – whoever buys, hires or sells any person under 18 with intention to use as prostitute – liable for criminal punishment.

15 LONG TERM IMPACTS ON VICTIMS Physical injuries – slave treatment. Physical injuries – slave treatment. Unwanted pregnancies and infections in private places. Unwanted pregnancies and infections in private places. Mental and psychological trauma. Mental and psychological trauma. Exposed to social ostracism and future of violence and poverty. Exposed to social ostracism and future of violence and poverty. Susceptible to drug abuse. Susceptible to drug abuse. The loss of an affirmative sense of self - a serious mental health impact often obscured in the processes and procedures involve in recovery and reintegration of the victims. The loss of an affirmative sense of self - a serious mental health impact often obscured in the processes and procedures involve in recovery and reintegration of the victims.


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