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Current Theories CHS 165 Hi Guys I have included several tasks within the presentation for you to complete individually. Once complete save the power point.

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Presentation on theme: "Current Theories CHS 165 Hi Guys I have included several tasks within the presentation for you to complete individually. Once complete save the power point."— Presentation transcript:

1 Current Theories CHS 165 Hi Guys I have included several tasks within the presentation for you to complete individually. Once complete save the power point and send to me via email

2 Reading material/Task Hand your pre prepared questions to a partner in the group. Use the reading material given in previous session to answer the questions. Discuss your ideas and findings with your partner. What did you find difficult and why? What have you learnt and how will you use this new information in your practice? Produce a short summary on a slide which answers the two questions above.

3 I felt the information was too much all at once and found it hard to take in. After highlighting and breaking the information down in the margin it was easier to digest. I have learnt some new vocabulary after underlining and researching using a dictionary and have been able to add some new theorists to our handout.

4 Aims Review previous learning- The development of the brain in relation to cognitive development Explore and evaluate current theory/ Brain based learning/ Howard Goleman etc LO3(effective approach to promote learning development – thinking and creativity) Review and share research and thinking on current theory. Relate theory to activities and practice Identify, devise and evaluate an activity plan

5 Thinking, brain and body From early infancy the structure and connections of the brain are sculpted by a number of environmental and biological influences. Learning and memory are not limited to a single neural system or a single process. There are multiple memory systems spread out in different brain areas, with pathways that can interconnect them in diverse and even individual ways. Those areas of the brain that provide executive functions are the last to mature, usually not until early adulthood. Executive functions become progressively interconnected with the knowledge domains for facts, figures, words and images (the “what” and “where aspects of knowledge) for purposes of how, why and when utilize such knowledge for goal-directed purposes. executive functions is developing the mental models of these “how,” “why,” and “when” processes. The earliest elements of executive functions begin in parent-child interactions.

6 Executive functions are shaped by many educational influences and comprise a set of skills and knowledge. The earliest elements of executive functions begin in parent-child interactions, expand greatly in play, and are thought to blossom in more independent and complex academic, social and recreational activities Paul J. Eslinger (2000) Children who experience high stress or abuse may develop adaptive responses characterized by fear, high arousal and anxiety, and have difficulty developing emotional responses that are more calm and controlled. Parents and caregivers should take steps to create a safe environment. Brain research has shown that too much stress early in life can affect development negatively. For example, stress and trauma can cause elevated levels of cortisol, a brain chemical, to be released in the brain. This can make the brain vulnerable to processes that destroy brain cells, reduce the number of connections in certain parts of the brain, and cause regions of the brain that regulate emotional response and attachment to be smaller than normal.

7 Brain Based learning Brain-Based learning is an approach to instruction based on how current research in neuroscience suggests our brain learns naturally (Spears & Wilson, 2009).

8 Research/ Task Research and produce several slides to show; 1.What are the 12 mind Principles of brain based learning? 2.What are the 3 instructional techniques that go with brain based learning? You may use imagery also.

9 12 mind principles of brain based learning The 12 brain/mind learning principles were first published in Educational Leadership in 1989 to explain how people learn naturally. They provided the foundations for what was called brain based learning. We now call them systems principles of natural learning. They are based on the fact that natural learning is biological as well as psychological, and that every aspect of a human being - including body, emotions, mind, social relationships and physical context is involved in learning. The principles were developed by synthesizing and integrating research from many different disciplines, ranging from neuroscience to cognitive psychology. They show that there are actually several different types of learning, and different types of learning outcomes. There are differences, for instance, between: rote memorization for surface knowledge; problem solving for intellectual understanding and technical/scholastic knowledge; and learning from experience that produces a "feel" for things and results in performance knowledge. The principles were developed in much more detail, with implications for teaching, in the Caines' best selling book Making Connections: Teaching and the Human Brain (ASCD, 1991). The principles have been used extensively throughout the world, at all levels of education, ranging from the classroom to distict offices to universities to serving as foundational material for state documents. The problem is that the education system pays almost no attention to how natural learning works, and so it relies on some very limited capacities (like memorization) but overlooks almost everything else that is going on in a student’s world. Educators need to know how people learn naturally. Our brain/mind learning principles provide that foundation. They are true to the research while expressed in a form that is practical and easy to understand. ng.html

10 3 Instructional Techniques Orchestrated immersion– Creating learning environments that fully immerse students in an educational experience Relaxed alertness–Trying to eliminate fear in learners, while maintaining a highly challenging environment Active processing–Allowing the learner to consolidate and internalize information by actively processing it

11 Establishing a Brain-based Curriculum Absence of threat This is at the top of the priority list because absence of threat at school is the keystone for brain-based education. If the brain feels threatened – whether real or perceived – the emotional center of the brain (Limbic system/brain stem) will short-circuit learning. How do we eliminate threat? Think about your identified activities?

