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The most common form on English poetry is the iambic foot, consisting of an upbeat (weak) followed by an accent (strong).

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Presentation on theme: "The most common form on English poetry is the iambic foot, consisting of an upbeat (weak) followed by an accent (strong)."— Presentation transcript:

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4 The most common form on English poetry is the iambic foot, consisting of an upbeat (weak) followed by an accent (strong).

5 Lovelace states that iambic movement is stately and noble and it best used for those texts which are propositional in nature (exposition).

6 Trochaic is the reverse of iambic, consisting of an accent (strong) that is followed by an upbeat (weak).

7 Dactylic is quite rare in modern hymnody. Dactylic consists of one accent (strong) that is followed by two upbeats (weak). Dactylic is challenging to set due to the two final unaccented syllables.

8 Anapaestic is closely related to dactylic. It consists of a by two upbeats (weak) followed by one accent (strong). Anapaestic is often altered by shortening a foot somewhere in the line.

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18 In a four-line stanza, the best poets will have two pairs of rhymes— rhyming couplets or cross rhyme.

19 It takes more skill to rhyme all pairs of lines and it is obviously easier to only rhyme lines two and four. Many hymn writers take the “easy” way out.

20 A tercet is a three-lined stanza in which all the last words rhyme.

21 Internal rhyme is another poetic device as occasionally a poet finds it possible to break up a long verse into two rhyming parts. One example is a limerick.

22 Internal rhyme may be helpful to one’s memory, but it also runs the danger of making a text sound flippant.

23 Stanzas of more than four lines offer a number of possibilities in rhyming schemes.

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28 Long Meter ( ) The rhyme scheme is either aabb (rhyming couplets) or abab (cross rhyming). Rhyming couplets can be sing-songy and tend to give a false sense of completion at the end of line two. Cross-rhyming carries the singer along with a sense of expectancy, even a guessing, for the final two lines.

29 Long Meter ( ) Long meter, with eight syllables for each line of poetry, lends itself to majestic subjects and stately treatment of a topic. Here is the Latin hymn by Ambrose and its translation.

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31 Long Meter variants ( or ) Variants of Long Meter are six eight syllables, either with a rhyme scheme of ababcc or aabbcc and with a rhyme scheme of aabccb. This metrical form is of sufficient length that the hymn writer can present an idea and develop a thought.

32 Long Meter Double (LMD) ( ) Long Meter Double is eight eight-syllable lines: with a rhyme scheme of aabbccdd. Lovelace writes that this rhyme scheme is “just too long- winded to find much popularity with hymnal editors or congregations.”

33 Common Meter (CM) ( ) Common Meter is two eight- syllable lines and two six- syllable lines: with a rhyme scheme of aabb or abab. Lovelace writes that Common Meter is the “workhorse of hymnody.” In the Old English metrical psalters, it was the most “commonly” used meter since it resembled the popular ballad meter.

34 Common Meter (CM) and Common Meter Double (CMD) Since CM is so “common” it is a treacherously and deceptively easy meter for poets to use. It rises to great heights in the hands of careful poets who know how to use the changes of poetic devices to prevent monotony. Even more difficult to handle without flippancy and monotony is Common Meter Double (CMD) It can be used for strong texts if the tune is strong, e.g. KINGSFOLD 

35 Other meters Phillips Brooks uses a slight variation of CMD ( ) in “Old Little Town of Bethlehem.” Brooks skillfully uses inner rhyme in lines three and seven. Where Brooks is successful, a lesser poet would be in danger of flippancy created by this ballad meter and the limerick style of inner rhyme.

36 Other meters Closely related to CMD is D. It is, in one sense, a feminization of the stronger CMD. Yet many CMD tunes fit D metered texts equally well because both have a folksy, free-flowing style Instead of ending lines one and three with a strong beat, the last syllable is a falling one with the accent of CM missing: CM: strong weak strong : strong weak

37 Short Meter (SM) Short Meter was at one time called the poulter’s measure because of his custom of giving twelve eggs for the first dozen and then thirteen or fourteen on the second dozen. Short Meter is made of two couplets, the first with twelve syllables, the second with fourteen. Of the three chief meters of the English psalters (CM, LM, and SM), it stands last in usage. The few syllables give the hymn writer little time for developing a substantial thought.

