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Ch. 5 Food in Your Life Nutrition.

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Presentation on theme: "Ch. 5 Food in Your Life Nutrition."— Presentation transcript:

1 Ch. 5 Food in Your Life Nutrition

2 Seating Chart (do in reverse order for overhead display)
Front of Room Teacher’s Desk

3 You are what YOU eat! Click on the book to link with the assignment calendar in health class during the quarter.

4 You are, what you eat.

5 Why do you eat? Nutrients-substances in food that your body needs to function properly to grow, to repair itself, and to supply you with energy.

6 Eating habits stem from both a physical need (hunger) for food and a psychological desire for food (appetite).

7 Recognize the difference between the two helps you make more healthful food choices.

8 Your Body’s Physical Need for Food.
Hunger is a natural drive that protects you from starvation.

9 The most basic reason for eating is physical.
Stimulated nerve ending in the stomach signal hunger.

10 Your Mind’s Desire for Food
Appetite is a desire, rather than a need, to eat. Appetite is a learned response to food.

11 Appetite is shaped by factors in your environment (culture, family, friends, advertising, time and money) and by your emotions.

12 Your eating habits Food choices can reduce major risk factors for chronic diseases, including obesity, high blood pressure, and high blood cholesterol, heart disease, stroke, and cancer.

13 Nutrition Throughout Your Life
Nutrition-the process by which the body takes in and uses food. As you grow and develop you may need nutrients in different amounts.

14 Nutrients help you feel and look your best, have energy and stay mentally alert.
Nutrients help ward off diseases including chronic diseases.

15 6 Nutrients Carbohydrates= 4 cal./gm. Protein= 4 cal/gm.
Fat= 9 cal/gm. Vitamin= 0 cal/gm. Minerals= 0 cal/gm. Water= 0 cal/gm.

16 Explain the difference between hunger and appetite.
What factors influence decisions that affect food choices? Why is good nutrition so important during adolescence?

17 Give three examples of how your culture and family have influenced your eating habits.

18 Ch. 5 Lesson 2

19 Carbohydrates Carbohydrates are the sugars and starches found in foods. 55%-65% of your diet should be carbo. Your diet should be mainly made up of complex carbohydrates.

20 Main source of fuel. Extra carbo. stored as fat. 4 calories per gram.

21 Simple Carbohydrates Sugars present naturally in fruits, some vegetables and milk. Americans eat there own weight in sugar every year.

22 How many cans of soda do you drink in a day?
Week? How much sugar is in a can of soda?

23 Complex Carbohydrates
Starches found in great supply in rice and other grains, seeds, nuts, legumes (dried peas and beans), and tubers (potatoes). Chemically a more complex carbohydrate.

24 They are made up of many sugars linked together.
Digested, starches break down into sugars.

25 Role of Carbohydrates Before your body can use carbohydrates it must first convert them to glucose. Glucose- a simple sugar. Glucose is the body’s chief fuel.

26 Glucose not used is stored in the liver and muscles as glycogen.
Glycogen is converted into glucose when the body needs it.

27 Fiber Special form of complex carbohydrate.
Tough stringy part of vegetables, fruits and grains. Cannot be digested. Bran, roughage, cellulose

28 Fiber O calories per gram. Moves waste through digestive system.
May reduce the risk of certain cancers. Colon Breast

29 Soluble fiber adds moisture to your stool to soften it.
Insoluble fiber aids in the transition time as it scrapes out the digestive wall.

30 Instrumental in controlling diabetes, blood cholesterol, blood sugar levels and obesity.

31 It is recommended that you eat 20-25 grams of fiber a day.

32 Breakfast Cereal should contain 5 grams of fiber for every 100 calories.
Read the labels! Assign.

33 "A healthy high-fiber breakfast could cut your risk for insulin resistance by 30 to 50 percent."

34 Is this a good or poor source of fiber for ones diet and health?

35 How do you know if you are getting enough fiber in your diet?

36 You are regular. (bowel movement about once a day)
Stool floats.

37 If it takes you longer then 24 hours to pass a stool, you are dealing with constipation and you need to make lifestyle changes.


39 Protein Proteins are nutrients that help build and maintain body tissues. 4 Calories per gram. A vital part of every body cell. Extra protein converted into fat and stored or eliminated as waste.

40 Protein Amino acids are the building blocks of protein.
20 different amino acids. 9 essential amino acids. (must come from diet) About 12% of our diet should be protein.

41 Complete Proteins Are foods that contain all the essential amino acids. (meat, fish, eggs, milk products and soybean products)

42 Incomplete Proteins Are foods that lack some of the essential amino acids. (seeds, legumes, nuts, whole grains)

43 Eating a variety of incomplete protein sources can yields an equivalent of a complete protein.

44 Role of Proteins Amino acids build new body tissue.
Replace damaged cells. Replace warn out cells

45 Proteins in enzymes, hormones and antibodies help regulate many body processes.
Bodies third fuel source.

46 Enzymes are substances that control the rate of biochemical reactions in your body cells.
Hormones regulate reactions.