12 Stress and learning The brain responds best in conditions of high challenge with low stress, where there is learner choice and regular and educative feedback.. The enemy of learning is stress. The optimal conditions for learning include a positive learning attitude where challenge is high and anxiety and self- doubt is low.’ (Alistair Smith 1998, p41)

13 When the brain changes with your mood, it is not just how you feel that alters. The whole functioning of your brain is changed. In a happy mood, for instance, you are actually better at solving intellectual and practical problems. Ian Robertson - Mind Sculpture

14 Research/Task Daniel Goleman 1995 What is Golemans theory on emotional intelligence? Produce two or more power point slides to follow after this one to explain the theory to your class peers?

15 Daniel Goleman Emotional Intelligence, as a psychological theory, was developed by Peter Salovey and John Mayer.Peter SaloveyJohn Mayer "Emotional intelligence is the ability to perceive emotions, to access and generate emotions so as to assist thought, to understand emotions and emotional knowledge, and to reflectively regulate emotions so as to promote emotional and intellectual growth."- Mayer & Salovey, 1997 The following steps describe the five components of emotional intelligence at work, as developed by Daniel Goleman. Goleman is a science journalist who brought "emotional intelligence" on the bestseller list and has authored a number of books on the subject, including "Emotional Intelligence," "Working With Emotional Intelligence," and, lately, of "Social Intelligence: The New Science of Human Relationships."Daniel Golemannumber of booksSocial Intelligence: The New Science of Human Relationships An article on the relation between Goleman and the psychological research communitiy appeared in Salon, on June 28, 1999.Salon, on June 28, 1999

16 The Five Components of Emotional Intelligence Self-awareness. The ability to recognize and understand personal moods and emotions and drives, as well as their effect on others. Hallmarks* of self-awareness include self-confidence, realistic self- assessment, and a self-deprecating sense of humor. Self-awareness depend on one's ability to monitor one's own emotion state and to correctly identify and name one's one's emotions [*A hallmark is a sure sign: since self-awareness is necessary for, say, realistic self-assessment, that is, without self-awareness no realistic self-assessment, the presence of of realistic self-assessment is a sure sign (sufficient to conclude that there is) self-awareness.]necessary Self-regulation.The ability to control or redirect disruptive impulses and moods, and the propensity to suspend judgment and to think before acting. Hallmarks include trustworthiness and integrity; comfort with ambiguity; and openness to change. Self-regulation Internal motivation. A passion to work for internal reasons that go beyond money and status -which are external rewards, - such as an inner vision of what is important in life, a joy in doing something, curiosity in learning, a flow that comes with being immersed in an activity. A propensity to pursue goals with energy and persistence. Hallmarks include a strong drive to achieve, optimism even in the face of failure, and organizational commitment. Internal motivationexternal rewardsflow that comes with being immersed in an activityoptimism Empathy. The ability to understand the emotional makeup of other people. A skill in treating people according to their emotional reactions. Hallmarks include expertise in building and retaining talent, cross-cultural sensitivity, and service to clients and customers. (In an educational context, empathy is often thought to include, or lead to, sympathy, which implies concern, or care or a wish to soften negative emotions or experiences in others.) See also Mirror Neurons. It is important to note that empathy does not necessarily imply compassion. Empathy can be 'used' for compassionate or cruel behavior. Serial killers who marry and kill many partners in a row tend to have great emphatic skills! EmpathyMirror Neurons Social skills. Proficiency in managing relationships and building networks, and an ability to find common ground and build rapport. Hallmarks of social skills include effectiveness in leading change, persuasiveness, and expertise building and leading teams. Social skills


18 Guy Claxton Intuition- involves expertise, judgement, rumination sensitivity, creativity. Highlights the importance of allowing rumination (reflection)to develop perception and understanding. Pressure, anxiety and frustration affects performance.

19 Research Guy Claxton/Task What are the 4 rs involved in exercising the brain ? What are the 8 Building blocks for learning? Again produce two or more slides to show this information and also include imagery.

20 Guy Claxton Resilience: 'being ready, willing and able to lock on to learning'. Being able to stick with difficulty and cope with feelings such as fear and frustration. Resourcefulness: 'being ready, willing and able to learn in different ways'. Having a variety of learning strategies and knowing when to use them. Reflection: 'being ready, willing and able to become more strategic about learning'. Getting to know our own strengths and weaknesses. Relationships: 'being ready, willing and able to learn alone and with others'. learning-to-learn-1675

21 The 4 R`s

22 The 8 building blocks Curiosity – especially the ability to acquire a healthy scepticism Exploration – in particular when looking for solutions to problems Courage – of particular relevance when taking risks in learning Experimentation – especially the use of trial and error to find appropriate answers Imagination – so that learners can find creative breakthroughs Discipline – to provide a rigorous framework for learning success Sociability – in particular sharing ideas with others and listening to their views Thoughtfulness – ensuring that learners have time and space for more creative learning blocks-of-learning/

23 Homework task Find an article or piece of reading material on thinking skills and bring to class next week. Produce a short summary on the article that can be given out to your peers.

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