Poetic GENRES To begin with, let’s remember that most poetry does NOT rhyme.
Poetic GENRES Lyric poetry DEFINITION: highly musical verse that expresses the observations and feelings of a single speaker. It creates a single, unified impression. Short Usually in 1 st person point of view Expresses emotion or describes a scene Does NOT tell a story No syllable requirements No rhyme scheme requirements
Poetic GENRES Acrostic poetry DEFINITION: a poem in which the first letter of each line spells a word or phrase that is the topic of the poem. Oftentimes done about a name No syllable requirements No rhyme scheme requirements
Poetic GENRES Ballad poetry DEFINITION: a poem that tells a story in a musical way or with a musical feeling Can be as long as the story requires Odd-numbered lines longer than even- numbered lines Even-numbered lines should rhyme
Poetic GENRES Epic poetry DEFINITION: a long narrative poem about the adventures of gods or a hero. Serious in tone and broad in theme. Very long No syllable requirements No rhyme scheme requirements
Poetic GENRES Concrete or Form poetry DEFINITION: a poem with a physical shape that suggests the subject/topic. The poet arranges the letters, punctuation, and lines to create an image, or picture, on the page. Length – must fit into the shape No syllable requirements No rhyme scheme requirements
Poetic Forms Haiku DEFINITION: a Japanese poem about nature.
hAIKU by Rolf Nelson Haikus are easy But sometimes they don’t make sense Refrigerator 5 SYLLABLES 7 SYLLABLES 5 SYLLABLES NOTE: not technically a haiku because it’s not about nature by Jonathan Stephens Tell me I'm like light, light that reflects off windows right into your eyes 5 SYLLABLES 7 SYLLABLES 5 SYLLABLES by Jonathan Stephens I long for summer Swinging in my green hammock The oak leaves whistling 5 SYLLABLES 7 SYLLABLES 5 SYLLABLES by Matsuo Basho Spring rain leaking through the roof dripping from the wasps' nest. 2 SYLLABLES 5 SYLLABLES 6 SYLLABLES NOTE: But that’s not the right syllables! How is it a haiku?
Poetic Forms Haiku DEFINITION: a Japanese poem about nature. Length – 3 lines 5-7-5 No rhyme scheme requirements
Poetic Forms Cinquain DEFINITION: can be about anything
Cinquains “November “by Adelaide Crapsey Listen... With faint dry sound, Like steps of passing ghosts, The leaves, frost-crisp’d, break from the trees And fall. 2 SYLLABLES 4 SYLLABLES 6 SYLLABLES 8 SYLLABLES 2 SYLLABLES “Snow” by Adelaide Crapsey Look up... From bleak’ning hills Blows down the light, first breath Of wintry wind... look up, and scent The snow! 2 SYLLABLES 6 SYLLABLES 2 SYLLABLES 4 SYLLABLES 8 SYLLABLES “Guarded Wound” by Adelaide Crapsey If it Were lighter touch Than petal of flower resting On grass, oh still too heavy it were, Too heavy! 2 SYLLABLES 8 SYLLABLES 3 SYLLABLES 4 SYLLABLES 9 SYLLABLES
Poetic Forms Cinquain DEFINITION: can be about anything Length – 5 lines 2-4-6-8-2 No rhyme scheme requirements
Poetic Forms Limerick DEFINITION: a humorous, musical-feeling poem that oftentimes makes fun of or tells a story about a specific person.
LImerick There once was a Thingamajig Like a Whatsis, but three times as big. When it first came in view, It looked something like you But it stayed and turned into a pig.
Poetic Forms Limerick DEFINITION: a humorous, musical-feeling poem that oftentimes makes fun of or tells a story about a specific person. Length – 5 lines 3 beats – 3 beats – 2 beats – 2 beats – 3 beats Rhyme scheme: A-A-B-B-A
LImerick There was a young fellow who thought Very little, but thought it a lot. Then at long last he knew What he wanted to do, But before he could start, he forgot.
LImerick There once was an ape in a zoo Who looked out through the bars and saw YOU! Do you think that it’s fair To give poor apes a scare? I think it’s a mean thing to do.
LImerick I've been studying all night and I'm tired, But I can't sleep because I'm so wired. So I'll play on the net 'Stead of going to bed, And my tests will seem a quagmire.
Poetic TECHNIQUES Meter DEFINITION: the rhythmical pattern of the poem. Determined by the number of stresses or beats in each line.
