Presentation on theme: "The Japanese Textbook Controversy By Rob Hamilton Anthony DiLullo James Kiernan."— Presentation transcript:
The Japanese Textbook Controversy By Rob Hamilton Anthony DiLullo James Kiernan
“the non-coverage--of Japanese wartime behavior in the country's history textbooks” This one (2001) is the third such controversy, previously similar situations occurred in 1982, and 1986.
Who’s Involved? The Ministry of Education (Japan)- The United Nations’ Human Rights Commission China & Korea- Both victims of some of Japan’s military aggression downplayed in textbooks.
Where the screening started. The current textbook authorization system began in 1947 under the direction of the U.S.-led Supreme Commander, Allied Powers (SCAP) authority during Japan's post-World War II occupation. SCAP ordered the provisional government of Japan to end the system of government-designated textbooks and allow scholars in the private sector to write textbooks. Local educators would then choose which textbooks to use at their schools. Descriptions that promoted militarism and ultranationalizm. The New School Education Law states that while the government sets a curriculum guideline, it is not meant to establish a fixed, uniform line for all educators to observe, like in the old militarist days, but rather to help educators to creatively adapt the curriculum to the new demands of children and society in general.
Two particular middle school textbooks that did not attempt to alter history required 127, and 99 revisions. While on average most submitted textbooks are required to make about 25 revisions on average. Things Omitted include Government sponsored war-time prostitution. military sex slavery Deaths in Nanjing Massacre. “word ‘aggression’ has been replaced with the term ‘advance’ in all the textbooks.” In reference to Japan. whitewashes the atrocities Japan committed against Korea, placing responsibility with the victim, Korea.
Relationship with Korea “recalling its ambassador and publicly reproaching Japan at the United Nations’ Human Rights Commission in Geneva. The turnaround by the Korean government was partly in response to anti-Japanese sentiments of the Korean …”. the National Assembly, taking into consideration the anti-Japanese sentiments of its constituents, has unanimously passed a resolution to annul the historic “Korea-Japan Joint Declaration of Partnership Towards the Twenty-first Century” Inaccuracies “Overemphasis of the ethnocentric perspective, and lack of objectivity of historical research.” “stressing glorification and idealization of Japan” takes a racist view, describing Japan as the vanguard force fighting on behalf of the yellow race against the white race.
"the views promoted by historical revisionists are by no means broadly accepted in Japanese society" (p. 127). According to many the textbooks unedited "neglected the culture and traditions that Japanese are duty bound to pass on to following generations" instead focusing on the negative actions by the military, and people. Surprisingly, this is based on public surveys. Within Japan’s borders. The Japanese presentation of the war to its children runs something like this: “One day, for no reason we ever understood, the Americans started dropping atomic bombs on us. "
Works Cited Ducke, Isa. Civil Society and the Internet in Japan (Routledge Contemporary Japan). New York: Routledge, Minear, Richard. "Support Statements of Nominators and Supporters," Nomination of Prof. Ienaga Saburo for Nobel Peace Prize. Kanji, Nishio. "Restoring Common Sense to the Teaching of History." Japan Echo (2001): 33. Saaler, Sven. Politics, Memory and Public Opinion: The History Textbook Controversy and Japanese Society. Munich: Iudicium, Schneider, Claudia. "IN THIS ISSUE: THE POLITICS OF HISTORY IN COMPARATIVE PERSPECTIVE: The Japanese History Textbook Controversy in East Asian Perspective." Ed. Martin O. Heisler. May & june Research Library. Lexisnexis. Pace, New York. 05 Mar Speech. Japanese Education and Society in Crisis. Pick Lounge, Ground Floor, University of Chicago, Chicago. May & june Won-deog, Lee. "A Normal State Without Remorse: The Textbook Controversy and Korea-Japan Relations." EAST ASIAN REVIEW 13 (2001):
Internet The free information on the internet allows people to obtain the information being omitted if they so choose. Organizations Children and Textbooks Japan Network 21 (1998) Lobbyist group supporting lawsuits against the government for their revisions. “They've led the fight against textbooks that reinterpret and soften Japan's role in World War II. “ Japanese Society for History Textbook Reform (1996)- Fought for reform of textbooks an in particular won 137 revisions in one textbook. Japan Echo- A journal in Japan that covers the controversy from an objective perspective One quote of note published is by Nishio Kanji stating "history stop being treated like a court in which the figures and actions of the past are called to judgment." Books The same governmental control does not extend beyond textbooks so there are regular books on the subject Sven Saaler- Head of Humanities at the German Institute for Japanese Studies in Tokyo. “Unveiling its backgrounds in politics and society, and by identifying the major actors and their respective motives and objectives" (p. 9).