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Week 3: Journalism 2001 September 24, 2007. What’s wrong? 1. Phantom’s, not Phantoms 2. Catalog, not catolog 3. too high, not to high 4. All of the above!

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Presentation on theme: "Week 3: Journalism 2001 September 24, 2007. What’s wrong? 1. Phantom’s, not Phantoms 2. Catalog, not catolog 3. too high, not to high 4. All of the above!"— Presentation transcript:

1 Week 3: Journalism 2001 September 24, 2007

2 What’s wrong? 1. Phantom’s, not Phantoms 2. Catalog, not catolog 3. too high, not to high 4. All of the above!

3 Review of last week’s news Let’s take a quiz! Let’s take a quiz!

4 Residents say lingering undercurrents of anger over the 1978 creation of the ____________ may be partially to blame for the charges against five adults and one juvenile for terrorizing campers and firing multiple weapons into the night sky and calm waters in August. 1. Voyageurs National Park 2. Boundary Waters Canoe Area Wilderness 3. Grand Casino Mille Lacs

5 The strike by the University of Minnesota members of AFSCME ended last Friday, with employees returning to their jobs this week. 1. True 2. False

6 Larry Mackey, 62, survived five nights in the woods near Remer without food or water after falling 20 feet from his ____________. 1. house 2. bear-hunting stand 3. truck

7 Finnish paper giant Sorsa Enso Oyj announced Friday that it plans to sell its North American manufacturing operations, including its mill in ____________, for about $2.1 billion to an Ohio-based company. 1. Silver Bay 2. Duluth 3. Cloquet

8 UMD alumnus _____________ donated $10.7 million for the College of Science and Engineering, which will bear his name. 1. Ronald Weber 2. Joel Labovitz 3. James Swenson

9 After years of ups and downs, full-scale construction of the $235 million Mesabi Nugget Delaware LLC ______________ will begin this fall at the former LTV Steel Mining Co. site near Aurora and Hoyt Lakes. 1. coal plant 2. iron nugget plant 3. taconite plant

10 State officials selected Flatiron Construction Inc. and Manson Construction Co. last week as the joint winner of a lucrative contract to rebuild the ___________. 1. Metrodome 2. Minneapolis-St. Paul Airport 3. I-35W bridge

11 The Minnesota Vikings beat the Kansas City Chiefs on Sunday. 1. True 2. False

12 The Green Bay Packers beat the San Diego Chargers on Sunday. 1. True 2. False

13 The UMD Bulldogs football team beat Central Washington on Saturday. 1. True 2. False

14 DNT Analysis Excellent job! Excellent job! You’re now reading the newspaper with a more critical eye You’re now reading the newspaper with a more critical eye Better understanding of what goes into the newspaper; why editors make story selections Better understanding of what goes into the newspaper; why editors make story selections What surprised you while doing assignment? What surprised you while doing assignment?

15 Different editions of Star-Tribune Early Sunday Early Sunday State edition State edition Metro edition Metro edition

16 Grammar exercise Dr. Grammar tips: Dr. Grammar tips: –http://www.drgrammar.org/

17 Review: Summary lead assignment Overall great start! Overall great start! Best to use one-sentence summary lead Best to use one-sentence summary lead Use dateline Use dateline Write in past tense, active voice Write in past tense, active voice Watch state abbreviations: Fla FL FLA Watch state abbreviations: Fla FL FLA Watch wordiness Watch wordiness –has resulted in the man’s death –stunned a man to death –leads to the suspect being shot –M-26 Taser stun gun

18 Here’s the summary lead from the Associated Press: HOLLYWOOD, Fla. – A man behaving strangely in front of a hotel died after police shot him with a stun gun, then wrestled him to the ground and handcuffed him because he had not been subdued. Many of your leads are just as strong! A suspected drug user died Sunday after police officers shot him with a taser gun in front of a hotel for his strange behavior and eventually resisting arrest. A man who behaved strangely in front of a hotel Sunday and refused to cooperate with police died after an officer shot him in the chest with a stun gun.

