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VICTORY IN EUROPE AND THE PACIFIC (PART I) Chapter 15 Section 3.

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Presentation on theme: "VICTORY IN EUROPE AND THE PACIFIC (PART I) Chapter 15 Section 3."— Presentation transcript:

1 VICTORY IN EUROPE AND THE PACIFIC (PART I) Chapter 15 Section 3

2 PLANNING GERMANY’S DEFEAT Roosevelt, Churchill and Stalin argued over when they would start a second front in France Up until this point, Soviet troops had done most of the fighting in Europe Stalin insisted that Roosevelt and Churchill carry more of the military burden by attacking Germany in the west This would force Germany to divide its troops

3 PLANNING GERMANY’S DEFEAT Although Roosevelt sympathized with Stalin, Churchill was hesitant Churchill recalled the slaughter of British troops on the western front in WWI and did not want to see history repeat itself Eventually Churchill agreed and plans were made for US and British troops to invade France and begin their march toward Germany The massive Allied invasion of France was given the code name Operation Overlord

4 D-DAY INVASION OF NORMANDY Overlord required the most experienced Allied officers in Europe American General Dwight D. Eisenhower again served as Supreme Commander Overlord required landing 21American divisions and 26 British, Canadian and Polish divisions on a 50-mile stretch of beaches in Normandy, France The fleet was the largest assembled with more than 4,400 ships and landing crafts The planned set out to strike 5 beaches in Normandy (Utah, Omaha, Gold, Juno and Sword) The plan also involved elaborate deception

5 D-DAY INVASION OF NORMANDY The Allies created a fictional army under General Patton Although the army only existed on paper, the Allies set up fake headquarters in southeast England across the English Channel from Calais, France There were wood and cardboard tanks, useless ships and detectable radio traffic The Allies hoped to convince that the attack would come at Calais, not farther west in Normandy In the end, the deception worked and Hitler ordered his top tank division to Calais

6 D-DAY INVASION OF NORMANDY On June 6, 1944 – known as D-Day – The Allies hit German forces More than 11,000 planes prepared the way, hoping to destroy German communication and transportation networks and soften Nazi beach defenses At 6:30 am, the first Allied troops landed On four of the beaches, the landings were only lightly opposed and casualties were relatively low Omaha and Utah beaches were assigned to American forces, and the Germans there were ready to fight

7 D-DAY INVASION OF NORMANDY On the cliffs overlooking the beach, the Germans had dug trenches and built small structures from where heavy artillery could be fired The beach was covered with a variety of deadly guns and the beaches were heavily mined When the first American soldiers landed, they stepped into a rainstorm of bullets, shells and death Some boats dropped their occupants too far from the beach and soldiers weighted down by heavy packs, drowned One writer called D-Day “the longest day”

8 D-DAY INVASION OF NORMANDY By the end of the day, the Allies had gained an advantage in France Within a month, more than one million Allied troops had landed at Normandy Berlin, the capital of Germany, was their final destination and was still a long road ahead Look on page  Read “The Allies Land on D-Day”  Review the map and see where the beaches were located  Read the quotes from Thomas E. Herring and Jack Fox  Look at the photo on the top of page 485 and read “Why it Matters”  Think about your answer to the “Thinking Critically” question

9 LIBERATION OF EUROPE After D-Day, Germany faced a hopeless two-front war Soviet soldiers were advancing from the east, forcing German armies out of many areas in eastern Europe Allied armies were on the move in the west and in August 1944, they liberated Paris Hitler had ordered his generals to destroy the French capital, but they disobeyed, leaving the city as beautiful as ever – Parisians celebrated and Allied troops kept advancing As a mood of hopelessness fell over Germany, a plot was created to overthrow Hitler; however, the strategy failed and Hitler refused to surrender

10 LIBERATION OF EUROPE In December 1944 Hitler ordered a counterattack Hitler’s strategy called for English speaking German soldiers in US uniforms to cut telephone lines, change road signs and spread confusion German tanks would then secure communication and transportation hubs This counterattack was called the Battle of the Bulge, and it almost succeeded The Germans caught the Allies by surprise which created a bulge in the American line and captured several key towns (see map on page 486) American forces held on despite frostbite and brutal German assaults Finally, reinforcements arrived and the Allies were back on the offensive

11 LIBERATION OF EUROPE The Battle of the Bulge was a desperate attempt by the Germans to drive a wedge between American and British troops Instead, it crippled Germany by forcing them to use their reserves and it demoralized their troops It ultimately shortened the time that Hitler had left Once the Allies reached the Elbe River, 50 miles west of Berlin, they were in a position for an all-out assault against Hitler’s capital By this time, Hitler was a physical wreck; he was shaken by tremors, paranoid from drugs and kept alive only by mad dreams of a final victory

12 LIBERATION OF EUROPE He gave orders that no one followed and planned campaigns that no one would ever fight Finally, on April 30, he and a few of his closest associates committed suicide His “Thousand Year Reich” had lasted only 12 years On May 7, 1945 Germany surrendered Americans celebrated V-E (Victory in Europe) Day Unfortunately, FDR did not see this day….he had died a few weeks earlier President Harry S. Truman would be the one to see the nation through its final victory


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