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AMERICAN HISTORY.  BLOCKADE RUNNERS  In the beginning “running” the Union blockade was fairly easy  By 1862 the Union controlled most southern ports.

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Presentation on theme: "AMERICAN HISTORY.  BLOCKADE RUNNERS  In the beginning “running” the Union blockade was fairly easy  By 1862 the Union controlled most southern ports."— Presentation transcript:


2  BLOCKADE RUNNERS  In the beginning “running” the Union blockade was fairly easy  By 1862 the Union controlled most southern ports because they had more ships  Most attempts made at night with no light  Ships would burn anthracite coal that produced no smoke

3  Southern ships were loaded with cotton and dropped off in Bermuda and then it was exported to Europe  A successful voyage through the blockade would result in $5,000 for the captain and $250 for each crew member  THE MONITOR AND THE MERRIMAC  South repaired the USS Merrimac that had been capture from the north and covered it with thick iron plates

4  They renamed the Merrimac the Virginia  The north then created their on ironclad named the USS Monitor  It arrived off the Virginia coast on March 9, 1862  The two ships fought for hours but neither was seriously damaged  Engine troubles forced the Virginia to return to port  The south sunk the Virginia to keep the north from capturing it.

5  CONFEDERATE RAIDERS  Confederate leaders paid for the construction of 29 ships that roamed the seas disrupting northern trade  CSS Alabama caused enormous damage to Union trade—68 ships captured in 22 months  CSS Shenandoah captured 36 ships

6  CALIFORNIA AND THE TERRITORIES  1861-Kansas admitted as a free state  Dakota, Colorado, and Nevada territories added  1864—Congress created Idaho, Arizona, and Montana territories  Lincoln appointed pro-union leaders in these territories to secure the west for the Union.

7  Lincoln did not enforce the draft or pressure the west for military volunteers  17,000 Californians joined the Union army  Main California contribution was gold to help pay for the war effort  Confederates soldiers marched north out of Texas trying to capture valuable mines

8  They were stopped in the Battle of Glorieta Pass.  The Confederates actually won the battle but their supply wagons were destroyed so they had to retreat.  NATIVE AMERICANS AND THE WAR  10,000+ Native Americans participated  Battle of Pea Ridge—largest battle west of the Mississippi River—Arkansas March 1862

9  1,000 native Americans were part of the 14,000 Confederate troops  Union army won the battle  Indian troops were commanded by Cherokee leader STAND WATIE fought bravely and Watie was promoted to General (the only Native American so honored)

10  THE BATTLE OF CHANCELLORVILLE  General Joseph Hooker now in command of the Union Army of the Potomac  40,000 Union men left at Fredericksburg to keep Lee’s attention  70,000 Union men marched south and west to try to surprise the Confederates(map p. 383)  Lee ordered his troops to light many campfires to fool the Union into thinking the southern force was larger than it really was

11  Lee sent Stonewall Jackson and 30,000 troops on a day-long march around Hooker’s troops  6 pm May 2, 1863—Jackson’s troops stormed out of the woods and totally surprised Hooker  Hooker’s troops would have been destroyed if darkness hadn’t halted the fighting

12  The Battle of Chancellorsville lasted 2 more days before Hooker retreated  Casualties—North 17,000; South—13,000  This was Lee’s greatest and most brilliant victory  He defeated a force twice his size  Anti-war Copperheads used this battle to say the war couldn’t be won.  Lee thought the time was right to invade the union again.

13  THE BATTLE OF GETTYSBURG (p. 384)  June 1863—Lee marches his army north  Hooker proved indecisive and Lincoln replaced him with Gen. George Meade  A confederate general heard a rumor that there were many pairs of shoes in Gettysburg and his troops needed them badly  July 1, 1863—a small group of Confederate troops entered Gettysburg

14  The confederates encountered Union forces and a skirmish broke out  Both sides rushed reinforcements to the area  By early afternoon—24,000 confederates and 19,000 union troops involved  At the end of the day the north had been pushed back into the hills south of town  Lee and Meade arrived that night

15  Longstreet urged Lee to withdraw and fight the battle in a different location  Lee—”The enemy is there and I intend to attack him there”  July 2—Some of the bloodiest fighting of the entire war  July 3—Confederates used a great artillery duel to try to soften up the Union lines

16  The thunder of guns was heard 200 miles away in Pittsburgh  Lee ordered General George Pickett & 15,000 men to charge the enemy lines  Less then ½ returned  Lee ordered Pickett to prepare for a counter attack  Pickett responded “I have no division”  Lee finally realized “It’s all my fault. It is I who lost this fight”  To be continued…

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