19 A man died Sunday when officers tried to subdue him using a stun gun for acting strangely in front of a hotel. A man acting strangely in front of a hotel Sunday died after a police officer used a stun gun in an effort to subdue him. Brevity good, but can be misleading: Local police unintentionally killed a man outside a hotel on Sunday after shooting him with a stun gun. In an attempt to subdue a suspected drug offender, police opened fire with a 50,000 volt probe, accidentally killing the man. A man died Sunday in front a hotel after an officer fired a Taser stun gun at him because he was behaving strangely. Police shot and accidentally killed a disobedient man they believed was on drugs outside a hotel with a stun gun Sunday.

20 Review: Writing a summary lead Usually a single sentence Usually a single sentence No more than 35 words No more than 35 words Bottom line: Bottom line: –Use a single sentence of no more than 35 words to summarize an event

21 Summary of summary leads Do not go with the first lead Do not go with the first lead Avoid unnecessary words Avoid unnecessary words Avoid gobbledygook Avoid gobbledygook Write clearly, concisely Write clearly, concisely Use vivid verbs Use vivid verbs Use colorful words Use colorful words

22 Use active voice!  Avoid “to be”  a man was killed….  a man was shot by police….  was behaving strangely

23 Check egradebook Assignments listed at egradebook: Assignments listed at egradebook: –http://www.d.umn.edu/egradebook If assignments missing that you turned in, let me know ASAP If assignments missing that you turned in, let me know ASAP

24 Assignment due today Summary lead exercises Summary lead exercises –Steps to help you:  Identify the five Ws and H –Who? –What? –When? –Where? –Why? –How? –Determine what’s the most important to include –Reminder: Summary lead contains no more than 35 words – assignment, written in Microsoft Word, saved as a Rich Text Format (RTF) file and sent as an attachment to

25 In-class assignment for tonight To help you develop interviewing skills, during tonight’s class you will be interviewing Lucy Kragness. She will review her background, and you will ask her questions. –Assume story assignment for the Statesman –To prepare, review website, write out questions in advance.  –Start story in class, final five paragraph story, written in Microsoft Word, saved as a Rich Text Format (RTF) file and sent as an attachment by Wednesday (September 26) to: –Story will not be graded; all receive 5 points  Watch style errors!

26 Assignment for 10/1 More summary lead exercises! More summary lead exercises! – –Steps to help you: – –Identify the five W’s and H   Who?   What?   When?   Where?   Why?   How? – –Determine which is the most important to include. – –A summary lead should contain no more than 35 words. – –One sentence strongest summary lead. assignment, written in Microsoft Word, saved as a Rich Text Format (RTF) file and sent as an attachment to assignment, written in Microsoft Word, saved as a Rich Text Format (RTF) file and sent as an attachment to

27 Story Pitches for Hard News 1 and 2 Assignments: Due 10/3 Length of story pitches: no more than three paragraphs, about 200 words Length of story pitches: no more than three paragraphs, about 200 words Include the 5 Ws and H: what makes this story newsworthy Include the 5 Ws and H: what makes this story newsworthy Deadlines for complete articles: Deadlines for complete articles: –Hard News 1: October 15 –Hard News 2: October 26

28 Hard News 1: Where to find meetings City of Duluth meetings: City of Duluth meetings: –http://www.ci.duluth.mn.us/city/meeting/inde x.htm x.htmhttp://www.ci.duluth.mn.us/city/meeting/inde x.htm St. Louis County Board St. Louis County Board Superior City Council Superior City Council Duluth School Board Duluth School Board Other public meetings Other public meetings

29 Hard News 2: Mayoral coverage project Work in groups of no more than three Work in groups of no more than three –Come up with own groups by next week –OR, would you like me to assign groups? Let’s brainstorm ideas of places where people gather in the community Let’s brainstorm ideas of places where people gather in the community –Senior Citizen Center

