Austria-Hungary –Afraid of the growing power of Serbs –Some Austrians want war w/Serbs Archduke Franz Ferdinand refuses Serbia… –Hates A-H –Hates Ferdinand too –Still wants B&H Another war is almost inevitable
Sarajevo, Bosnia and Herzegovina Archduke Francis Ferdinand is assassinated by the Black Hand, a nationalistic terrorist group June 28, 1914…of all days
Last member of the 7 Black Hand members to accomplish the mission
1.To suppress any publication which incites to hatred and contempt of the Austrian Monarchy; 2.To dissolve immediately the society styled Narodna Odbrana (National Defense), and to proceed in the same manner against the other societies which engage in propaganda against Austria; 3.To eliminate without delay from public instruction in Serbia, both as regards the teaching body and the methods of instruction, all that serves or might serve to foment propaganda against Austria-Hungary; 4.To remove from the military service and the administration in general all officers guilty of propaganda against Austria-Hungary, names of which were to be provided by the Austro-Hungarian government; 5.To accept the collaboration in Serbia of organs of the Austro-Hungarian government in the suppression of the subversive movement directed against the territorial integrity of the monarchy; 6.To begin a judicial inquiry against the accessories to the plot of June 28th who are on Serbian territory, with organs delegated by the Austro-Hungarian government participating in the investigation; 7.To immediately arrest two named persons implicated by the preliminary investigation undertaken by Austria-Hungary; 8.To prevent by effective measures the cooperation of Serbia in the illicit traffic in arms and explosives across the frontier; 9.To furnish Austria-Hungary with explanations regarding statements from high Serbian officials both in Serbia and abroad, who have expressed hostility towards Austria-Hungary; and 10.To notify Austria-Hungary without delay of the execution of these measures.
6.The [Serbian] Government considers it its duty as a matter of course to begin an investigation against all those persons who have participated in the outrage of June 28th and who are in its territory. As far as the cooperation in this investigation of specially delegated officials of the [Austro-Hungarian] Government is concerned, this cannot be accepted, as this is a violation of the constitution and of criminal procedure. –July 25, 1914 “…the reply [by Serbia] amounted to a capitulation in the humblest style, and with it there disappeared all reason for war.”
Austria-Hungary declares war on Serbia –July 28, 1914 –Austria-Hungary = 1 st …
Germany!!! –Upholds what alliance? Who does not back up Austria- Hungary? –Italy…(?)
Why? –Pan-Slavism!! Russia asks A-H to soften up on Serbia –A-H says no This all happens the same day!
Read the primary source letters btwn 6.Germany says… –MYOB to Russia 7.What does Russia do? –MOBILIZES its Troops!!! What does mean?
What are your options if you are Kaiser Wilhelm II? 8.What does he do? –Declares War on Russia on Aug 1, 1914 What did Mobilization mean to him? Could Russia stop mobilizing?
Why? What happens next? –Germany says MYOB to France –France says no…
Germany declares war on France on Aug 3, 1914 –Say that France bombed a German city already France declares war on Germany Aug 4
Analyze the goal of the Schlieffen plan and the execution of it Evaluate the causes and conditions of trench warfare
German offensive plan to win WWI and the 2-front war Attack France first with overwhelming encirclement force Attack slower Russia second
Alfred von Schlieffen –1833-1913 Made in 1906… One of most debated plans in history –Encirclement has a successful track record
34 Divisions = 680,000 troops –31 vs France –3 vs Russia (slow to mobilize) France in middle…not ready (Plan 17) 39 days!!! –Why is that a problem?
Belgians fought hard against Germans –Civilians shooting at Germans… Many German casualties –One other big impact… Belgium destroyed Dixmude
August 25, Destruction of Louvain, Belgium Civilians shooting at Germans Germans kill Belgian civilians –Break international laws University Library (Ren and Gothic texts), Church of St. Pierre destroyed Someone is MAD!!!
Battle of the Marne –Germans lost too many men along the way…think about it –French pleas to GB work (more men!!) –Crazy taxi stories Respect Belgium!! Now what?