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The Basics of Nutrition.  “You are what you eat”  Food is your body’s fuel  Food is eaten ◦ It is broken down into simpler elements ◦ Energy is released.

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Presentation on theme: "The Basics of Nutrition.  “You are what you eat”  Food is your body’s fuel  Food is eaten ◦ It is broken down into simpler elements ◦ Energy is released."— Presentation transcript:

1 The Basics of Nutrition

2  “You are what you eat”  Food is your body’s fuel  Food is eaten ◦ It is broken down into simpler elements ◦ Energy is released and nutrients are used to help build, repair, and maintain body cells ◦ By-products are discarded as waste

3  These substances are best obtained from the food you eat  The body needs elements from all 6 groups in order to function properly and maintain good health ◦ Carbohydrates ◦ Fats ◦ Proteins ◦ Vitamins ◦ Minerals ◦ Water

4  Where do they fit? ◦ Nectarine ◦ Wheat bread ◦ Trail mix ◦ Water  Why wouldn’t an unlimited supply of only one of these foods sustain life?

5  I know, I know – who wants to learn chemistry in HCR???  To understand the basics of nutrition, there has to be some understanding of basic chemistry – SORRY!  No worries – we won’t get too crazy with it

6  Your body and the foods you eat are composed of chemical elements  Elements are the simplest substances from which all matter is formed ◦ An atom is the smallest part of an element  A molecule is the smallest amount of a substance that has all the characteristics of the substance ◦ Molecules are 2 or more atoms bonded together

7  The atoms in a molecule may be all the same element, or they may be different elements  When atoms of different elements bond together, they form compounds

8  5 of the basic nutrient groups are compounds (combination of different elements) ◦ Carbohydrates ◦ Fats ◦ Proteins ◦ Vitamins ◦ Water  1 basic nutrient group is elements (simplest substance) ◦ Minerals

9  The essential nutrients from food are used to ◦ Build and repair body tissues ◦ Regulate all body processes ◦ Provide energy  When provided with the proper nutrients, your body can perform all of these functions in harmony, which optimizes health, wellness, and performance

10  The body is made up of billions of cells ◦ Cells divide, producing 2 new cells each time, which accounts for your growth ◦ New cells also repair damaged body tissues and replace old cells  All cells are formed with materials that come from food  Therefore, your body needs proper amounts of nutrients to help make new cells

11  Periods of rapid growth require greater amounts of nutrients ◦ Pregnancy ◦ Infancy ◦ Adolescence ◦ Illness/injury recovery  Lacking proper nutrients during these periods can negatively affect growth potential, strength, health, healing, learning abilities, and behavior patterns

12  Mood?  Attitude?  Thinking?  Physical performance?

13  The proper amounts and types of nutrients keep body processes running smoothly  Examples of body processes that rely on nutritional components ◦ Circulation of body fluids ◦ Maintaining the correct acid-base level in the blood ◦ Digestion ◦ Absorption ◦ Metabolism

14  Food is a source of energy for performance  The quality of the food you eat affects how your body will run  The more active you are, the more energy you will need to fuel your body processes

15  Chemical reactions that take place in your cells release energy from nutrients that you get from food ◦ Carbohydrates and fats are the main nutrients used for energy ◦ Proteins can be used, but the body prefers to save them for other vital functions  Vitamins, minerals, and water do not provide energy, but the body needs them to help regulate the release of energy from carbs, fats, and proteins

16  Measured in units called kilocalories (kcal)  Commonly known as calories  Only certain nutrients provide energy ◦ 1 gram of carbohydrate = 4 kcal of energy ◦ 1 gram of fat = 9 kcal of energy ◦ 1 gram of protein = 4 kcal of energy  Water, vitamins, and minerals do not yield energy, and therefore do not have a calorie content

17  Alcohol does have a calorie content ◦ 1 gram of alcohol = 7 kcal of energy  It is not considered a nutrient because: ◦ It does not promote growth (it inhibits) ◦ It does not maintain cells (it destroys) ◦ It does not repair tissues (it inhibits healing)  Determining Energy Values

18  The process by which your body breaks down food, and the nutrients in food, into simpler substances ◦ The blood can carry these simpler substances to the cells for use in growth, repair, and maintenance  Digestion occurs throughout the digestive system through mechanical and chemical means ◦ Mechanical digestion – occurs when food is crushed and churned ◦ Chemical digestion – occurs when food is mixed with acids and enzymes  Enzyme – a type of protein produced by cells that cause specific chemical reactions  In digestion, they cause food particles to break apart into simpler substances

19  The muscular tube through which food passes from the mouth to the anus  Roughly feet in length  Each section has different functions  Mouth → esophagus → stomach → small intestine → large intestine  Pg. 49

20  Mastication (chewing) is the1 st step in digestion  Important mechanical digestive process as chewed food is broken down more easily by the body  Food is mixed with saliva in the mouth, which helps to moisten, soften, and dissolve food ◦ Included in saliva is salivary amylase, an enzyme which helps to break down starches