47 Antibodies help identify and destroy bacteria and viruses that cause disease in the body.


49 Fats 9 calories per gram. Chemically, fats are a type of lipid, a fatty substance that does not dissolve in water. Bodies main store-house of fuel. Most concentrated form of energy available.

50 Fats are made of fatty acids.
Fat keeps us warm. Fat acts as a shock absorber. Fat protects our internal organs from blunt force contacts.

51 Fats are a necessary nutrient.
A diet void of fat is an unhealthy diet.

52 Assign.

53 Types of FATS Saturated fats Unsaturated fats. Polyunsaturated Fats
Monounsaturated Fats

54 Saturated Fats A fatty acid is said to be saturated when the fatty acid holds all the hydrogen atoms it can. Foods high in saturated fats include, animal fats and tropical oils such as coconut and palm oil.

55 A diet high saturated fats is associated with an increased risk of heart disease and certain cancers.

56 Red meats such as beef and pork are higher in saturated fats than most white meats like chicken and fish.

57 Unsaturated Fats A fatty acid that is missing one or more pairs of hydrogen atoms. Vegetable fats are a good source of this fat.

58 Hydrogenated Fat Fat products where there are added hydrogen atoms.
Margarine and peanut butter usually contain hydrogenated fat. May increase LDL, the bad cholesterol.

59 Role of Fat 9 calories per gram. Carry fat soluble vitamins.
Add flavor to foods. Help satisfy hunger since they take longer to digest than other nutrients. Second fuel source.

60 Too much fat is linked to obesity, heart disease and other health problems.
No more than 30% of your calories should come from fat. Under 25% would be better.

61 Your diet of fat should come from unsaturated fats with very little coming from saturated fats.
Most Americans receive 50% of their calories from fat.

62 Cholesterol Found only from foods that originate from animals.
Produced in the livers of animals, including humans.


64 Cholesterol is an important instrumental in the production of sex hormones, use of vitamin D and in the protective sheath around nerve fibers

65 HDL HDL- High Density Lipoprotein The good Cholesterol.
Reduces cholesterol in the blood. “HEALTHY” Cholesterol.

66 Assign.

67 Increases HDL- exercise, females have a naturally higher level, diet with high ply/monounsaturated fat to saturated fat levels within range

68 LDL LDL- Low Density Lipoprotein Bad Cholesterol “LOUSY” Cholesterol.

69 Increases cholesterol in the blood stream and arteries
Increases LDL- Smoking, high saturated fat diet, moderate to high alcohol consumption

70 A good diet can reduce blood cholesterol.

71 Optimal LDL-below 100mg/dL
Optimal HDL-over 60 mg/dL Desirable total cholesterol- below 200 mg/dL Normal triglyceride-below 150 mg/dL

72 QUIZ TOMORROW Ch. 5 Lessons 1&2

73 Vitamins Vitamins are compounds that help regulate many vital body processes and helps in the metabolism of other nutrients. O calories per gram 13 vitamins play a key role in good nutrition.

74 Vitamin D is manufactured in the body, the rest must be obtained through diet.
Two groups of vitamins. -Fat Soluble Vitamins –Water Soluble Vitamins

75 Water-Soluble Vitamins
Water-soluble vitamins include Vitamin C and the eight vitamins in the Vitamin B complex Water-soluble vitamins dissolve in water.

76 Water-soluble vitamins pass easily into the bloodstream.
Excess amounts are excreted in urine.

77 These vitamins are not stored in the body.
Need to be replenished in a regular diet. Do not overcook, overcooking leaches out and destroys the vitamins. See page 108 of your text for chart.

78 Fat-Soluble Vitamins Fat-soluble vitamins are absorbed and transported by fat. Fat-soluble vitamins are stored in the body’s fatty tissues.

79 Excess buildup of these vitamins can have a toxic effect.
This is more likely if one takes large dose of vitamin supplements.

80 Beta-Carotene is a substance found in plants that helps your body manufacture vitamin A.
Carrots, broccoli, spinach and other vegetables contain Beta-Carotene.

81 Minerals Minerals are inorganic substances that the body cannot manufacture, that act as catalysts, regulating many vital body processes.

82 Minerals are needed in very small amounts compared to other nutrients.

83 Iron Especially important when growth is rapid.
It is essential for the hemoglobin in your blood. Hemoglobin carries oxygen in the blood.

84 Anemia or Iron deficiency- you may feel tired all the time and have little endurance.

85 Calcium Milk 300 mg/glass 1300 mg. each day. Gives structure to bones.
Maintains bone strength. Aids in muscle contraction, blood clotting and proper functioning of the nervous system.

86 Milk and milk products, green leafy vegetables and canned salmon are good sources of calcium.

87 When you do not get enough calcium in your diet, your body draws upon deposits of the mineral from your bones.

88 Your bones build density (add calcium) until the late twenties or early thirties.

89 Osteoporosis- is a bone disease where the bones are brittle and break easily because of low calcium levels or lost calcium.

90 Calcium rich diets and weight bearing exercise can reduce osteoporosis.



93 Electrolytes Sodium, chloride, and potassium make up a group of mineral known as electrolytes. They are electrically charged when in solutions, as they are in the body fluids.