30 Story pitch for Sports Story Reporting Assignment: 10/3 Length of story pitch: no more than three paragraphs, about 200 words Length of story pitch: no more than three paragraphs, about 200 words Include the 5 Ws and H: what makes this story newsworthy Include the 5 Ws and H: what makes this story newsworthy Deadline for complete article: Deadline for complete article:

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32 Chapter 6: Developing a news story Which stories are worth developing? Which stories are worth developing? –Major local news: Weather, fire, derailment, court trial Other factors influencing coverage Other factors influencing coverage –Prejudices of reporters, editors –Size of market –Searching for a scoop –What the competition is doing –What other stories are developing

33 Phase 1: The story breaks What, when, where, to whom What, when, where, to whom Mainbars Mainbars –Reporting the breaking news Sidebars Sidebars –Extra stories that explain news, human interest Examples of stories with followups Examples of stories with followups –Beekeeper story

34 Phase 2: Second-day stories Why, how Why, how Any late-breaking developments Any late-breaking developments –Clean-up, additional fatalities Put story into perspective Put story into perspective

35 Phase 3: Advancing the story Color: Observation, narrative, anecdotes that provide a clear picture of a person or event Color: Observation, narrative, anecdotes that provide a clear picture of a person or event Background Background –Need to keep the news high in the story New information New information

36 Phase 4: Follow-up developments Reporters make routine checks Reporters make routine checks New developments New developments –Release of a report  Air crash, investigations

37 Checklist for developing stories Report latest news first Report latest news first Put original breaking news high in follow-ups Put original breaking news high in follow-ups Go to the scene; talk to as many people as possible Go to the scene; talk to as many people as possible Always strive to put a face on the tragedy Always strive to put a face on the tragedy Advance each follow-up; new developments Advance each follow-up; new developments Look for new sources; consider all angles Look for new sources; consider all angles Get color Get color Cooperate with other reporters Cooperate with other reporters

38 Chapter 8: Special Leads Non-breaking news story or feature Non-breaking news story or feature –Narrative –Contrast –Staccato –Direct-address –Question & quote –“none of the above”

39 Narrative Leads Puts readers into the middle of the action Lead block: Observation the key! Lead block: Observation the key! –2 or more paragraphs leading to main point Nut graph Nut graph –“So what” paragraph Keep the story going Keep the story going

40 Examples of narrative leads

41 Contrast Leads Compares, contrasts Compares, contrasts –Old & new –Short & tall –Yesterday & today Turn words: Turn words: –Now, today, yesterday, this year, but Hard news or a feature Hard news or a feature

42 Staccato Leads Short bursts of phrases Short bursts of phrases Meant to tease readers Meant to tease readers The Clash in London The Clash in London

43 Direct-address lead Inserting “you” into the story Inserting “you” into the story Communicates with the reader Communicates with the reader Rarely used in newspapers Rarely used in newspapers Common in public relations, advertising Common in public relations, advertising

44 Question Leads Questions the audience Questions the audience Answer the question quickly – second graph Answer the question quickly – second graph Tease the audience Tease the audience Combine question leads with direct address Combine question leads with direct address Legislative roll call example Legislative roll call example

45 Quote Leads Literally open with a quote from a source Literally open with a quote from a source Rarely used in newspapers Rarely used in newspapers Sports, broadcasting Sports, broadcasting Don’t misrepresent in a quote lead Don’t misrepresent in a quote lead Beware of libel when using a quote lead Beware of libel when using a quote lead

46 “None of the above” leads When is a lead “none of the above?” When is a lead “none of the above?” Combining several types of leads Combining several types of leads

