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©2003 Texas Trade and Industrial Education1 The Nail and its Disorders: Nail Diseases, Disorders, and Conditions Cosmetology
©2003 Texas Trade and Industrial EducationCosmetology I: Nail Disorders, Diseases, & Conditions2 Onychosis Onychosis: any disease, disorder, or condition of the nail. 1. To protect yourself and the client nail services should not be performed. 2. If a disease is present, the client must be referred to a physician. 3. If a disorder is present, a nail service may be done with extra care. 4. If a condition is present, nail services can be performed with the proper techniques, products, and nutrition.
©2003 Texas Trade and Industrial EducationCosmetology I: Nail Disorders, Diseases, & Conditions3 Determine Onychosis 1. Identify the disease, disorder, or condition. 2. Identify etiology or cause of the disease, disorder, or condition; which could be internally, environmentally or or disease related. 3. Identify the onychosis (diagnosis) and give an outlook (prognosis). 4. Suggest home care products and treatments.
©2003 Texas Trade and Industrial EducationCosmetology I: Nail Disorders, Diseases, & Conditions4 Analyze the hands and nails When you are examining the hands and nails there are six signs of infection to look for; pain, swelling, redness, local fever, throbbing, and pus. If any of these signs are present, you cannot perform services, but instead refer that person to a physician.
©2003 Texas Trade and Industrial EducationCosmetology I: Nail Disorders, Diseases, & Conditions5 Nail Diseases Key Point: Any person with a nail disease must be referred to a physician
©2003 Texas Trade and Industrial EducationCosmetology I: Nail Disorders, Diseases, & Conditions6 Nail Diseases Onychomycosis: also known as tinea unguium; is ringworm of the nail 1. Cause: fungus. 2. Signs: nail will become thick, and discolored ranging from black to white, white scaly patches with yellow streaks under the nail; nail may fall off. Tinea Manus: ringworm of the nail. 1. Cause: fungus. 2. Signs: looks like a ring with small blisters, dark pink to red in color, sometimes has dry flakes, and spread to other parts of the body.
©2003 Texas Trade and Industrial EducationCosmetology I: Nail Disorders, Diseases, & Conditions7 Nail Diseases Tinea Pedis: also known as ringworm of the feet or athlete’s foot 1. Cause: fungus. 2. Signs: itching and peeling of the skin on feet, group or single blisters containing fluids and are found on sores and between toes. Paroncyhia: also know as felon, is an inflammation of skin around the nail. 1. Cause: bacterial infection from an infected hangnail of contaminated implements. 2. Signs: red, swollen, warm to touch, and nail may fall off.
©2003 Texas Trade and Industrial EducationCosmetology I: Nail Disorders, Diseases, & Conditions8 Nail Diseases Onychoptosis: shedding or falling off of nails. 1. Cause: disease and injury to the nail. 2. Signs: may occur on one or two nails and nail bed may be sensitive. Onychia: inflammation of the nail matrix. 1. Cause: bacterial infections and disease related. 2. Signs: inflammation of the nail matrix, pus, red, swollen, and tender; nail may stop growing and detach.
©2003 Texas Trade and Industrial EducationCosmetology I: Nail Disorders, Diseases, & Conditions9 Nail Diseases Onychatrophia: atrophy of the nail or wasting away of the nail. 1.Cause: injury or systemic disease (illness, nutrition, or heredity). 2. Signs: nail gets smaller in size and may lift from nail bed. Oycholysis: loosening or separation of the nail. 1. Cause: internal disorder, infection or drug treatment. 2. Signs: loosening of the nail plate; nail is still attached to the root and does not fall off.
©2003 Texas Trade and Industrial EducationCosmetology I: Nail Disorders, Diseases, & Conditions10 Nail Disorders Key Point: Clients with a nail disorder may receive a service unless infection is present.