94 Sodium and potassium help maintain the balance of fluid within body cells.
Bananas and orange juice are excellent sources of potassium. You get sodium from table salt.

95 Most Americans probably get enough salt in there daily diet
Most Americans probably get enough salt in there daily diet. Many get too much salt.


97 Enriched Vitamins are added to the food product during the processing.
Vitamin was originally found in the base produce but was reduced or destroyed during processing.

98 Fortified Vitamins are added to the food product during the processing. Vitamin was never in product or was originally there but in very small amount.

99 Vitamins and minerals are known as micronutrients because the body needs them in small amounts.

100 Water O calories per gram.
Water is a regulator and is vital to every body function. Carries nutrients. Transports waste.

101 Why is Why is water considered the most important nutrient by some health professionals?

102 Lubricates our joints. Enables you to swallow and digest foods, absorb nutrients.

103 Your body uses about 10 cups daily, maybe more depending on your health, outside temp., or exercise level.* Water makes up about 60% of your total body weight.

104 Food is a source of water.
Waters main function during exercise is to cool the body and maintain proper body temperature.

105 Thirst, or the desire to drink fluids, determines your fluid intake.*
During very hot weather and when you are exercising you may need to increase your fluid intake to as much as ten large glasses or more.

106 Dehydration The loss of water from body tissues.
Dehydration weakens the body and may cause muscle cramps.

107 Products that stimulate dehydration are:
Caffeine Alcohol Exercise Sodium intake

108 Lesson 4 Guidelines for a Healthful Eating Style.

109 Assign.

110 RDA- the amounts of nutrients that will prevent deficiencies and excess in most healthy people over the age of two.

111 Following the dietary guidelines will help decrease your risk of getting eating related chronic diseases now and in the future.

112 Eating for a Healthful Eating Style
USDA- U.S. Department of Agriculture. RDA- Recommended Dietary Allowances.

113 No single food provides all of the nutrients your body needs in the right amounts.
Eat a variety of healthy foods.

114 See page 114 of your text book.
Food Guide Pyramid See page 114 of your text book.


116 Food Guide Pyramid The food guide pyramid categorizes foods into five food groups, indicating a range of servings for each that a person is advised to eat daily. Ranges of servings are broad, this is because nutritional needs vary.

117 Nutritional needs will vary depending on age, gender, physical condition, body size and activity level.

118 Balance the Foods You Eat with Physical Activity.
Balance the amount of energy in food with the amount of energy your body uses.

119 Be Aware that controlling body fat is more important to health than controlling body weight.

120 Keep in mind that all calories add up in the same way, no matter what their source.

121 Choose… Plenty of grain Products, vegetables, and fruits.
An eating style low in fat, saturated fat and cholesterol. An eating style moderate in sugars An eating style moderate in sodium/salt.

122 Being a Smart Food Consumer
Nutrition Label Basics

123 Each label contains: Serving size Servings per container
Calories per serving and calories per serving from fat Grams of total fat, saturated fat, total carbo., fiber, sugars, protein, and milligrams of cholesterol and sodium per serving Percent of the Daily Value the product supplies of the above nutrients plus some important vitamins and minerals in one serving

124 Ingredients List Almost all food labels have an ingredient list.
Labels list ingredients by weight in descending order.

125 The ingredient in greatest amount is listed first.

126 Food Additives Are substances added to food intentionally to produce a desired effect. Add nutrients, give flavor or color, lengthen storage life and keep it safe to eat, maintain texture, control food’s acidity, help age foods, such as cheese.

127 Enriched Food A food in which nutrients that were lost in processing have been added back. Breads, pastas, and rice made of refined grains are enriched with B vitamins and iron.

128 Fortification The addition of nutrients that are not naturally present. Milk is fortified with Vitamin D.

129 Food Product Label Claims
Food labeling regulations permit labels of certain foods to claim possible benefits in combating a disease or condition. Calcium, possible help in fighting osteoporosis. Fiber, can claim they “may help” to lessen the risk of certain cancers.

130 Other Terms Healthy- The food is low in fat and saturated fat and contains limited amount of cholesterol and sodium. If it is a single item food and provides at least 10% of one or more of the following: Vitamin A or C, iron, calcium, protein, or fiber.

131 Light- The calories have been reduced by at least a third, or the fat or sodium by at least half.
Free- the product contains no amount, or only a slight amount of fat, cholesterol, sodium, sugars, or calories.

132 Less- The food contains 25% less of a nutrient or of calories than a comparable food.
Fresh- The food is raw, unprocessed, contains no preservatives, and has never been frozen or heated.

133 Natural- This term is reserved for meat and poultry only
Natural- This term is reserved for meat and poultry only. It means the food is minimally processed with no artificial or synthetic ingredients.

134 Opening Date Expiration Date- The last date you should use the product. Freshness Date- The last date a food is thought to be fresh. Pack Date- The date on which the product was packaged. Sell Date- This date denotes the last date the product should be sold.

135 The End

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