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World War I.

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Presentation on theme: "World War I."— Presentation transcript:

1 World War I

2 The Powder Keg Ignites World War I began in Eastern Europe
Crisis began with the assassination of Archduke Francis Ferdinand of Austria-Hungary Was visiting Bosnia but also home to many Serbs and Slavics Serbians were unhappy with the visit Viewed Austrians as foreign oppressors Serbian terrorist group known as the Black Hand carried out the assassination

3 Video of Assassination

4 Assassination of Archduke
Archduke ignored warnings of anti-Austrian unrest in Sarajevo June 28, he and his wife were shot They were in an open car in Sarajevo

5 Austria Strikes Back Government of Vienna saw assassination as an excuse to crush Serbia Germany was upset by the assassination Germany gave Austria the “blank check”- a promise of unconditional support no matter what the cost. Austria sent Serbia and ultimatum Tried to avoid the war Serbia was supposed to end all anti-Austrian agitation in punish the Serbians who were involved in the plot

6 The Ultimatum Serbia agreed to most but not all the terms of the ultimatum July 28, Austria declared war on Serbia

7 The Alliances Kick In Carefully planned alliances kicked in when conflict arose. After Austria declared war, Serbia went running to its ally Russia Nicholas II asked William II to ask Austria to soften the demands, this failed Russia then began to mobilize- prepared troops for war August I- Germany responded by declaring war on Russia

8 The Alliances Kick In Russia went to its ally France
France gave same kind of backing Germany did to Austria Germany demanded France stay out of the conflict Germany declared war on France

9 II. How It Began

10 (“Powder Keg of Europe”)
The Balkans (“Powder Keg of Europe”)


12 WAR

13 Germany Invades Belgium
Italy and Britain remained uncommitted Italy chose to remain neutral Neutrality- policy of supporting neither side in a war Schlieffan Plan Germany’s location presented itself as a two-front war (France in the west and Russia in the east) Schlieffan Plan was designed to avoid this issue Plan- attack France first because Russia was slow to industrialize

14 Schlieffan Plan Goal: to surprise attack France by going through Belgian borders European countries signed a treaty to keep Belgium neutral Idea was to encircle and crush France’s army Germany invaded Belgium on August 3rd When Germany went through Belgium, Britain declared war on Germany on August 4th

15 Section 2: A New Kind of War

16 Information about the Great War
Great War was the largest conflict in history up to that time France mobilized 8.5 million men, Britain nearly 9 million, Russia 12 million, and Germany 11 million

17 Stalemate on the Western Front
German forces fought their way through Belgium toward Paris Belgium tried to resist but German power was much too powerful

18 The Schlieffan Plan Failed
Russia mobilized faster Russia won small victories over Germany Germany had to then fight a two front war (France and Russia) Battle of the Marne- ended Germany’s hope of a quick victory on the Western Front


20 The Stalemate Both sides dug deeper trenches to protect their armies
Stalemate- a deadlock in which neither side is able to defeat the other Battle lines in France remained unchanged for 4 years

21 New Technology Machine guns Artillery gun Poison Gas Trench Warfare
Tanks Airplanes Submarines

22 B. Trench Warfare

23 1. Goals 2. Conditions 3. Success



26 German “U” Boats Damaged the Allied side
Sank many ships going to Britain


28 The Eastern Front Battle of Tannenburg (August of 1914)
Central Powers crush Russians (Poor supplies and leadership) who never were a threat again

29 War Around the World Ottoman Empire had a strategic location
Ottomans joined the Central Powers Turkey cuts off Russia from the Dardanelles- a vital strait connecting the Black Sea and the Mediterranean Turkey fought Russia

30 3 Front War 3rd Front- Middle East
1916- Arab nationalists led by Husayn ibn Ali declared a revolt against Ottoman Rule British sent T.E. Lawrence- Lawrence of Arabia- to support the Arab revolt

31 Section 3: Winning the War

32 Waging Total War Nations realized that a modern mechanized war required the channeling of a nation’s entire resources- total war To achieve total war- government took a stronger role Both sides set up systems to recruit, arm, transport, and supply armies that numbered in the millions

33 Conscription Britain imposed conscription- “the draft”- required all young men to be ready for military or other service Government raised taxes and borrowed huge amounts of money to pay the costs of war Countries rationed food and other products such as boots and gasoline

34 Economic Warfare Britain wanted to weaken Germany
Britain sent a fleet ships to the North Sea to block ships from going to Germany with supplies Germany retaliated by using their “u” boats Germany sank a British boat, the Lusitania. The Lusitania was carrying 1,200 passengers- 128 of them were Americans This brought America into the war

35 Propoganda Propaganda- spreading of ideas to promote a cause or to damage an opposing cause

36 Raising money or taking out loans to pay for the war

37 The use of women in the workplace

38 The use of propaganda

39 Women in the War When men left- they had to take on the jobs men had
Women worked in war industries, manufacturing weapons and supplies Women also worked as nurses on the war front War work gave women a sense of new pride and confidence

40 Revolution in Russia March bread riots in Russia (St. Petersburg) started a revolution This brought an end to the monarchy in Russia Allies hoped a democratic government would be the monarchies replacement V.I. Lenin came into power- pulled Russia out of the war Lenin signed the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk- ended Russian participating in World War I

41 Russian Revolution Treaty of Brest-Litovsk was between Russia and Germany The treaty meant that Germany could now focus solely on the western front (France)

