Saturated Fats A fatty acid is said to be saturated when the fatty acid holds all the hydrogen atoms it can. Foods high in saturated fats include, animal fats and tropical oils such as coconut and palm oil.
A diet high saturated fats is associated with an increased risk of heart disease and certain cancers.
Red meats such as beef and pork are higher in saturated fats than most white meats like chicken and fish.
Unsaturated Fats A fatty acid that is missing one or more pairs of hydrogen atoms. Vegetable fats are a good source of this fat.
Hydrogenated Fat Fat products where there are added hydrogen atoms. Margarine and peanut butter usually contain hydrogenated fat. May increase LDL, the bad cholesterol.
Role of Fat 9 calories per gram. Carry fat soluble vitamins. Add flavor to foods. Help satisfy hunger since they take longer to digest than other nutrients. Second fuel source.
Too much fat is linked to obesity, heart disease and other health problems. No more than 30% of your calories should come from fat. Under 25% would be better.
Your diet of fat should come from unsaturated fats with very little coming from saturated fats. Most Americans receive 50% of their calories from fat.
Cholesterol Found only from foods that originate from animals. Produced in the livers of animals, including humans.
Cholesterol is an important instrumental in the production of sex hormones, use of vitamin D and in the protective sheath around nerve fibers
HDL HDL- High Density Lipoprotein The good Cholesterol. Reduces cholesterol in the blood. “HEALTHY” Cholesterol.
Increases HDL- exercise, females have a naturally higher level, diet with high ply/monounsaturated fat to saturated fat levels within range
LDL LDL- Low Density Lipoprotein Bad Cholesterol “LOUSY” Cholesterol.
Increases cholesterol in the blood stream and arteries Increases LDL- Smoking, high saturated fat diet, moderate to high alcohol consumption
A good diet can reduce blood cholesterol.
Optimal LDL-below 100mg/dL Optimal HDL-over 60 mg/dL Desirable total cholesterol- below 200 mg/dL Normal triglyceride-below 150 mg/dL
QUIZ TOMORROW Ch. 5 Lessons 1&2
Vitamins Vitamins are compounds that help regulate many vital body processes and helps in the metabolism of other nutrients. O calories per gram 13 vitamins play a key role in good nutrition.
Vitamin D is manufactured in the body, the rest must be obtained through diet. Two groups of vitamins. -Fat Soluble Vitamins –Water Soluble Vitamins
Water-Soluble Vitamins Water-soluble vitamins include Vitamin C and the eight vitamins in the Vitamin B complex Water-soluble vitamins dissolve in water.
Water-soluble vitamins pass easily into the bloodstream. Excess amounts are excreted in urine.
These vitamins are not stored in the body. Need to be replenished in a regular diet. Do not overcook, overcooking leaches out and destroys the vitamins. See page 108 of your text for chart.
Fat-Soluble Vitamins Fat-soluble vitamins are absorbed and transported by fat. Fat-soluble vitamins are stored in the body’s fatty tissues.
Excess buildup of these vitamins can have a toxic effect. This is more likely if one takes large dose of vitamin supplements.
Beta-Carotene is a substance found in plants that helps your body manufacture vitamin A. Carrots, broccoli, spinach and other vegetables contain Beta- Carotene.
Minerals Minerals are inorganic substances that the body cannot manufacture, that act as catalysts, regulating many vital body processes.
Minerals are needed in very small amounts compared to other nutrients.
Iron Especially important when growth is rapid. It is essential for the hemoglobin in your blood. Hemoglobin carries oxygen in the blood.
Anemia or Iron deficiency- you may feel tired all the time and have little endurance.
Calcium Milk 300 mg/glass 1300 mg. each day. Gives structure to bones. Maintains bone strength. Aids in muscle contraction, blood clotting and proper functioning of the nervous system.
Milk and milk products, green leafy vegetables and canned salmon are good sources of calcium.
When you do not get enough calcium in your diet, your body draws upon deposits of the mineral from your bones.
Your bones build density (add calcium) until the late twenties or early thirties.
Osteoporosis- is a bone disease where the bones are brittle and break easily because of low calcium levels or lost calcium.Osteoporosis
Calcium rich diets and weight bearing exercise can reduce osteoporosis.
Electrolytes Sodium, chloride, and potassium make up a group of mineral known as electrolytes. They are electrically charged when in solutions, as they are in the body fluids.
