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The Powder Keg IgnitesThe Powder Keg Ignites  World War I began in Eastern Europe  Crisis began with the assassination of Archduke Francis Ferdinand.

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Presentation on theme: "The Powder Keg IgnitesThe Powder Keg Ignites  World War I began in Eastern Europe  Crisis began with the assassination of Archduke Francis Ferdinand."— Presentation transcript:


2 The Powder Keg IgnitesThe Powder Keg Ignites  World War I began in Eastern Europe  Crisis began with the assassination of Archduke Francis Ferdinand of Austria-Hungary  Was visiting Bosnia but also home to many Serbs and Slavics  Serbians were unhappy with the visit  Viewed Austrians as foreign oppressors  Serbian terrorist group known as the Black Hand carried out the assassination

3 Video of AssassinationVideo of Assassination 

4 Assassination of ArchdukeAssassination of Archduke  Archduke ignored warnings of anti-Austrian unrest in Sarajevo  June 28, 1914- he and his wife were shot  They were in an open car in Sarajevo

5 Austria Strikes BackAustria Strikes Back  Government of Vienna saw assassination as an excuse to crush Serbia  Germany was upset by the assassination  Germany gave Austria the “blank check”- a promise of unconditional support no matter what the cost.  Austria sent Serbia and ultimatum  Tried to avoid the war  Serbia was supposed to end all anti-Austrian agitation in punish the Serbians who were involved in the plot

6 The UltimatumThe Ultimatum  Serbia agreed to most but not all the terms of the ultimatum  July 28, 1914- Austria declared war on Serbia

7 The Alliances Kick InThe Alliances Kick In  Carefully planned alliances kicked in when conflict arose.  After Austria declared war, Serbia went running to its ally Russia  Nicholas II asked William II to ask Austria to soften the demands, this failed  Russia then began to mobilize- prepared troops for war  August I- Germany responded by declaring war on Russia

8 The Alliances Kick InThe Alliances Kick In  Russia went to its ally France  France gave same kind of backing Germany did to Austria  Germany demanded France stay out of the conflict  Germany declared war on France

9 II. How It Began

10 A.The Balkans ( “ Powder Keg of Europe ” )


12 WAR

13 Germany Invades BelgiumGermany Invades Belgium  Italy and Britain remained uncommitted  Italy chose to remain neutral  Neutrality- policy of supporting neither side in a war  Schlieffan Plan  Germany’s location presented itself as a two-front war (France in the west and Russia in the east)  Schlieffan Plan was designed to avoid this issue  Plan- attack France first because Russia was slow to industrialize

14 Schlieffan PlanSchlieffan Plan  Goal: to surprise attack France by going through Belgian borders  European countries signed a treaty to keep Belgium neutral  Idea was to encircle and crush France’s army  Germany invaded Belgium on August 3 rd  When Germany went through Belgium, Britain declared war on Germany on August 4th

15 Section 2: A New Kind of War

16 Information about the Great War  Great War was the largest conflict in history up to that time  France mobilized 8.5 million men, Britain nearly 9 million, Russia 12 million, and Germany 11 million

17 Stalemate on the Western Front  German forces fought their way through Belgium toward Paris  Belgium tried to resist but German power was much too powerful

18 The Schlieffan Plan FailedThe Schlieffan Plan Failed  Russia mobilized faster  Russia won small victories over Germany  Germany had to then fight a two front war (France and Russia)  Battle of the Marne- ended Germany’s hope of a quick victory on the Western Front


20 The StalemateThe Stalemate  Both sides dug deeper trenches to protect their armies  Stalemate- a deadlock in which neither side is able to defeat the other  Battle lines in France remained unchanged for 4 years

21 New TechnologyNew Technology  Machine guns  Artillery gun  Poison Gas  Trench Warfare  Tanks  Airplanes  Submarines

22 B. Trench Warfare

23 1. Goals 2. Conditions 3. Success



26 German “U” BoatsGerman “U” Boats  Damaged the Allied side  Sank many ships going to Britain


28 The Eastern Front Battle of Tannenburg (August of 1914) Central Powers crush Russians (Poor supplies and leadership) who never were a threat again