©2003 Texas Trade and Industrial EducationCosmetology I: Nail Disorders, Diseases, & Conditions11 Nail Disorders Blue nail: appear blue in color. 1. Cause: Systemic problems of the heart; poor blood circulation or injury. 2. Signs: nail appears to be blue; common in older people. 3. Treatment: recommend seeing a physician; give manicure with care and light pressure. Corrugations: horizontal ridges across the nail. 1. Cause: injury of systemic condition. 2. Signs: ridges in the nail. 3. Treatment: may be lightly buffed; apply base coat or ridge filler.
©2003 Texas Trade and Industrial EducationCosmetology I: Nail Disorders, Diseases, & Conditions12 Nail Disorders Kolionychia: also know as spoon nails are nails with a concave shape. 1. Cause: systemic or long-term illness or nerve disturbance. 2. Signs: odd shaped nails. 3. Treatments: file carefully; no pressure; use polish to harden and protect nail. Furrows: indented vertical lines down the nail plate. 1. Cause: injury to the matrix; nutrition, injury or illness, pushing to hard with cuticle pusher during manicure or exposure to harsh chemicals. 2. Signs: vertical lines down the nail plate. 3. Treatments: lightly buff; use base coat or ridge filler
©2003 Texas Trade and Industrial EducationCosmetology I: Nail Disorders, Diseases, & Conditions13 Nail Disorders Onychogryposis: also know as claw nails, have an increased curvature of the nail. 1. Cause: systemic. 2. Signs: thickness and curving of the nail that may occur with age of injury. 3. Treatment: carefully clean under free edge, file with an emery board and keep nails short; nail trimming should be performed by a podiatrist. Onychocryptosis: ingrown nail. 1. Cause: environmental or improper trimming of the nails; occurs on toes if shoes are too tight, or the toenails are filed too deep into the sides. 2. Signs: nail grown into the edge of the nail groove. 3. Treatments: soften skin, trim nail straight across.
©2003 Texas Trade and Industrial EducationCosmetology I: Nail Disorders, Diseases, & Conditions14 Nail Disorders Onychauxis: also known as hypertrophy, which is a thickening of overgrowth of the nail plate. 1. Cause: injury to the nail or systemic. 2. Signs: thickening of the nail plate. 3. Treatment: lightly buff to even out nail.
©2003 Texas Trade and Industrial EducationCosmetology I: Nail Disorders, Diseases, & Conditions15 Nail Conditions Key Point: Clients with nail conditions have minor irregularities, which allow them to receive nail services.
©2003 Texas Trade and Industrial EducationCosmetology I: Nail Disorders, Diseases, & Conditions16 Nail Conditions Aganails: also know as hangnails are split cuticles; loose skin separates from the cuticle. 1. Cause: dry cuticle; environmental. 2. Signs: break in skin at the corners of the nail. 3. Treatment: may be trimmed with cuticle nippers; moisturize and apply cuticle oil. Bruised Nail: dark purplish color under the nail. 1. Cause: injury to nail; environmental; blood becomes trapped under nail. 2. Signs: discoloration under the nail. 3. Treatment: do not apply pressure on nail plate.
©2003 Texas Trade and Industrial EducationCosmetology I: Nail Disorders, Diseases, & Conditions17 Nail Conditions Onychophagy: bitten nails. 1. Cause: nervous habit; stress related. 2. Signs: sensitive to touch; nail plate may appear flat and deformed. 3. Treatment: recommend that client receives a weekly manicure with polish Onychorrexis: split or brittle nails. 1. Cause: injury, improper filing, or exposure to harsh chemicals. 2. Signs: thin, splitting nails. 3. Treatments: soften nails before trimming, recommend client use daily moisturizers and use rubber gloves when hands are exposed to water or chemicals.
©2003 Texas Trade and Industrial EducationCosmetology I: Nail Disorders, Diseases, & Conditions18 Pigmentation Problems Any discoloration of the nail may indicate a problem in the nail bed or nail plate. These signs should not be ignored, but referred to a physician.
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