38 Short Meter Double (SMD) Short Meter Double was a favorite meter of Charles Wesley. Half of the SMD hymns that appear in The Methodist Hymnal are by him. It is successfully used in “Crown Him With Many Crowns” by Matthew Bridges and in a new text in LSB by Herman Stuempfle: “O Christ, Who Called the Twelve” (LSB 856) set to the tune TERRA BEATA. abcbdefe

39 8’s and 6’s There are many ways to combine eights and sixes in addition to the basic Short, Common, and Long meters. Lovelace writes that while such combinations may cause problems from a tune standpoint, they all tend to have a “refreshingly unsquare” feeling. At one time such meters were called “Peculiar Meter.” known as Hallelujah Meter with a rhyme scheme of ababcc Note this interesting variation by Samuel Crossman:

40 8’s and 6’s F. Bland Tucker, translator and poet who helped edit The Hymnal 1940, has extended by adding one more line of 8: This is the same meter I chose for a hymn commissioned for the 2010 Michigan District LWML convention, a text called: “How Beautiful the Feet” also sung to the tune RHOSYMEDRE.

41 8’s and 6’s A variation of Common Meter adds two additional lines: 8 6 so that the new meter is In this example, the rhyme scheme is abcbdb

42 8’s and 6’s Another combination of 8’s and 6’s produces the new meter of found in LSB to a tune by Joseph Herl called KIRKWOOD. This was the meter and tune I chose for the baptism text written for our granddaughter Alina’s baptism, “Blest Be the Father of Our Lord,” when she was baptized on All Saints’ Day of 2009.

43 Other meters The meter of was used by Martin Rinkart for “Now Thank We All Our God.” The short lines, though unusual, work well. Rhyme scheme is abcbdefe

44 Other meters The meter of D is unusual and divides the twelve syllables into different patterns. Here is the doxological stanza from “The God of Abraham Praise” set to the tune YIGDAL. The third and seventh lines (of eight syllables) provide adequate space for the thought to gather momentum and end on the climactic and compact four- syllabled ideas. Rhyme scheme is ababcdcd

45 and Much like was created by dropping one syllable from lines one and three of Common Meter, so also is created by adding one syllable to lines two and four. Rhyme scheme is abab or abcb

46 and A typical German iambic meter is Like so much of German material, it can be classified as unsquare or asymmetrical in contrast to the balance of English hymnody. Rhyme scheme is ababccd

47 and Another German masterpiece is Luther’s “A Mighty Fortress.” The meter is A study of the music and text indicates that there is really only one musical phrase and long textual idea running for fifteen syllables before a point of rest is reached. The first two groups of 15 are the exposition of the idea; the other short phrases are “defiant jabs, ending with a good uppercut seven,” Rhyme scheme is ababccdde

48 can be called the meter of the 19 th century. Few are excellent hymns; most sound like poems that were set to tunes as an afterthought. Charles Wesley wrote many poems to this meter, but did not use it for any of his many hymns. The lines are too long, the thought process becomes too involved and the mind has long wandered before it reaches the end of the stanza. Two familiar hymns in this meter are “Here, O My Lord, I See Thee Face to Face” and “Abide With Me.”

49 is quite rare. We have only two examples in Lutheran Service Book: (LSB 752) “Be Still My Soul” and (LSB 747) “No Saint on Earth Lives Life to Self Alone.”

50 is another rare meter and in Lutheran Service Book there is one example that is listed as George Herbert’s classic text, “Let All the World in Every Corner Sing” is also written to this meter.

51 11 10 The meter is related to but has a feminine ending for lines one and three. The same problem previously noted for the 10’s apply here. Such long texts are often better suited to devotional poetry than hymnody. Note the “triple rhyme” in the first example, lines 1 and 3.