29 War Around the WorldWar Around the World  Ottoman Empire had a strategic location  Ottomans joined the Central Powers  Turkey cuts off Russia from the Dardanelles- a vital strait connecting the Black Sea and the Mediterranean  Turkey fought Russia

30 3 Front War3 Front War  3 rd Front- Middle East  1916- Arab nationalists led by Husayn ibn Ali declared a revolt against Ottoman Rule  British sent T.E. Lawrence- Lawrence of Arabia- to support the Arab revolt

31 Section 3: Winning the WarSection 3: Winning the War

32 Waging Total WarWaging Total War  Nations realized that a modern mechanized war required the channeling of a nation’s entire resources- total war  To achieve total war- government took a stronger role  Both sides set up systems to recruit, arm, transport, and supply armies that numbered in the millions

33 Conscription  Britain imposed conscription- “the draft”- required all young men to be ready for military or other service  Government raised taxes and borrowed huge amounts of money to pay the costs of war  Countries rationed food and other products such as boots and gasoline

34 Economic WarfareEconomic Warfare  Britain wanted to weaken Germany  Britain sent a fleet ships to the North Sea to block ships from going to Germany with supplies  Germany retaliated by using their “u” boats  Germany sank a British boat, the Lusitania.  The Lusitania was carrying 1,200 passengers- 128 of them were Americans  This brought America into the war

35 Propoganda  Propaganda- spreading of ideas to promote a cause or to damage an opposing cause

36 Raising money or taking out loans to pay for the war Raising money or taking out loans to pay for the war

37 The use of women in the workplace

38 The use of propaganda The use of propaganda

39 Women in the WarWomen in the War  When men left- they had to take on the jobs men had  Women worked in war industries, manufacturing weapons and supplies  Women also worked as nurses on the war front  War work gave women a sense of new pride and confidence

40 Revolution in RussiaRevolution in Russia  March 1917- bread riots in Russia (St. Petersburg) started a revolution  This brought an end to the monarchy in Russia  Allies hoped a democratic government would be the monarchies replacement  V.I. Lenin came into power- pulled Russia out of the war  Lenin signed the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk- ended Russian participating in World War I

41 Russian RevolutionRussian Revolution  Treaty of Brest-Litovsk was between Russia and Germany  The treaty meant that Germany could now focus solely on the western front (France)

42 The United States in WarThe United States in War  Sinking of Lusitania  Zimmerman Telegram-  Telegram between Mexico and Germany  Mexico was supposed to start a war with the US  US started a war with Germany over the telegram

43 3. The Zimmerman Note

44 The Fourteen PointsThe Fourteen Points  President Woodrow Wilson of the US listed reasons for peace  Wrote it January, 1918  Wanted to resolve WWI and prevent other wars from happening  The fourteen points called for- freedom of seas, free trade, large-scale military reduction, and end secret treaties

45 Self-determination  Self-determination (stated by Woodrow Wilson)-  People had the right to choose their own form of government

46 End of World War IEnd of World War I  Germany really wanted to win  America kept sending more and more troops and this weakened the German troops  Allies launched counter attacks on Germany  William II- leader of Germany- stepped down from government- marking the end of war  Austria-Hungary, Bulgaria, and the Ottoman Empire all asked for peace

47 Armistice  Armistice- an agreement to end fighting  November 11 th, 1918 at 11AM- Great War came to an end

48 Section 4: Making the Peace

49 Cost of WarCost of War  Millions dead  Millions wounded  Pandemic- the flu- spreading of disease  Battle zones throughout France to Russia- homes, factories, roads, and buildings were destroyed

50 Reparations  Reparations- payments for war damage  Central Powers thought the war ended in a cease-fire  Allies wanted to ensure Central Powers paid for the damage done due to war

51 Paris Peace ConferenceParis Peace Conference  Allies met to discuss the fate of Europe, Ottoman Empire, and colonies around the world  Central Powers and Russia were not allowed to come  3 main leaders: Woodrow Wilson (US), David Lloyd George (Britain), and George Clemenceau (France)  Vittorio Orlando (Italy)- insisted the Allies give Italy the land of Austria-Hungary

