INDONESIA INFRASTRUCTURE INITIATIVE IndII T Integrated Urban Road Safety Program (IURSP) Workshop 2 – Denpasar, Bali January, 2015 Urban Environmental & Planning Considerations Dr. A.G. Tony McDonald VicRoads International Projects IndII Activity T Denpasar 22 January, 2014
2 This Presentation 1. Environmental Perspective & Sustainability. 2. Site Specific Issues. 3. Broader Planning Issues 4. Next steps from the Environmental Perspective
3 Environmental Perspective? What is it & how to establish?/maintain it. Dynamic – Constant Physical changes. Quality of the elements. Human in Scale. Access for people Safety Amenity.
4 Environmental Perspective? What is it – how to establish / maintain it.
5 Environmental Perspective: Sustainability Simple principle: Everything needed for survival and well-being depends directly or indirectly on our natural environment. Sustainability creates and maintains the conditions under which humans and nature can exist in productive harmony. Facilitates social, economic and other requirements/needs of present and future generations. Sustainability is important to making sure that we have and will continue to have the water, materials and resources to protect human health and the environment.
6 Define - “Sustainable Urban Environment”
7 Define - “Three Spheres of Sustainability”
8 4. Sustainability; what is it – how to establish / maintain it.
9 2. Site Specific Issues Water; surface, storm, groundwater; hygiene / ecology. Vegetation; trees, biodiversity; habitat, Amenity; hardworks & softworks to achieve quality human-scale places” (Recreational public open space, Shade, lighting, safety, fencing, seating, shelter, quality sidewalks). Bandung, Denpasar, Medan, Pekanbaru Air; Air quality – so people can breathe!
10 Kota Visits - What did we see? The situations we have seen are typical of cities which have had rapid population growth, rapid adoption of motorised vehicles, and limited resources to address many issues. Planning – Policy – Resources – Skills – Supply Driven
11 2. Site Specific Issues; Denpasar Over Time establish what is negotiable – what is not! Pedestrian Sidewalks Shade Amenity Water quality? Transport Commerce Economic Pedestrian Safety Solid Waste Management Zoss Demand driven rather than supply driven elements.
12 Rivers & Water / Stormwater & Flooding Civilization’s greatest cities born around rivers – Rivers & water critical urban landscape elements. Storm Water: Build-up of sealed surfaces in cities accelerates incidence & size of urban storm water drainage.
13 Rivers & Water This represents a shift in human awareness – one critical for creating vibrant urban waterways. Global water theme in smart cities = no such thing as wastewater. Water can be harvested for reuse (using hi-tech or low-tech systems), retained, filtered & recycled through reed beds to percolate back into groundwater systems. Minimise pollution & maximise recycling
14 Best Regional Practice – Singapore Singapore (2006) initiated program to transform Singapore’s network of drains, canals and reservoirs beyond traditional functions of drainage, flood control and water storage into clean streams, rivers and lakes. Well-integrated blue-green network with adjacent land developments, creating new community spaces and encouraging lifestyle activities. Alexander Canal Linear Park, Singapore
15 Storm water Goals of urban planning should include increasing water cleanliness & sub-surface percolation rates. Storm water management is supported by increasing vegetation. Tree canopy also generates comfortable & accessible space and greater opportunity for percolation into sub-surface.
16 Urban Vegetation / Trees Trees provide critical biophysical functions (photosynthesis) as well as amenity (the pleasantness of a place), mitigating urban heat sink and managing surface water flows. Trees which can establish quickly to provide shade, amenity, elegance and unique qualities to the streetscape has a high value in the urban tropics, particularly where they are planned and maintained well. Trees: Mitigating the heat sink; Urban areas without trees can become heat islands.
17 Urban Trees Trees soften city’s hard edges and surfaces, shade homes and streets, enhance neighbourhood beauty, filter the air, mitigate storm runoff, and absorb carbon dioxide. Position, height & maintenance of all urban vegetation requires careful consideration, conformity with guidelines on sight lines so as to not be traffic or safety risk problem. Dedicated resources required for on-going systematic maintenance programs.
18 Amenity: Quality Sidewalks = safer for people High value placed upon continuous, well planned & safe sidewalks with no obstructions incorporating good construction & long lasting materials. Communities become safer as more people walk, bike and use public space. People attract people: Generating space for people to meet, trade, recreate & exercise stimulates the vibrant and essential qualities of urban space. For example - street Hawkers area an integral part of night-time markets in this region. In the wrong locations they can cause safety problems.
20 3 Broader Planning Issues International Decade of Road Safety - much can be achieved. All global cities have faced ‘environmental’ difficulties. All cities are learning how to improve the statistics, and Improving the environment is but one element. Road Safety an excellent starting point to mobilize all. Indonesians rank among those with the greatest desire to own an automobile — a perceived success symbol (Jakarta Post 19/04/2014). 91 percent of non- car owners in Indonesia believe it’s embarrassing not to own a car. This figure is far higher than that in other Southeast Asian economies, such as Malaysia (33 percent), Thailand (21 percent) and the Philippines (21 percent). Environment a cross-cutting ongoing issue which requires appropriate planning, implementation and maintenance.
21 Space required to transport same number of passengers by car, bus or bicycle. Bus? Bicycle?Car?
22 Planning so environment fits? Vision: Ultimately, the term urban environment concerns the people in your community engaged in stewardship and an agreed vision! Statements regarding appearance, cleanliness and amenity for people are included in at least three of the four proposals we received for the IURSP. The Vision of what you as decision makers want at Kota / Street level is important; Summarized as an environmentally healthy urban area where road safety is improved! To achieve the vision requires strategic steps over time, and to be a success, the vision will need ‘ownership’ across all the community. IURSP is not involved with environmental work but you will, I expect, see the link between the environmental vision, and the urban planning that is needed to achieve sustainable goals.
23 Summary: Improved urban environmental amenity & road safety are not impossible goals. Experience from developed countries is that ways of improving both are known but are not simple nor straightforward to implement, require time (generations), resources, change in culture and commitment to implement. Decision-making with community is important - pedestrians, traders, local Kota groups, etc - often for differing reasons; start local and build. Addressing multiple aspects of urban mobility, improving amenity and quality of life issues requires long term strategies. Imagining the city in 10 to 20 years is an exciting prospect. Smaller cities like Pekanbaru, Medan, Denpasar and Bandung have great opportunities.
24 Environmental perspectives - Next steps In preparation for Workshop 2 in January, it was suggested that each Kota could being to consider the following. Analysis & simple documentation of water/drainage issues - Storm water improvement strategy. Tree Survey & urban tree planting strategy. A reference file on significant Urban trees. Develop a draft environmental strategy, planning, design, implementation, assessment, repeat…. Survey those who use the road safety area?
25 Summary 1. Next steps from the Environmental Perspective. Forum – Environmental NGO Community contributions to a RS Forum. Survey of users from various environmental perspectives Base line data and establish key indicators; surface water, trees (Quality and Quantity), amenity. Ongoing site monitoring to improve.