52 6 5 The discussion of iambic meters was long, because so many hymns are created with this meter of the “rising foot” (weak/strong). Trochaic meters are created with the meter of the “falling foot” (strong/weak). Iambic metered hymns urge the sound and sense onward to a final strong point of accent and thought. Trochaic meter is abrupt; it comes to the point immediately. It commands our attention. It is decisive!

53 D Trochaic suits the sense of urgency in “Onward, Christian Soldiers.” Lovelace believes that the “short lines sound as if they are being written down to children, yet with adult imperative pushiness.”

54 D Trochaic suits the pentatonic nature of the Chinese tune L’PING D has all masculine endings which adds to the rhythmic pattern of the text.

55 Sevens In one sense, can be considered a variation of Common Meter ( ) with one syllable removed from the start of line one and added to line two. Or it can be considered a variation of Long Meter ( ) with the upbeat omitted is by far the most common trochaic pattern. Charles Wesley’s Easter hymn, “Christ the Lord is Risen Today” has adequate room to express his ideas but retains the terseness of short lines and strong downbeats. Note the strong beginning words: Christ, Lives, Love’s Soar, Sons, Where, Fought, Raise…

56 D Among D hymns, not an easy meter as one needs to avoid monotony in rhythm and melody. Charles Wesley’s text “Jesus, Lover of My Soul” balances God’s strength and man’s need. Robert Grant’s “Savior, When in Dust to Thee” is another fine example of this meter.

57 D Six sevens is another popular trochaic meter for hymns. Consider these six-sevens hymn: “Rock of Ages, Cleft for Me,” “Christ, Whose Glory Fills the Skies,” and “Jesus, Lover of My Soul.”

58 D Here is an example of a that is trochaic and not iambic as one might expect: “Gentle Mary Laid Her Child.” While the four sevens provide strength and directness, the four sixes soften the text by ending on a weak pulse, adding a touch of gentleness.

59 D The trochaic pattern seems to invite some unusual metric designs that use inner rhyming. Consider this example also from the Christmas season.

60 and D The iambic pattern of : Where streams of living water flow, My ransomed soul He leadeth, And, where the verdant pastures grow With food celestial feedeth. differs from the trochaic pattern of and D:

61 The trochaic pattern of has the same general characteristics of strength. Because of the direct and terse nature of trochaics, few hymns are found with longer lines than 8’s and 7’s. The rhyme scheme of a b c b d b along with a tune that repeats the major theme in the second phrase with a climaxing third phrase all help to make the hymn strong and memorable.

62 Where a poet wished to cover ground rapidly, the movement needs to lighten, so they naturally to dactylic and anapestic.

63 Dactylic is quite rare in modern hymnody. Dactylic consists of one accent (strong) that is followed by two upbeats (weak). Dactylic is challenging to set due to the two final unaccented syllables.

64 Dactylic consists of one accent (strong) that is followed by two upbeats (weak).

65 Anapaestic is closely related to dactylic. It consists of a by two upbeats (weak) followed by one accent (strong). Anapaestic is often altered by shortening a foot somewhere in the line.

66 Anapaestic is closely related to dactylic. It consists of a by two upbeats (weak) followed by one accent (strong).

67 “Poetic devices are the sinew and muscle which surround the skeletal meter, but if the rippling muscles and effects are obvious and distracting, the cleverness of the poet kills the spiritual intent of the hymn.” Austin Lovelace

68 Allegory

69 Alliteration

70 Anadiplosis

71 Anaphora

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73 Antanaclasis

74 Antistrophe

75 Antithesis

76 Apostrophe

77 Chiasmus

78 Climax

79 Echphonesis

80 Epanadiplosis

81 Epimone

82 Epizeuxis

83 Hyperbole

84 Hypotyposis

85 Mesodiplosis

86 Metaphor

87 Metonymy

88 Oxymoron

89 Paradox

90 Parenthesis or a Dash

91 Personification

92 Rhetorical question

93 Simile

94 Synechdoche

95 Tautology


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