52 Wilson’s Fourteen PointsWilson’s Fourteen Points  Created the League of Nations  League of Nations was the idea of collective security- a system in which a group of nations acts as one to preserve peace for all

53 Treaty of VersaillesTreaty of Versailles  June 1919- Allies ordered Germany to pay reparations and to sign the Treaty of Versailles  Treaty forced Germany to take the blame.  Reparations covered land destroyed and pensions for millions of Allied soldiers and their families  $30 million ($2.7 trillion today)  Aim: weaken Germany in size and in military  Returned Alsace and Loraine back to France (land was taken during Franco-Prussian War

54 Mandate SystemMandate System  Colonial leaders expected that the peace would bring new respect and end to imperial rule  Mandates- territories administered by western powers  Britain and France gained mandates over Germany’s colonies  Mandates were to be held until colonies were able to stand alone

55 League of NationsLeague of Nations  More than 40 nations jointed the League of Nations  Agreement to negotiate disputes rather than go to war  US never joined League of Nations- senate would not allow it

56 Section 5: Revolution and Civil War in Russia

57 March RevolutionMarch Revolution  March Revolution ends Tsarism  1914- Russian empire stretched from Eastern Europe east to the Pacific Ocean  Russia was very slow to industrialize  Landowning nobles, priests, autocratic tsar controlled the government and the economy

58 Issues in the GovernmentIssues in the Government  Nicholas II- weak and ineffective  Corrupt bureaucracy and an overburdened court  Marxists tried to ignite revolution among the proletariat  Proletariat- growing class of factory and railroad workers, miners, and urban wager earners

59 Issues during WWIIssues during WWI  Factories could not turn out enough supplies  Transportation system broke down  1915- many soldiers had no rifles and no ammunition  1915 alone- 2 million died

60 Nicolas IINicolas II  Nicholas II was part of the military, during WWI he went to be with the military and left his wife, Alexandra, in charge  Alexandra didn’t know how to rule  Alexander asked Gregory Rasputin for help  Nobles killed Rasputin on December 29, 1916

61 March RevolutionMarch Revolution  Battlefield issues combined with food and fuel shortages brought monarchy to collapse  St. Petersburg- workers went on strike  Women demanded bread  Duma was set up- still tried to fight in WWI  Bolsheviks- radical socialist group- took charge of the government  Bolshevik leader- V.I. Lenin

62 Lenin  Lenin hated the tsarist government  Lenin adopted Marxist teachings  Marx predicted the industrial working class would rise up spontaneously to overthrow capitalism  Bolsheviks and Lenin promised peace, land, and bread for the people of Russia

63 November RevolutionNovember Revolution  Lenin’s forces overthrew the provisional government  Moscow became the Bolshevik’s capital  Bolshevik’s ended private ownership of land and distributed land to peasants  Workers were given control of the factories and mines

64 Civil WarCivil War  After Bolshevik Revolution- Lenin quickly sought peace with Germany  Russia signed the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk  Cost of war was extremely high  Civil war was between the “reds”- communists and “whites”- counter revolutionists

65 Civil WarCivil War  Allies intervened  Allies hoped the whites would overthrow the communists and support the fight against Germany  Britain, France, and US sent forces to help the Whites  Reds appealed to nationalism and urged Russians to drive out the foreigners

66 War Under CommunismWar Under Communism  Communists used terror not only against Whites and to control own people  Organized the Cheka- secret police  Cheka executed ordinary citizens  Communists took over banks, mines, factories, and railroads  This type of communism is called “war communism”

67 War Under CommunismWar Under Communism  Commissars- communist party officials assigned to the army to teach party principles and ensure party loyalty

68 Building Communist Soviet Union  1922- Lenin’s Communist government united much of the old Russian empire into the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR)  Had a constitution that was democratic and socialist  All political power, resources, and means of production belonged to workers and peasants  Factory and mine output had fallen  Peasants stopped producing grain- government only seized it

69 New Economic PolicyNew Economic Policy  Lenin  Control of banks, foreign trade, and large industries, small businesses were allowed to reopen for private profit  Government stopped taking grain  Standard of living improved under the NEP

70 Stalin Takes OverStalin Takes Over  Lenin died  Stalin took over  Stalin used ruthless measures to win dictatorial power

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