Poetic TECHNIQUES Foot DEFINITION: a basic unit of a meter. Normally contains either two or three syllables with varying patterns of stress.
Poetic TECHNIQUES Rhyme Scheme DEFINITION: a regular pattern of rhyming words in a poem. Each new rhyme is assigned the next letter of the alphabet, while repeat sounds get whatever letter they were first assigned.
What’s the rhyme scheme? You would not believe your eyes If ten million fireflies Lit up the world as I fell asleep Cause they fill the open air And leave teardrops everywhere You'd think me rude, but I Would just stand and stare. I'd like to make myself believe That planet Earth turns slowly. It's hard to say that I'd Rather stay awake when I'm asleep, Cause everything is never as it seems. From “Fireflies” by Owl City A A B C C A C B B A B B
Poetic TECHNIQUES Alliteration DEFINITION: the repetition of initial consonant sounds. Writers use alliteration to draw attention to certain words or ideas, to imitate sounds, and to create musical effects.
Poetic TECHNIQUES Free Verse DEFINITION: poetry not written in a regular, rhythmical pattern, or meter. The poet is free to write lines of any length or with any number of stresses, or beats. Free verse is therefore less constraining than metrical verse, in which every line must have a certain length and a certain number of stresses.
Poetic TECHNIQUES Refrain DEFINITION: a regularly repeated line or group of lines in a poem or a song
Refrain VERSE Love me cancerously Like a salt-sore soaked in the sea. 'High-maintenance' means You're a gluttonous queen Narcissistic and mean. Kill me romantically Fill my soul with vomit Then ask me for a piece of gum. Bitter and dumb You're my sugarplum. You're awful, I love you! From Ludo’s “Love Me Dead” REFRAIN (CHORUS) She moves through moonbeams slowly She knows just how to hold me And when her edges soften Her body is my coffin I know she drains me slowly
Poetic Devices Simile DEFINITION: a figure of speech that uses like or as to make a direct comparison between two unlike ideas. EXAMPLES: He is as tall as a redwood tree. She runs like a snail.
Poetic Devices Metaphor DEFINITION: a figure of speech that describes something as though it were something else. EXAMPLES: from Tombstone >>> “Why Wyatt, you’re an oak.” You are such a stick in the mud.
Poetic Devices Idiom DEFINITION: an expression that has a meaning particular to a language or region. A phrase in which the literal meaning of the words does not add up to the actual meaning.
idioms EXAMPLES: to go bananas = on pins and needles = hit the ground running = copycat = in the doghouse = fly off the handle = to get super excited waiting with much anxiety to get a quick start on something someone who copies or mimics on someone’s bad side / in trouble to get super angry, very fast
Poetic Devices Analogy DEFINITION: makes a comparison between two or more things that are similar in some ways but otherwise unalike – typically, A : B :: C : D – 2 things compared to 2 things. EXAMPLES: A glove is to hand as monitor is to computer. Horses are to past societies as computers are to future societies.
Poetic Devices Hyperbole DEFINITION: obvious and intentional exaggeration EXAMPLES: These books weigh a ton. I’m so tired I could sleep for a year.
Poetic Devices Symbol DEFINITION: anything that stands for or represents something else. Symbols are common in everyday life. EXAMPLES: See the following slides…
Poetic Devices Personification DEFINITION: a type of figurative language in which a nonhuman subject is given human characteristics. EXAMPLES: Nature speaks to people. The window winked at me.
Poetic Devices Pun DEFINITION: the humorous use of a word or phrase to emphasize or suggest different meanings or applications; words that are alike or nearly alike in sound but different in meaning; a play on words. EXAMPLES: Illusionists always find themselves in tricky situations. Romance isn't a science... it's a heart.
Poetic Devices Irony DEFINITION: literary techniques that involve surprising, interesting, or amusing contradictions EXAMPLES: from Sideshow Bob on the Simpsons: “I'm aware of the irony of appearing on TV in order to decry it.” (decry - condemn or denounce)
Poetic Devices Parody DEFINITION: a humorous or satirical imitation of a serious piece of literature or writing EXAMPLES: Pride and Prejudice and Zombies Parry Hotter and the Seamy Side of Magic Sense and Sensibility and Sea Monsters
Poetic Devices Onomatopoeia DEFINITION: the use of words that imitate sounds and can help put the reader in the activity of a poem. EXAMPLES: Thump Squish Phlblblbplb Thwack Kerplunk Splink