Presentation on theme: "AMERICAN HISTORY. BLOCKADE RUNNERS In the beginning “running” the Union blockade was fairly easy By 1862 the Union controlled most southern ports."— Presentation transcript:
BLOCKADE RUNNERS In the beginning “running” the Union blockade was fairly easy By 1862 the Union controlled most southern ports because they had more ships Most attempts made at night with no light Ships would burn anthracite coal that produced no smoke
Southern ships were loaded with cotton and dropped off in Bermuda and then it was exported to Europe A successful voyage through the blockade would result in $5,000 for the captain and $250 for each crew member THE MONITOR AND THE MERRIMAC South repaired the USS Merrimac that had been capture from the north and covered it with thick iron plates
They renamed the Merrimac the Virginia The north then created their on ironclad named the USS Monitor It arrived off the Virginia coast on March 9, 1862 The two ships fought for hours but neither was seriously damaged Engine troubles forced the Virginia to return to port The south sunk the Virginia to keep the north from capturing it.
CONFEDERATE RAIDERS Confederate leaders paid for the construction of 29 ships that roamed the seas disrupting northern trade CSS Alabama caused enormous damage to Union trade—68 ships captured in 22 months CSS Shenandoah captured 36 ships
CALIFORNIA AND THE TERRITORIES 1861-Kansas admitted as a free state Dakota, Colorado, and Nevada territories added 1864—Congress created Idaho, Arizona, and Montana territories Lincoln appointed pro-union leaders in these territories to secure the west for the Union.
Lincoln did not enforce the draft or pressure the west for military volunteers 17,000 Californians joined the Union army Main California contribution was gold to help pay for the war effort Confederates soldiers marched north out of Texas trying to capture valuable mines
They were stopped in the Battle of Glorieta Pass. The Confederates actually won the battle but their supply wagons were destroyed so they had to retreat. NATIVE AMERICANS AND THE WAR 10,000+ Native Americans participated Battle of Pea Ridge—largest battle west of the Mississippi River—Arkansas March 1862
1,000 native Americans were part of the 14,000 Confederate troops Union army won the battle Indian troops were commanded by Cherokee leader STAND WATIE fought bravely and Watie was promoted to General (the only Native American so honored)
THE BATTLE OF CHANCELLORVILLE General Joseph Hooker now in command of the Union Army of the Potomac 40,000 Union men left at Fredericksburg to keep Lee’s attention 70,000 Union men marched south and west to try to surprise the Confederates(map p. 383) Lee ordered his troops to light many campfires to fool the Union into thinking the southern force was larger than it really was
Lee sent Stonewall Jackson and 30,000 troops on a day-long march around Hooker’s troops 6 pm May 2, 1863—Jackson’s troops stormed out of the woods and totally surprised Hooker Hooker’s troops would have been destroyed if darkness hadn’t halted the fighting
The Battle of Chancellorsville lasted 2 more days before Hooker retreated Casualties—North 17,000; South—13,000 This was Lee’s greatest and most brilliant victory He defeated a force twice his size Anti-war Copperheads used this battle to say the war couldn’t be won. Lee thought the time was right to invade the union again.
THE BATTLE OF GETTYSBURG (p. 384) June 1863—Lee marches his army north Hooker proved indecisive and Lincoln replaced him with Gen. George Meade A confederate general heard a rumor that there were many pairs of shoes in Gettysburg and his troops needed them badly July 1, 1863—a small group of Confederate troops entered Gettysburg
The confederates encountered Union forces and a skirmish broke out Both sides rushed reinforcements to the area By early afternoon—24,000 confederates and 19,000 union troops involved At the end of the day the north had been pushed back into the hills south of town Lee and Meade arrived that night
Longstreet urged Lee to withdraw and fight the battle in a different location Lee—”The enemy is there and I intend to attack him there” July 2—Some of the bloodiest fighting of the entire war July 3—Confederates used a great artillery duel to try to soften up the Union lines
The thunder of guns was heard 200 miles away in Pittsburgh Lee ordered General George Pickett & 15,000 men to charge the enemy lines Less then ½ returned Lee ordered Pickett to prepare for a counter attack Pickett responded “I have no division” Lee finally realized “It’s all my fault. It is I who lost this fight” To be continued…