47 Creating Effective Leads Use vivid verbs in leads Use vivid verbs in leads –Enhance sentences, paint a picture Choosing a lead: Which lead, and when? Choosing a lead: Which lead, and when? –Summary lead: breaking news –Narrative lead: follow-up, feature –Staccato: feature, soft news –Question: soft news, feature

48 How writers decide on a lead Being creative: different from others Being creative: different from others What their sources said What their sources said Their own observations Their own observations Tradition Tradition Their editors Their editors Space Space

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50 Chapter 7: Quotations, attributions Why use quotes? Why use quotes? –Bring a story to life –Generate emotion –Provide vivid description –Bring a dull story to life

51 Types of quotations Complete direct quotations Complete direct quotations –“John Doe said that he did it,” she said. Partial quotations Partial quotations –John Doe “said that he did it,” she said Paraphrased quotations Paraphrased quotations –John Doe said that he did it, she said.

52 Direct quotations Exact quote: quotation marks around sentence Exact quote: quotation marks around sentence Most editors allow reporters to clean up grammar or to take out profanities Most editors allow reporters to clean up grammar or to take out profanities Make sure quotes are right! Make sure quotes are right! Beware of leading questions; use paraphrase Beware of leading questions; use paraphrase

53 Most important rule Never make up quotations or paraphrases Never make up quotations or paraphrases –Shattered Glass: Stephen Glass Story  CBS 60 Minutes story CBS 60 Minutes story CBS 60 Minutes story  Stephen Glass index Stephen Glass index Stephen Glass index

54 Why use direct quotes? Specific, vivid statements Specific, vivid statements Descriptive statements Descriptive statements Inner feelings Inner feelings Capture personality Capture personality Supplement statements of fact Supplement statements of fact Reduce attributions Reduce attributions

55 Which one is right? Text quotes AP Stylebook: Text quotes AP Stylebook: –“Quotations normally should be corrected to avoid the errors in grammar and word usage that often occur unnoticed when someone is speaking but are embarrassing in print.” 2006 AP Stylebook: 2006 AP Stylebook: –“Never alter quotations even to correct minor grammatical errors or word usage. Casual minor tongue slips may be removed by using ellipses but even that should be done with extreme caution. If there is a question about a quote, either don’t use it or ask the speaker to clarify.”

56 Partial Quotations Using part of a direct quote, often for emphasis Using part of a direct quote, often for emphasis Can be confusing Can be confusing Be careful: Could draw attention to a point, jeopardizing objectivity Be careful: Could draw attention to a point, jeopardizing objectivity –She told police it was an “accident” when she hit the tree.

57 Paraphrased quotations Indirect quotes Indirect quotes Used when direct quote dull, uninformative Used when direct quote dull, uninformative Must attribute paraphrases to news source Must attribute paraphrases to news source When in doubt, paraphrase When in doubt, paraphrase

58 Pitfalls to avoid in quoting Inaccuracies from source Inaccuracies from source Rambling on and on Rambling on and on Hard-to-understand quotations Hard-to-understand quotations Reconstructed quotations Reconstructed quotations Fragmentary quotations Fragmentary quotations Ungrammatical: If it doesn’t make sense, don’t use it Ungrammatical: If it doesn’t make sense, don’t use it Use good taste Use good taste Watch out for offensive language Watch out for offensive language Be certain when using dialect: Be certain when using dialect: –North Country, Fargo

59 Use objective verbs of attribution Straight news stories Straight news stories –Use neutral verbs: said, added “Said” isn’t boring – readers expect it “Said” isn’t boring – readers expect it No need to be creative No need to be creative –Avoid asserted, bellowed, contended, cried, declared, demanded, emphasized, harangued, hinted, maintained, opined, stammered, stated, stressed

60 Identification in attributions Usually identify source by title, name Usually identify source by title, name Follow guidelines in AP Stylebook Follow guidelines in AP Stylebook Title often used to streamline lead Title often used to streamline lead Be cautious with “hearsay attribution” Be cautious with “hearsay attribution” –Using a quote from a police report

