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Chapter 13 Public Order Crimes. Law and Morality Debating Morality  Scholars argue pornography, prostitution, and drug use erodes the moral fabric of.

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Presentation on theme: "Chapter 13 Public Order Crimes. Law and Morality Debating Morality  Scholars argue pornography, prostitution, and drug use erodes the moral fabric of."— Presentation transcript:

1 Chapter 13 Public Order Crimes

2 Law and Morality Debating Morality  Scholars argue pornography, prostitution, and drug use erodes the moral fabric of society.  What is offensive to some is accepted by others  Influence of cultural values help regulate definitions of morality

3 Law and Morality Social Harm  Certain behaviors run contrary to social norms, customs, and values (I.E. Prostitution)  The “seven deadly sins” are not illegal (lust, gluttony, avarice, sloth, envy, pride, or anger)  Acts viewed as being illegal are viewed as a threat to morality and referred to as public order crimes

4 Homosexuality  “Gaybashing” is a term used to describe violent acts directed at people because of their sexual orientation  Homosexuality refers to erotic interests in members of one’s own sex Attitudes toward Homosexuality  Sodomy (biblical prohibitions)  Homophobia refers to extreme negative overreaction to homosexuals  Fear of homosexuals is attributed to ignorance about homosexuality

5 Homosexuality Homosexuality and the Law  Homosexuality is no longer a crime in the U.S. (Robinson v. California)  Defense of Marriage Act declared that states are not obligated to recognize same-sex marriages performed in other states (1996)  Military policy of “don’t ask, don’t tell”

6 Homosexuality Is the Tide Turning?  Surveys reveal the majority of Americans support equality for same-sex couples  Recent Supreme Court decisions illustrate the changing attitudes toward the gay lifestyle (Romer v. Evans and Lawrence v. Texas)  Immoral acts are distinguished from crimes based on the social harm they cause

7 Homosexuality Moral Crusaders  Vigilantes held a strict standard of morality in the early West  Public order crimes are often shaped by moral crusaders (moral entrepreneurs) who suggest their way is righteous  Acts are illegal because they violate the moral standards of those in power and those who try to shape public opinion

8 Paraphilias Bizarre or abnormal sexual practices involving recurrent sexual urges focused on:  Nonhuman objects (i.e. underwear or shoes)  Humiliation or the experience of receiving or giving pain (sadomasochism)  Children or others who cannot grant consent

9 Paraphilias Outlawed Sexual Behaviors  Asphyxiophilia: oxygen deprivation for enhancement of sexual gratification  Frotteurism: rubbing against or toughing a nonconsenting person in a crowd  Voyeurism: spying on a stranger who is disrobing or engaged in sexual behavior  Exhibitionism: sexual pleasure from exposing genitals  Sadomasochism: pleasure derived from receiving or inflicting pain  Pedophilia: pleasure from sexual activity of prepubescent children

10 Prostitution Is defined as granting nonmarital sexual access, established by mutual agreement for money Incidence of Prostitution  Number of arrests for prostitution has been declining (80,000 annually) Changes in sexual mores Prevalence of sexually transmitted diseases

11 Prostitution International Sex Trade  Soaring demand for “sex tourism” in developing countries  Traffickers from Southeast Asia and Eastern Europe may import up to 50,000 women and children into the U.S. yearly

12 Prostitution Types of Prostitutes  Streetwalkers: (lowest paid and most vulnerable)  Bar girls: (B-girls spend their time working out of bars)  Brothel prostitutes: (supervised by a madam)  Call girls: (aristocrats of prostitution that can make up to $1,500 per night)  Escort services/Call Houses: (fronts for prostitution rings)  Circuit travelers: (groups of 2 or 3 traveling to lumbar or labor camps)  Skeezers: barter drugs for sex  Massage parlors/photo studios: fronts for prostitution  Cyber Prostitutes (Internet facilitated contact)

13 Prostitution Becoming a Prostitute  Broken homes and sexual abuse  Poor school performance  Drug abuse

14 Prostitution Child Sexual Abuse and Prostitution  Prostitution has been linked to sexual trauma at an early age  Children who flee the home are vulnerable to life on the streets  Many remain in the trade due to being resigned to their fate

15 Prostitution Controlling Prostitution  Federal Mann Act (1925)  Misdemeanor punishable by a fine or short jail sentence in most states  The Violent Crime Control and Law Enforcement Act of 1994 made it illegal to travel abroad to engage in sex with a child

16 Prostitution Legalize Prostitution?  Feminists have conflicting views (male domination to free choice)  Advocates of both views argue penalties should be reduced  Some argue legalization creates security for prostitutes

17 Pornography Obscenity is defined as “deeply offensive to morality and decency…designed to incite to lust or depravity”  First Amendment protections  What is considered obscene today may be considered socially acceptable in the future

18 Pornography Child Pornography  Most controversial and reprehensible of the business  “Kiddie Porn” is considered uncontested pornography and becoming widespread on the Internet  Philip Jenkins suggests enforcement efforts should be focused on the suppliers and not the users