42 The United States in War
Sinking of Lusitania Zimmerman Telegram- Telegram between Mexico and Germany Mexico was supposed to start a war with the US US started a war with Germany over the telegram

43 3. The Zimmerman Note

44 The Fourteen Points President Woodrow Wilson of the US listed reasons for peace Wrote it January, 1918 Wanted to resolve WWI and prevent other wars from happening The fourteen points called for- freedom of seas, free trade, large-scale military reduction, and end secret treaties

45 Self-determination Self-determination (stated by Woodrow Wilson)-
People had the right to choose their own form of government

46 End of World War I Germany really wanted to win
America kept sending more and more troops and this weakened the German troops Allies launched counter attacks on Germany William II- leader of Germany- stepped down from government- marking the end of war Austria-Hungary, Bulgaria, and the Ottoman Empire all asked for peace

47 Armistice Armistice- an agreement to end fighting
November 11th, 1918 at 11AM- Great War came to an end

48 Section 4: Making the Peace

49 Cost of War Millions dead Millions wounded
Pandemic- the flu- spreading of disease Battle zones throughout France to Russia- homes, factories, roads, and buildings were destroyed

50 Reparations Reparations- payments for war damage
Central Powers thought the war ended in a cease-fire Allies wanted to ensure Central Powers paid for the damage done due to war

51 Paris Peace Conference
Allies met to discuss the fate of Europe, Ottoman Empire, and colonies around the world Central Powers and Russia were not allowed to come 3 main leaders: Woodrow Wilson (US), David Lloyd George (Britain), and George Clemenceau (France) Vittorio Orlando (Italy)- insisted the Allies give Italy the land of Austria-Hungary

52 Wilson’s Fourteen Points
Created the League of Nations League of Nations was the idea of collective security- a system in which a group of nations acts as one to preserve peace for all

53 Treaty of Versailles June Allies ordered Germany to pay reparations and to sign the Treaty of Versailles Treaty forced Germany to take the blame. Reparations covered land destroyed and pensions for millions of Allied soldiers and their families $30 million ($2.7 trillion today) Aim: weaken Germany in size and in military Returned Alsace and Loraine back to France (land was taken during Franco-Prussian War

54 Mandate System Colonial leaders expected that the peace would bring new respect and end to imperial rule Mandates- territories administered by western powers Britain and France gained mandates over Germany’s colonies Mandates were to be held until colonies were able to stand alone

55 League of Nations More than 40 nations jointed the League of Nations
Agreement to negotiate disputes rather than go to war US never joined League of Nations- senate would not allow it

56 Section 5: Revolution and Civil War in Russia

57 March Revolution March Revolution ends Tsarism
1914- Russian empire stretched from Eastern Europe east to the Pacific Ocean Russia was very slow to industrialize Landowning nobles, priests, autocratic tsar controlled the government and the economy

58 Issues in the Government
Nicholas II- weak and ineffective Corrupt bureaucracy and an overburdened court Marxists tried to ignite revolution among the proletariat Proletariat- growing class of factory and railroad workers, miners, and urban wager earners

59 Issues during WWI Factories could not turn out enough supplies
Transportation system broke down 1915- many soldiers had no rifles and no ammunition 1915 alone- 2 million died

60 Nicolas II Nicholas II was part of the military, during WWI he went to be with the military and left his wife, Alexandra, in charge Alexandra didn’t know how to rule Alexander asked Gregory Rasputin for help Nobles killed Rasputin on December 29, 1916

61 March Revolution Battlefield issues combined with food and fuel shortages brought monarchy to collapse St. Petersburg- workers went on strike Women demanded bread Duma was set up- still tried to fight in WWI Bolsheviks- radical socialist group- took charge of the government Bolshevik leader- V.I. Lenin

62 Lenin Lenin hated the tsarist government
Lenin adopted Marxist teachings Marx predicted the industrial working class would rise up spontaneously to overthrow capitalism Bolsheviks and Lenin promised peace, land, and bread for the people of Russia

63 November Revolution Lenin’s forces overthrew the provisional government Moscow became the Bolshevik’s capital Bolshevik’s ended private ownership of land and distributed land to peasants Workers were given control of the factories and mines

64 Civil War After Bolshevik Revolution- Lenin quickly sought peace with Germany Russia signed the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk Cost of war was extremely high Civil war was between the “reds”- communists and “whites”- counter revolutionists

65 Civil War Allies intervened
Allies hoped the whites would overthrow the communists and support the fight against Germany Britain, France, and US sent forces to help the Whites Reds appealed to nationalism and urged Russians to drive out the foreigners

66 War Under Communism Communists used terror not only against Whites and to control own people Organized the Cheka- secret police Cheka executed ordinary citizens Communists took over banks, mines, factories, and railroads This type of communism is called “war communism”

67 War Under Communism Commissars- communist party officials assigned to the army to teach party principles and ensure party loyalty

68 Building Communist Soviet Union
1922- Lenin’s Communist government united much of the old Russian empire into the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR) Had a constitution that was democratic and socialist All political power, resources, and means of production belonged to workers and peasants Factory and mine output had fallen Peasants stopped producing grain- government only seized it

69 New Economic Policy Lenin
Control of banks, foreign trade, and large industries, small businesses were allowed to reopen for private profit Government stopped taking grain Standard of living improved under the NEP

70 Stalin Takes Over Lenin died Stalin took over
Stalin used ruthless measures to win dictatorial power

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