61 Placement of attributions Usually follows the quotation Usually follows the quotation Normally follows first sentence in multiple sentence quote Normally follows first sentence in multiple sentence quote When sources change, new attribution needed When sources change, new attribution needed Use attribution once in a quotation Use attribution once in a quotation Use attribution between complete, partial quotes Use attribution between complete, partial quotes

62 Anonymous sources On the record: Everything can be used On the record: Everything can be used Off the record: Nothing can be used Off the record: Nothing can be used On background: Material can be used, no attribution by name On background: Material can be used, no attribution by name On deep background: Can be used, with no attribution; can get confirmation On deep background: Can be used, with no attribution; can get confirmation –All the President’s Men: Woodward & Bernstein

63 Judith Miller/CIA leak case Who’s Judith Miller? Who’s Judith Miller?

64 Where the quote marks go Useful checklist: Pages of text 1. Jones said, “We will be there tomorrow.” 2. Jones said that he would be there Wednesday. 3. He will be there Wednesday, Jones said. 4. “All our transcontinental flights are full,” she said. 5. Coach Jones said that it was his “dumbest mistake”: deciding to start an untested freshman at quarterback. 6. Coach Jones asked his team, “Can we win this game?” 7. “Johnson’s plea to ‘win this game for the community’ really fired us up,” Smith said.

65 8. “We’re so enthusiastic about this project that we can’t stop thinking about it,” Jones said. 9. “We’re so enthusiastic about this project that we can’t stop thinking about it,” Jones said. “We look forward to getting council approval. “We hope that will come at the next meeting.” 10. Get in there now,” the coach said, “before I make you run extra laps.” 11. “I think it is wise to lengthen the school year,” Smith said. It would be ludicrous to do so,” Johnson said.

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67 Chapter 10: Interviewing Three main stages: Three main stages: –Research –Setting up the interview –Questions and answers

68 Research Morgues : Newspaper libraries Morgues : Newspaper libraries –“Dead stories” kept until needed for background –Electronic archives Internet Internet –http://www2.assignmenteditor.com Bound volumes of the paper Bound volumes of the paper Files, earlier stories Files, earlier stories University, public libraries University, public libraries

69 Setting up the interview Make an appointment Make an appointment –Call or your source, time permitting Identify yourself as reporter, name publication Identify yourself as reporter, name publication Set length of interview in advance Set length of interview in advance –Half hour, hour, over lunch Make interview convenient for source Make interview convenient for source Describe the story Describe the story Dress the part Dress the part Be on time! Be on time!

70 Structuring the interview Funnel interview: Most common Funnel interview: Most common –Begin with general background questions –Open-ended questions –End with closed-ended or adversarial questions Inverted-funnel interview Inverted-funnel interview –Key questions asked immediately –Breaking news, sources used to interviews

71 Asking questions Do your homework! Do your homework! Write out your questions Write out your questions –Use reporter’s notebook, refer back to them –Let the conversation flow – other questions often answered –Make eye contact –Example: Senator interview

72 Closed-ended questions Closed-ended questions –Asked to get precise answer –Useful when already know the answer, need confirmation –Used when source is comfortable –Don’t be hostile! Open-ended questions Open-ended questions –Useful when have more time –Often learn unexpected information –Gets source’s opinions, feelings –Anything else to add? Anything I’m forgetting?