Sodium and potassium help maintain the balance of fluid within body cells. Bananas and orange juice are excellent sources of potassium. You get sodium from table salt.
Most Americans probably get enough salt in there daily diet. Many get too much salt.
Enriched Vitamins are added to the food product during the processing. Vitamin was originally found in the base produce but was reduced or destroyed during processing.
Fortified Vitamins are added to the food product during the processing. Vitamin was never in product or was originally there but in very small amount.
Vitamins and minerals are known as micronutrients because the body needs them in small amounts.
Water O calories per gram. Water is a regulator and is vital to every body function. Carries nutrients. Transports waste.
Why is Why is water considered the most important nutrient by some health professionals?
Lubricates our joints. Enables you to swallow and digest foods, absorb nutrients.
Your body uses about 10 cups daily, maybe more depending on your health, outside temp., or exercise level.* Water makes up about 60% of your total body weight.
Food is a source of water. Waters main function during exercise is to cool the body and maintain proper body temperature.
Thirst, or the desire to drink fluids, determines your fluid intake.* During very hot weather and when you are exercising you may need to increase your fluid intake to as much as ten large glasses or more.
Dehydration The loss of water from body tissues. Dehydration weakens the body and may cause muscle cramps.
Lesson 4 Guidelines for a Healthful Eating Style.
RDA- the amounts of nutrients that will prevent deficiencies and excess in most healthy people over the age of two.
Following the dietary guidelines will help decrease your risk of getting eating related chronic diseases now and in the future.
Eating for a Healthful Eating Style USDA- U.S. Department of Agriculture. RDA- Recommended Dietary Allowances.
No single food provides all of the nutrients your body needs in the right amounts. Eat a variety of healthy foods.
Food Guide Pyramid See page 114 of your text book.
Food Guide Pyramid The food guide pyramid categorizes foods into five food groups, indicating a range of servings for each that a person is advised to eat daily. Ranges of servings are broad, this is because nutritional needs vary.
Nutritional needs will vary depending on age, gender, physical condition, body size and activity level.
Balance the Foods You Eat with Physical Activity. Balance the amount of energy in food with the amount of energy your body uses.
Be Aware that controlling body fat is more important to health than controlling body weight.
Keep in mind that all calories add up in the same way, no matter what their source.
Choose… Plenty of grain Products, vegetables, and fruits. An eating style low in fat, saturated fat and cholesterol. An eating style moderate in sugars An eating style moderate in sodium/salt.
Being a Smart Food Consumer Nutrition Label Basics
–Each label contains: Serving size Servings per container Calories per serving and calories per serving from fat Grams of total fat, saturated fat, total carbo., fiber, sugars, protein, and milligrams of cholesterol and sodium per serving Percent of the Daily Value the product supplies of the above nutrients plus some important vitamins and minerals in one serving
Ingredients List Almost all food labels have an ingredient list. Labels list ingredients by weight in descending order.
The ingredient in greatest amount is listed first.
Food Additives Are substances added to food intentionally to produce a desired effect. –Add nutrients, give flavor or color, lengthen storage life and keep it safe to eat, maintain texture, control food’s acidity, help age foods, such as cheese.
Enriched Food A food in which nutrients that were lost in processing have been added back. Breads, pastas, and rice made of refined grains are enriched with B vitamins and iron.
Fortification The addition of nutrients that are not naturally present. Milk is fortified with Vitamin D.
Food Product Label Claims Food labeling regulations permit labels of certain foods to claim possible benefits in combating a disease or condition. –Calcium, possible help in fighting osteoporosis. –Fiber, can claim they “may help” to lessen the risk of certain cancers.
Other Terms Healthy- The food is low in fat and saturated fat and contains limited amount of cholesterol and sodium. If it is a single item food and provides at least 10% of one or more of the following: Vitamin A or C, iron, calcium, protein, or fiber.
Light- The calories have been reduced by at least a third, or the fat or sodium by at least half. Free- the product contains no amount, or only a slight amount of fat, cholesterol, sodium, sugars, or calories.
Less- The food contains 25% less of a nutrient or of calories than a comparable food. Fresh- The food is raw, unprocessed, contains no preservatives, and has never been frozen or heated.
Natural- This term is reserved for meat and poultry only. It means the food is minimally processed with no artificial or synthetic ingredients.
Opening Date Expiration Date- The last date you should use the product. Freshness Date- The last date a food is thought to be fresh. Pack Date- The date on which the product was packaged. Sell Date- This date denotes the last date the product should be sold.