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UNIT 7 THE BODY. I. The human body plan Body Tissue – Collection of cells that work together to perform a particular function – 4 Main Types 1.Muscle.

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Presentation on theme: "UNIT 7 THE BODY. I. The human body plan Body Tissue – Collection of cells that work together to perform a particular function – 4 Main Types 1.Muscle."— Presentation transcript:


2 I. The human body plan Body Tissue – Collection of cells that work together to perform a particular function – 4 Main Types 1.Muscle 2.Nervous 3.Epithelial 4.Connective

3 1. Muscle Tissue Cells that can contract – 3 types 1.Skeletal: moves bone *voluntary* 2.Smooth: uncontrolled movements *invol* Ex: movement of food 3.Cardiac: heart muscle *invol*

4 2. Nervous Tissue Cells receive and transmit messages Makes up the brain, spinal cord, and nerves Also in some sensory organs

5 3. Epithelial Tissue Layer of cells that line or cover all internal and external body surface Various thicknesses Skin: layer of dead cells

6 4. Connective Tissue Binds, supports, and protects structures in the body Most abundant and diverse – Ex: bone, cartil., tendons, fat, blood, lymph Matrix: intercellular substance; solid, semisolid, liquid

7 II. Organs and Organ Systems Body Cavities – Protect delicate internal organs from injury – 4 Main body Cavities 1.Cranial: encases brain 2.Spinal: surrounds spinal cord 3.Thoracic: heart, esophagus, and respiratory organs 4.Abdominal: digestive, reproduct, excretory organs Diaphragm: muscle that separates thoracic and abdom

8 I. Skeletal System About 206 bones Axial Skeleton: skull, ribs, spine, sternum Appendicular skeleton: arms, legs, scapula, clavicle, pelvis Function 1.Rigid frame work 2.Store minerals for metabolic process 3.Produce RBS and some WBC

9 II. Bone Structure (206) Makes up less than 20% of body mass Moist living tissue 1.Periosteum: tough membrane, covers bones surface; contains vessels and nerves 2.Compact bone: hard material, thicker layer Osteocytes: living bone cells – Osteoblasts: bone forming – Osteoclasts: bone destroying (Allow to Grow)

10 3.Spongy Bone: hard and strong Bone marrow: – Red: produce RBC – Yellow: fat cells (nrg reserve); can be converted to RBC Fracture: if circul is maintained and periosteum survives healing will occur

11 III. Joints Where 2 bones meet 3 types of joints 1.Fixed 2.Semimovable 3.Moveable (most)

12 1. Fixed Prevents movement – In the skull

13 2. Semimovable Limited movement – Vertebrae, ribs

14 3. Movable (most) Hinge joint – Move forward and backward. Ex: elbow, knee Ball-and-Socket – Move up, down, forward, backward, rotate in circle. Ex: shoulder Pivot joint – Side to side, “yes, no” Ex: top 2 vert Saddle Joint – Rotate and grasp Ex: ankle

15 III. Joints - continued Joint Structure – Ligaments: holds bone to bone (LBB) – Synovial fluid: lubric substance helps protect the ends of the bones from damage by function – Arthritis: painful, swollen joints 1.Rheumatoid arthritis: immune syst attacks body 2.Osteoarthritis: degen joint disease

16 Bone Test Phalanges Carpal Metacarpal Sternum Xiphoid process Costal Cartilage Calcaneus Talus Femur Tibia Fibula Radius Ulna Tarsals Patella Scapula Clavicle Humerus Metatarsal

17 Bone Test - Continued Coccyx Ilium Pubis Ischium Sacrum Foramen magnum Temporal bone Maxilla Mandible Zygomatic bone Frontal Bone Nasal Bone Mastoid Process Occipital Bone Parietal

18 Ligaments Test Ankle / high ankle Anterior talofibular ligament Tibiofibular ligament Knee Anterior Cruciate Lig. (ACL) Posterior Cruciate Lig. (PCL) Tibial Collateral Lig. Fibular Collateral Lig. Lateral meniscus Medial meniscus

19 I. Muscular System 1/3 of weight (33%)

20 II. Muscular Movement of Bones Tendon: attach muscle to bone (TMB) Origin: point where muscle attaches to the bone “Stationary” ex: scapula Insertion: point where muscle attaches to the bone “moving” ex: forearm Muscles arranged in opposing pairs – Flexor – Extensor Move bones by pulling (sarcomere shortens in length)

21 III. Muscular Fatigue Physiological inability of a muscle to contract Nrg – Glucose, glycogen, fat Fatigue 1.Glycogen is converted into lactic acid 2.As the acid accumulates pH lowers 3.Muscle loses ability to contract

22 Muscle TEST Trapezius Gastrocnemius Gluteus Maximus Latissimus dorsi Deltoid Biceps brachii Triceps brachii Pectoralis major Rhomboid Iliacus Internal Intercostals Rectus abdominis External oblique Diaphragm Sternocleidomastoid Sartorius Biceps femoris Soleus Rectus femoris Masseter

23 I. Integumentary System Skin, hair, nails 1.Protect body from outside world 2.Retain body fluids 3.Protect against disease 4.Eliminate waste 5.Regulate body temp

24 A. Skin One of the largest organs 2 layers 1.Epidermis 2.Dermis

25 1. Epidermis Outer layer of skin Mostly dead cells Keratin: protein, gives skin rough, leathery, waterproof quality Melanin: brown pigment – Absorbs harmful UV radiation – Amounts depend on 2 factors (heredity, UV exposure) – Increase is a response to injury by UV – UV can damage DNA and lead to skin cancer

26 2. Dermis Inner layer of skin Living cells and specialized structures 1.Sensory neurons 2.Blood vessels 3.Muscle fibers - - “Goose bumps” Hair rise to look bigger Increase amount of air between hairs to increase body temp

27 4.Glands Sweat: cool body Oil: soften skin, water proofing 5.Fat (right below dermis) Nrg reserve Protective layer insulation

28 3. Nails and Hair Nails – Composed mostly of keratin – 1 mm / wk – Shape, structure, and appearance may be an indicator of disease or poisoning Hair – Protect and insulates body – Produced by Hair follicles – Dead keratin filled cells – Oil is secreted to keep hair from drying out – Hair color: melanin “hereditary”

29 4. Glands Sweat: cooling system by evapor Oil: – Sebum: prevents water loss, moistens skin and hair, mildly toxic to bacteria

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