73 Personal questions Personal questions –Tough to ask personal questions after a tragedy –Be compassionate, sympathetic –Do homework, try to interview in person –Break ice with general questions –Soften the question:  I know you’re busy; sorry to bother you –Examples:  Sunshine hits the accelerator  Flash flood in Buffalo

74 Frame questions to fit the story’s purpose Frame questions to fit the story’s purpose –Every story needs theme, purpose –Focus on the purpose when asking questions –Refer back to questions Establish rapport Establish rapport –Tell sources who you are, what you are doing –Listen, don’t argue –Thank sources for their time –Set timeframe for the interview

75 What to do with hostile sources You’re not a lawyer: avoid hostile questions You’re not a lawyer: avoid hostile questions Save tough questions for end of interview Save tough questions for end of interview Be sympathetic, understanding Be sympathetic, understanding Reason with the source Reason with the source Try to understand source’s position Try to understand source’s position Repeat damaging things that have been said about a source Repeat damaging things that have been said about a source Keep asking questions Keep asking questions

76 Making, using observations What’s unusual – or common? What’s unusual – or common? –Observe surroundings –Demeanor of source –Personal features Examples: Examples: –Successful business leader interview –Train, doll collectors

77 Write fast! Take a lot of notes Take a lot of notes –Listen, don’t try to get down all the quotes –Never can have too many notes! –Take notes even if using tape recorder  Battery or tape failure, operator error –Using a tape recorder  Ask permission  Can be time consuming

78 Telephone interview Telephone interview –Type your notes –Identify yourself –Ask permission to tape record interview interview –Tough to ask follow-up questions –Identify yourself –Spell out deadline –Ask for follow-up call –Impersonal; not always the easiest

79 After the interview Thank source Thank source Ask for best way to reach the source – phone or – it have additional questions Ask for best way to reach the source – phone or – it have additional questions Never agree to show the source a story once it’s written Never agree to show the source a story once it’s written

80 In-class assignment for tonight To help you develop interviewing skills, during tonight’s class you will be interviewing Lucy Kragness. She will review her background, and you will ask her questions. –Assume story assignment for the Statesman –To prepare, review website, write out questions in advance.  –Start story in class, final five paragraph story, written in Microsoft Word, saved as a Rich Text Format (RTF) file and sent as an attachment by Wednesday (September 26) to: –Story will not be graded; all receive 5 points  Watch style errors!

81 Introductions Instructor: Lucy Kragness Instructor: Lucy Kragness –University of Minnesota Duluth Experience  3/96 to present: Executive Assistant to the Chancellor  1/05 to present: Jour 2001 instructor  10/90 to 3/96: Alumni Director, University Relations  8/90 to 10/90: Acting Director, Alumni and Media Relations  11/84 to 10/90: Publications Director, Alumni and Media Relations  3/89 to 5/94: Taught Publications Editing, a three-credit spring quarter journalism course  6/85 to 6/90: Volunteer editorial adviser, Statesman student newspaper –Freelance Experience:  7/86 to present: Freelance writer, photographer for several regional and national publications

82 –Newspaper Experience:  9/83 to 9/84: One-person bureau in Sheridan, Wyo., for the Billings Gazette in Billings, Mont.  3/81 to 9/83: Assistant state editor at the Billings Gazette in Billings, Mont.  3/80 to 3/81: Managing editor of the Williston Daily Herald, Plains Reporter (weekly) and the Williston Basin Reporter (bi- weekly), all in Williston, N.D.  11/79 to 3/80: Assistant managing editor/Sunday editor at the Williston Daily Herald  6/79 to 11/79: Reporter, business editor at the Williston Daily Herald  11/78 to 6/79: Assistant editor at the Northeaster newspaper in Minneapolis. –Education:  Master of Education in Educational Computing and Technology, University of Minnesota Duluth,  Bachelor of Arts in Journalism, School of Journalism and Mass Communication, University of Minnesota Minneapolis, 1979.

83 Portfolio Store academic information on your Electronic Portfolio. Each student has 100 mb of storage. Store academic information on your Electronic Portfolio. Each student has 100 mb of storage. Access Electronic Portfolio at: https://portfolio.umn.edu/portfolio/index.j sp Access Electronic Portfolio at: https://portfolio.umn.edu/portfolio/index.j sp https://portfolio.umn.edu/portfolio/index.j sp https://portfolio.umn.edu/portfolio/index.j sp


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