21  Passageway from mouth to stomach  About 10 inches long  Food moves along this passageway through a series of muscular squeezing actions called peristalsis  Involuntary muscle action that is part of mechanical digestion

22  The stomach produces gastric juices to aid in digestion ◦ Made up of acids, enzymes, and mucus ◦ Acids and enzymes break down food, and mucus softens and lubricates chyme  The gastric juices mix with the chewed food to form chyme  The stomach can typically hold about a quart of food  Food generally stays in the stomach for 2-3 hours, depending on the type of food ◦ Liquids leave first ◦ Fats leave last

23  About 95% of digestion takes place here  Has 3 sections, and is roughly 20 feet in length and 1 inch in diameter  Takes food about 5-14 hours to move through the small intestine through peristalsis action  The small intestine is aided by other organs during digestion ◦ Pancreas – adds digestive enzymes ◦ Liver – adds bile for breaking down fats  *Nutrient Digestion in the Small Intestine

24  Also known as the colon  Main job is to reabsorb water  Very little digestion occurs here  About 5-6 feet long  Chyme stays in the colon for 1-3 days before elimination  Solid wastes that result from digestion are eliminated as feces  *Food Breakdown

25  Absorption is the passage of nutrients from the digestive tract into the circulatory or the lymphatic system ◦ Circulatory system – amino acids, monosaccharides, minerals, and most vitamins ◦ Lymphatic system – nutrients from fats  Most nutrients pass through the walls of the small intestine  The small intestine is lined with tiny, finger- like projections called villi ◦ Villi increase the surface area of the small intestine and aid in absorption of nutrients

26

27  Once digestion and absorption have taken place, the circulatory system carries the nutrients to individual cells  Metabolism is all the chemical changes that occur as cells produce energy and materials needed to sustain life ◦ Cells break down nutrients to release energy, which is stored in the muscles as ATP ◦ The waste products created through cell metabolism are eliminated through the kidneys, lungs, and skin

28  Eating Habits Affect Digestion ◦ Don’t eat too much or too little ◦ Eat a variety of foods in order to get all of the required nutrients ◦ Include high-fiber foods to provide bulk and aid in removing toxins ◦ Foods high in fat will take longer to digest as fats are the last nutrient component to leave the stomach

29  Emotions ◦ Fear, anger, and tension can lead to digestive difficulties ◦ Reducing stress and tension during mealtimes will allow for better absorption of nutrients

30  Food Allergies ◦ A food allergy is a reaction of the immune system to certain proteins found in food ◦ The immune system protects the body from invaders by forming antibodies ◦ When you are allergic to a food, your body releases antibodies in response to that food, leading to allergy symptoms ◦ These symptoms can include, but are not limited to, vomiting, intestinal distress, rashes, and swelling  This is different from a food sensitivity, such as lactose intolerance

31  Physical Activity ◦ Aids digestion and metabolism ◦ Stimulates a healthy appetite and strengthens the muscles of the internal organs ◦ Helps move food through the GI tract ◦ Reduces stress

32  A nutritious diet can help to avoid or manage most digestive disorders  Some disorders require medical treatment in order to make certain that all required nutrients make it to the cells in order to maintain life

33  Diarrhea ◦ Frequent expulsion of watery feces ◦ Causes food to move through the digestive system too quickly for nutrients to be absorbed ◦ Also leads to loss of body fluids as the food moves too quickly through the large intestine for the water to be reabsorbed

34  Constipation ◦ Occurs when chyme moves too slowly through the large intestine, leading to the reabsorption of too much water ◦ Causes the feces to become too hard and dry, which can lead to painful elimination and hemorrhoids ◦ Often caused by erratic eating habits, low fiber intake, lack of physical activity, and inadequate fluid intake

35  Indigestion ◦ Difficulty in digesting food ◦ Can be caused by stress, eating too much or eating too fast, or eating particular foods ◦ Can include gas, stomach cramps, and nausea

36  Heartburn ◦ A burning pain in the middle of the chest caused by stomach acid flowing back into the esophagus ◦ Can be reduced by avoiding acidic foods, stress, lying down right after eating, and taking antacids

37  Ulcer ◦ An open sore in the lining of the stomach or small intestine caused by bacterium ◦ Risk is increased by stress, heredity, alcohol use, and aspirin abuse ◦ Usually treated with antibiotics, as well as decreasing stress, alcohol, caffeine, and tobacco use

38  Gallstones ◦ Small crystals that form from bile in the gallbladder ◦ These stones block the release of bile into the small intestine, causing pain and slowing the digestion of fats ◦ Treatment includes a diet low in fats, and often requires surgery to remove the gallbladder

39  Diverticulosis ◦ The formation of abnormal pouches in the intestinal wall ◦ Can occur when the intestinal muscles become weak, such as when a diet is low in fiber ◦ These pouches can become inflamed, leading to a painful condition called diverticulitis ◦ *What Could Be Wrong ◦ *Digestive Disorders


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