19 Pornography Does Pornography Cause Violence?  Most research has found little conclusive evidence of a link between violence and pornography  Some research suggest viewing pornography may actually serve as a safety valve for those with violent impulses  Some evidence suggests that pornography leads to aggression toward women (James Fox and Jack Levin)

20 Pornography Pornography and the Law  The First Amendment protects free speech and expression  The Miller doctrine holds that the state of local jurisdiction must specifically define obscene conduct in it statute and the pornographer must engage in that behavior Controlling Pornography  Get tough policies may actually be have a reverse effect making pornography more desirable  Zoning laws to restrict placement of businesses

21 Pornography Technological Change  Recent reports place pornography at a $10 billion per year business  Communications Decency Act was ruled to unconstitutionally restrict free speech  The Child Pornography Prevention Act of 1996 (CPPA)

22 Substance Abuse When Did Drug Use Begin?  Mesopotamia used opium 4000 years ago  Arabs used marijuana at the time of the Crusades  In the U.S. Morphine was used for pain  Religious creeds deemed intoxicating substances as unwholesome

23 Substance Abuse Alcohol and Its Prohibition  Temperance movement led to the Volstead Act which defined intoxicating beverages as any having more than one-half of one percent  Prohibition failed in part due to the efforts of organized crime to supply illicit liquor  In 1933 the 21 st Amendment repealed Prohibition

24 Substance Abuse The Extent of Substance Abuse Monitoring the Future  Drug use declined from a high point in 1980 until 1990 when it began to increase until 1996  Marijuana is the most widely used illicit drug  About one-third of seniors report using marijuana in the prior year National Household Survey of Drug Abuse  In 2003, 8.3 percent of the general population aged 12 or older were drug users National Center on Addiction and Substance Abuse  Alcohol abuse begins at an early age  More than 31.5 percent of high school students admit to drinking at least once a month

25 Substance Abuse Casa Survey Teens who are sexually active are more likely to drink, more likely to get drunk, more likely to have tried marijuana, and more likely to smoke Teens who spend 25 hours a week or more with boyfriends/girlfriends are more likely to drink, get drunk, have tried marijuana, and more likely to smoke Girls with boyfriends two or more years older are more likely to drink, get drunk, have tried marijuana, and more likely to smoke Are the Surveys Accurate?  Drug users may boast about their behaviors  NSDUH misses people who are homeless, in prison, or drug rehabilitation

26 Substance Abuse Weblink

27 Substance Abuse AIDS and Drug Use  Widespread habit of needle sharing among IV users  Threat of AIDS has less effect on changing the behaviors among the poor, high school dropouts, and other disadvantaged groups  Recently observed decline in drug abuse may be restricted to one segment of the population

28 Substance Abuse The Causes of Substance Abuse  Subcultural view: lower-class addiction  Psychological view: impaired cognitive functioning and personality defects  Genetic factors: parental biological heritage  Social learning: observing parental drug use  Problem behavior syndrome: maladjusted and emotionally distressed  Rational choice: enjoy getting high  Gateway drugs: Research may not support this view

29 Substance Abuse Types of Drug Users  Adolescents who distribute small amounts of drugs  Adolescents who frequently sell drugs  Teenage drug dealers who commit other delinquent acts  Adolescents who cycle in and out of the justice system  Drug-involved youth who continue to commit crimes as adults  Outwardly respectable adults who are top-level dealers  Smugglers  Adult predatory drug users who are frequently arrested  Adult predatory drug user who are rarely arrested (winners)  Less Predatory drug-involved adult offenders  Women who are drug-involved offenders

30 Substance Abuse Drugs and Crime  Research suggests a link between drug use and crime such as domestic assault, armed robbery, and homicide  User surveys indicate that youths who abuse alcohol are most likely to engage in violent behavior in their life course  Surveys of prison inmates indicate nearly 80 percent are lifelong substance abusers  The direction of the drug link is uncertain (drugs lead to crime or crime leads to drug)

31 Substance Abuse Drugs and the Law  In 1914 the Harrison Narcotics Act restricted the importation, and sale of opiates except for medicinal purposes  Narcotic is defined as any drug that produces sleep and relieves pain  Various federal laws have attempted to increase penalties for drug smugglers and limit the manufacture of newly developed substances (Controlled Substances Act 1984)

32 Substance Abuse Drug Control Strategies  Source Control: aimed at importation  Interdiction Strategies: interception at the borders  Law Enforcement Strategies: aimed at large scale drug rings  Punishment Strategies: deterrence through harsh punishment  Community Strategies: community programs to restore a sense of civil justice  Drug-Testing Programs: testing of employees  Treatment strategies: intensive therapy efforts  Employment programs: vocational rehabilitation and work support programs

33 Substance Abuse Drug Legalization  War against drugs has expensive ($500 billion over the past 20 years)  Banning drugs creates networks of manufacturers much like Prohibition (Ethan Nadelmann)  If legalized, drugs could be controlled and regulated by the government  Crime rate would likely drop as users no longer need less cash to support their habit  Some suggest legalization might increase drug usage based on availability


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